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Encyclopedia > Colonialism
See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism.
Pith helmet of the Second French Empire.
Pith helmet of the Second French Empire.

Colonialism is the extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either settler colonies or administrative dependencies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled or displaced. Colonising nations generally dominate the resources, labor, and markets of the colonial territory, and may also impose socio-cultural, religious and linguistic structures on the conquered population (see also cultural imperialism). It is essentially a system of direct political, economic and cultural intervention by a powerful country in a weaker one. Though the word colonialism is often used interchangeably with imperialism, the latter is sometimes used more broadly as it covers control exercised informally (via influence) as well as formal military control or economic leverage. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into colonialism. ... Colonial house and street American colonial architecture also called Colonial Georgian, characterizes the style of domestic architecture, church buildings and some institutional and government buildings that were built in America from the earliest colonies until the Neoclassical architectural style locally called Federal replaced in for high-style buildings in the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonization). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1545x2320, 329 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colonialism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1545x2320, 329 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colonialism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a State. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Direct Rule is the term given to the running of the day-to-day administration of Northern Ireland directly from Westminster. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, invariably on the basis of ethnicity or religion. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Chichicastenango, Guatemala traditional market Market stall in internally displaced persons camp in Kitgum, northern Uganda Mercado dos Lavradores, Funchal (Madeira Islands) A market is a mechanism which allows people to trade, normally governed by the theory of supply and demand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting, distinguishing, separating, artificially injecting of the culture or language of one nation in another. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ...


The term colonialism may also be used to refer to a set of beliefs used to legitimize or promote this system. Colonialism was often based on the ethnocentric belief that the morals and values of the colonizer were superior to those of the colonized; some observers link such beliefs to racism and pseudo-scientific theories dating to the 17th and 18th centuries. In the western world, this led to a form of proto-social Darwinism that placed white people at the top of the animal kingdom, "naturally" in charge of dominating non-European indigenous populations. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Racism is a belief or concept that inherent differences between people, in particular those upon which the concept of race is based, significantly influence cultural or individual achievement, and may involve the idea that ones self-identified race or ethnic group or others race or ethnic group is superior. ... Scientific racism might refer to either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or to historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... The term white people (also whites or white race) has been defined as being a member of a group or race characterized by light pigmentation of the skin and to a human group having light-coloured skin, especially of European ancestry. ... See Animal. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types of colonies

Several types of colonies may be distinguished, reflecting different colonial objectives. Settler colonies refer to a variety of ancient and more recent examples whereby ethnically distinct groups settle in areas other than their original settlement that are either adjacent or across land or sea. Examples in antiquity range from large empire like the Roman Empire, the Arab Empire, the Ottoman Empire or small movements like ancient Scots moving from Hibernia to Caledonia, Magyars into Pannonia (modern-day Hungary) and Thailand. Later examples are Brazil, Russia (Siberia), United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Argentina which were established by the movement of large numbers of people from a central region or a mother country to new settlement regions or colonies. More recent examples of internal colonialism are the movement of ethnic Chinese into Tibet and Eastern Turkestan, ethnic Javanese into Western New Guinea, Israelis into the West Bank and Gaza, ethnic Arabs into Iraqi Kurdistan. The local populations or tribes, such as the Aboriginal people in Canada and the United States, were usually far overwhelmed numerically by the settlers and were thus moved forcibly to other regions or exterminated. These forcible population transfers, usually to areas of poorer-quality land or resources often led to the permanent detriment of indigenous peoples. Whilst commonplace in the past, in today's language colonialism and colonization are seen as state-sponsored illegal immigration that was criminal in nature and intent, achieved essentially with the use of violence and terror. A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... “Arab States” redirects here. ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... This article is about the island of Ireland. ... This article is about the country. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Western New Guinea is the Indonesian western half of the island of New Guinea and consists of two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, invariably on the basis of ethnicity or religion. ... For the 1983 Genesis song, see Illegal Alien (song) Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


In some cases, for example the Vandals, Huguenots, Boers, Matabeles and Sioux, the colonizers were fleeing more powerful enemies, as part of a chain reaction of colonization. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... The Matabele are a branch of the Zulus who split from King Shaka in the early 1820s under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former general in Shakas army. ... The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ...


