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Encyclopedia > Colonisation

Colonisation (or Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area. The term, which is derived from the Latin colere, "to inhabit, cultivate, frequent, practice, tend, guard, respect,"[1] originally related to humans. However, 19th century biogeographers dominated the term to describe the activities of birds or bacteria, or plant species.[2] Human colonization is a narrower category than the related concept of colonialism, because whereas colonization refers to the establishment of settler colonies, trading posts, and plantations with the metropole's own population, colonialism deals with this and the ruling of new territories' existing peoples. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Colonization is a computer game by Brian Reynolds and Sid Meier released by Microprose in 1994. ... Colonisation is the process in biology by which a species spreads into new areas. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ...

Contents

Historical Colonisations

Classical Period

In ancient times, maritime nations such as the city-states of Greece and Phoenicia often established colonies. These appear to have been more benign, emphasizing the farming of uninhabited land. In classical times, land suitable for farming was often claimed by migratory "barbarian tribes" who lived by hunting and gathering. To ancient civilized people, the land simply appeared vacant. However this does not mean that conflict did not exist between the colonizers and native peoples. Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Another period of colonization in Ancient times was from the Romans. The Roman Empire conquered a large part of Western Europe, North Africa and West Asia. In North Africa and west Asia they were often conquering civilized peoples, but as they moved north into Europe they mostly encountered rural tribes with very little in the way of cities. In these areas, waves of Roman colonization often followed the conquest of the area. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ...


Many of the current cities around Europe began as Roman colonies, such as the German city Köln (better known in its French form Cologne), which was originally called Colonia Claudia by the Romans; and the British capital city of London which the Romans started as Londinium. Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Middle Ages

The decline and collapse of the Roman Empire saw (and was partly caused by) the large scale movement of people in Eastern Europe and Asia. This is largely seen as beginning with nomadic horsemen from Asia moving into the richer pasture land to the west and so forcing the people there to move further west and so on until eventually the Franks and their ilk were forced to invade the Roman Empire, beginning the Dark Ages. It was this period that saw the large scale movement of peoples establishing new colonies all over western Europe, the events of this time saw the development of many of the modern day nations of Europe, the Franks in France and Germany and the Anglo-Saxons in England. Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The Vikings of Scandinavia also carried out a large scale colonization. The Vikings are best known as raiders, setting out from their original homelands in Denmark, southern Norway and southern Sweden, to pillage the coastlines of northern Europe. In time, the Vikings began trading, rather than raiding, and established colonies. The Vikings discovered Iceland and establishing colonies before moving onto Greenland, where they briefly held some colonies. The Vikings also launched an unsuccessful attempt at colonizing an area they called Vinland which probably is on the rocky coast of Newfoundland, on the eastern coastline of Canada The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For the historical novel by George Mackay Brown, which depicts Leifr Eiríkssons voyage, see Vinland (novel). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


'Colonial Era', colonialism and imperialism

Main article: Colonialism

Colonialism in this sense refers to Western European countries' colonization of lands mainly in the Americas, Oceania and Africa; however it also covers their taking control over lands already inhabited by native populations. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Modern Colonisation

In some cases, expatriate communities do set up permanently in target countries, which is a 'truer' colonization, though in many cases (especially when not gathered into a community) expatriates do not necessarily seek to 'expand their native civilization', but rather to integrate into the population of the new civilization. For the band, see Expatriate (band). ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation...


Many nations also have large numbers of guest workers who are brought in to do seasonal work such as harvesting or to do low-paid manual labor. Guest workers or contractors have a lower status than workers with visas, because guest workers can be removed at any time for any reason. Many human colonists came to colonies as slaves, so the legal power to leave or remain may not be the issue so much as the actual presence of the people in the new country. A foreign worker (cf expatriate), is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. ...


In the 1980s and 1990s, an elite class of well-educated, highly-paid managers, lawyers, professionals, and business people began a new type of colonizing. Since they had highly-sought after skills that were needed in many different countries, they treated the world as their playing field. They moved between countries to seek better jobs and opportunities. In the event of a downturn, they had the resources to pack up and leave to a different country.


However, unlike this elite professional caste, people with lower-paying jobs do not have international mobility. International professional mobility may also be considered a type of colonialism (rather than colonization) since these professionals do not move permanently. Instead, they move to a target region temporarily and leave. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Neo-Colonization

See also: Neocolonialism

This term, usually pejorative, refers to a sort of "unofficial" colonization, in which a country's government is overthrown by larger country and replaced by a government that coincides with the larger country's interests. In effect, this makes the country a colony, dealing with the problem of a revolutionary uprising by delivering the impression that the colony is still self-governed. Neocolonialism is the term describing international economic arrangements wherein former colonial powers maintained control of colonies and dependencies after World War II. Neocolonialism can obfuscate the understanding of current colonialism, given that some colonial governments continue administrating foreign territories and their populations in violation of United Nations resolutions[1] and...