Settler colonies may be contrasted with dependencies, where the colonizers did not arrive as part of a mass emigration, but rather as administrators over existing sizable native populations. Examples in this category include the British Raj, Egypt, the Dutch East Indies, and the Japanese colonial empire. In some cases large-scale colonial settlement was attempted in substantially pre-populated areas and the result was either an ethnically mixed population (such as the mestizos of the Americas), or racially divided, such as in French Algeria or Southern Rhodesia. The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestizos speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups Other Spanish people, Italian people, French people, Portuguese people, Amerindian, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... French rule in Algeria, 1830–1962 Most of Frances actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ...


With plantation colonies such as Barbados, Saint-Domingue and Jamaica, the white colonizers imported black slaves who rapidly began to outnumber their owners, leading to minority rule, similar to a dependency. Trading posts, such as Hong Kong, Macau, Malacca, Deshima and Singapore constitute a fifth category, where the primary purpose of the colony was to engage in trade rather than as a staging post for further colonization of the hinterland. Plantation was an early method of colonization in which settlers were planted abroad in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation... View of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (2003) Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ...


History of colonialism

The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time, including such disparate peoples as the Hittites, the Incas and the British, although the term colonialism is normally used with reference to discontiguous European overseas empires rather than contiguous land-based empires, European or otherwise, which are conventionally described by the term imperialism. Examples of land-based empires include the Mongol Empire, a large empire stretching from the Western Pacific to Eastern Europe, the Empire of Alexander the Great, the Umayyad Caliphate, the Persian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire. The Ottoman Empire was created across Mediterranean, North Africa and into South-Eastern Europe and existed during the time of European colonization of the other parts of the world. The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time, including such disparate peoples as the Hittites, the Incas and the British, although the term colonialism is normally used with reference to European overseas empires rather than land-based empires, European or otherwise, which are... This is a non-exhaustive chronology of colonialism-related events, which may recensed political events, cultural events, as well as important global events which have influenced the colonization and the decolonization. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...

This map of the world in 1900 shows the large colonial empires that powerful nations established across the globe
This map of the world in 1900 shows the large colonial empires that powerful nations established across the globe
World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945.
World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945.

European colonialism began in the 15th century, with Portugal's conquest of Ceuta. Colonialism was led by Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas, and the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India, and East Asia. Despite some earlier attempts, it was not until the 17th century that England, France and the Netherlands successfully established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other and those of Spain and Portugal. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 323 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 627 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/png) Ishvara7 Taken from wikipedia map Dated around 1900 Nations involved with imperialism, directly or indirectly, are coloured. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 323 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 627 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/png) Ishvara7 Taken from wikipedia map Dated around 1900 Nations involved with imperialism, directly or indirectly, are coloured. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB)Created by User:Aris Katsaris to replace and partially correct the smallerImage:800px_colonization_1945. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB)Created by User:Aris Katsaris to replace and partially correct the smallerImage:800px_colonization_1945. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The end of the 18th and early 19th century saw the first era of decolonization when most of the European colonies in the Americas gained their independence from their respective metropoles. Spain and Portugal were irreversibly weakened after the loss of their New World colonies, but Britain (after the union of England and Scotland), France and the Netherlands turned their attention to the Old World, particularly South Africa, India and South East Asia, where coastal enclaves had already been established. Germany, after being united under Prussia also sought colonies in Deutsch Ost Afrika. Italy occupied Eritrea, Somalia and Libya. During the First and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Italy invaded Abyssinia, and in 1936 Italian Empire was created. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ... This article is about the country. ... German East Africa was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania. ... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Commanders Oreste Baratieri Menelik II Strength 17,000 100,000 (estimated) Casualties 13,133 17,000 The First Italo–Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia in 1895-1896. ... Italian troops fortify a position in Abyssinia Lasting seven months from 1935-1936, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War is often seen as a precursor to World War II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League of Nations. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ...