Other ways of using the term

The theory of Science policy colonization (Weingart and Mouton (2004)) argues that science policy is increasingly being dominated by scientific experts from developed, industrialized democracies. Scientists from poorer, emerging or developing democracies may mainly be given the role of collecting raw data. Experts from developed, industrialized democracies may have biases unchallenged that run counter to the best interests of emerging democracies such as South Africa (Weingart and Mouton (2004)). There are also concerns (UNESCO 1999) that the accountability mechanisms imposed on knowledge experts are inadequate. Science policy is usually considered the art of justifying, managing or prioritizing support of scientific research and development. ...


The term "cocacolonisation" is used to describe cases where a country's indigenous culture is eroded by a corporate mass-culture, usually from a powerful, industrialized country such as the United States (see cultural imperialism). This is more metaphorical usage as people need not move, to the colonized country; only cultural signals, symbols, forms of entertainment, and values move need to move to the colonised country. Cocacolonization or coca-colonization is a term for Americanization. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting, distinguishing, separating, artificially injecting of the culture or language of one nation in another. ...


Hypothetical or fictional types of Colonisation

The hypothetical permanent habitation of locations in Earth's oceans is called ocean colonization. Related ideas such as the floating city are much less hypothetical - funds are presently being sought to build several large ships that would have permanent populations of up to 50,000 people each. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Ocean colonization is the theoretical practice of building structures to allow humans to live permanently in areas of Earth covered in water; whether floating on the surface of the ocean, secured to the ocean floor, or somewhere in between. ... Floating city may mean: Floating city (science fiction), settlements that use buoyancy to remain in the atmosphere of a planet Ocean colonization, the theory and practice of building structures to allow humans to live permanently in areas of Earth covered in water Floating city may also refer to: Freedom Ship...


In science fiction, space colonization is sometimes more benign. Humans find an uninhabited planet, and inhabit it. The colonization of Mars is an often-used example of this type of space colonization. In more recent science fiction, humans may create inhabitable space (by terraforming or constructing a space habitat) and call that a "colony." Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ... Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in four stages of development. ...


On the other hand, if the planet is already inhabited, much less benign consequences ensue: indeed, some science fiction authors have used the colonization of alien planets by humans, or the colonization of Earth by aliens, to explore the real-world issues surrounding the phenomenon. Such works include those of Mary Doria Russell, The Sparrow and Children of God. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Mary Doria Russell (born 1950) is an American author of science fiction. ...


The ultimate form of space colonization is the Kardashev scale which assumes that a single dominant intelligent species will take over all energy on one planet, then one star, then a whole galaxy full of stars. However, this would not necessarily be so if other species were to be discovered during a galactic expansion. This may require more than one species to share the galactic space with each other as they both develop. Kardashev scale projections ranging from 1900 to 2100. ...


See also

It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  1. ^ Marcy Rockman, James Steele (2003). The Colonization of Unfamiliar Landscapes. Routledge. ISBN 0415256062. 
  2. ^ Marcy Rockman, James Steele (2003). The Colonization of Unfamiliar Landscapes. Routledge. ISBN 0415256062. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Colonization Society (Prints and Photographs Reading Room, Library of Congress) (359 words)
The American Colonization Society, organized in 1817 to resettle African Americans in West Africa, presented its records to the Library of Congress in 1913, 1964, and 1965.
While spanning the period 1792 to 1964, the majority of the society's correspondence, reports, and financial and business papers date from the years 1823 to 1912.
Correspondence covers such subjects as administrative matters, the status of slaves and freedman in antebellum America, and the society's role in founding and colonizing Liberia and supporting Liberian education.
colonization. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (882 words)
Colonization may be state policy, or it may be a private project sponsored by chartered corporations or by associations and individuals.
Before colonization can be effected, the indigenous population must be subdued and assimilated or converted to the culture of the colonists; otherwise, a modus vivendi must be established by the imposition of a treaty or an alliance.
Modern colonization, frequently preceded by an era in which missionaries and traders were active, was largely exploitative, but it did not in the long run prove directly lucrative to the colonial power, because it involved a heavy drain on the treasury of the home government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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