The industrialization of the 19th century led to what has been termed the era of New Imperialism, when the pace of colonization rapidly accelerated, the height of which was the Scramble for Africa. During the 20th Century, the overseas colonies of the losers of World War I were distributed amongst the victors as mandates, but it was not until the end of World War II that the second phase of decolonization began in earnest. The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Mandate can mean: An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body; see mandate (international law) The power granted by an electorate; see mandate (politics) A League of Nations mandate To some Christians, an order from God; see mandate (theology) The decision of an appeals court; see mandate (law) This... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

World Colonization 1492-2007
"Robert Clive and his family with an Indian maid", painted by Joshua Reynolds, 1765.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x625, 308 KB) Map indicating the territories colonized by the European powers and the United States since 1660 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x625, 308 KB) Map indicating the territories colonized by the European powers and the United States since 1660 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds, “George Clive and his family with an Indian maid”, painted 1765. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds, “George Clive and his family with an Indian maid”, painted 1765. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ...

Neocolonialism

Main article: Neocolonialism

Despite the decolonization in the 1960s-70s, many former colonies remain under strong Western influence. Critics of this continued Western influence talk of neocolonialism. The exception to this rule being in particular the East Asian Tigers (mainly Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan), and the emerging Indian and Chinese powers. (See Immanuel Wallerstein.) Neocolonialism is a term used by some intellectuals to describe international economic arrangements by which former colonial powers maintained control of their former colonies and new dependencies following World War II. The term itself can obfuscate current colonialism, as some governments continue to administer foreign territories and populations in violation... Neocolonialism is a term used by some intellectuals to describe international economic arrangements by which former colonial powers maintained control of their former colonies and new dependencies following World War II. The term itself can obfuscate current colonialism, as some governments continue to administer foreign territories and populations in violation... Map of East Asian Tigers  Hong Kong  Singapore South Korea  Taiwan, Republic of China Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong The skyline of Singapores Central Business District (CBD) seen here at dusk Taipei is Taiwans largest city and financial center. ... Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born 28 September 1930, New York City) is a U.S. sociologist by credentials, but a historical social scientist, or world-systems analyst by trade. ...

1900 Campaign poster for the Republican Party. "The American flag has not been planted in foreign soil to acquire more territory but for humanity's sake.", president William McKinley, July 12, 1900. On the left hand, we see how the situation allegedly was in 1896, before Mc Kinley's victory during the elections: "Gone Democratic: A run on the bank, Spanish rule in Cuba". On the right hand, we see how the situation allegedly is in 1900, after four years of McKinley's rule: "Gone Republican: a run to the bank, American rule in Cuba" (the Spanish-American War took place in 1898). The USA is becoming, as other European powers, an imperialist power. As did France before with its universalist doctrine, it claims that it acts for "Humanity".
1900 Campaign poster for the Republican Party. "The American flag has not been planted in foreign soil to acquire more territory but for humanity's sake.", president William McKinley, July 12, 1900. On the left hand, we see how the situation allegedly was in 1896, before Mc Kinley's victory during the elections: "Gone Democratic: A run on the bank, Spanish rule in Cuba". On the right hand, we see how the situation allegedly is in 1900, after four years of McKinley's rule: "Gone Republican: a run to the bank, American rule in Cuba" (the Spanish-American War took place in 1898). The USA is becoming, as other European powers, an imperialist power. As did France before with its universalist doctrine, it claims that it acts for "Humanity".

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x787, 224 KB) Summary 1900 US campaign poster Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x787, 224 KB) Summary 1900 US campaign poster Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Map of the West Indies, Mexico and New Spain with Cuba in the center drawn by Herman Moll in 1736. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Moral universalism is a moral view, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—universally applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ...

U.S. foreign intervention

On the other hand, because of the Cold War, which led Moscow and Beijing to support anti-imperialist movements, the US (as well as other NATO countries) interfered in various countries, by issuing an embargo against Cuba after the 1959 Cuban Revolution—which started on February 7, 1962—and supporting various covert operations (the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Project, etc.) for example. Theorists of neo-colonialism are of the opinion that the US preferred supporting dictatorships in Third World countries rather than having democracies that always presented the risk of having the people choose being aligned with the Communist bloc rather than the so-called "Free World". Billboards carrying messages attacking the United States government (this one compares it with fascism) can be seen all over Cuba. ... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Covert operations are military or political activities that are not only clandestine (undertaken in a manner that disguises the identity of the perpetrators) but also covert, i. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisers Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead (Triay p. ... [1] first page of a meeting report on Operation Mongoose, October 4th 1962. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were two of the 20th centurys most notorious dictators. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The Free World is a Cold War-era term used by non-communist nations to describe themselves. ...


For example, in Chile (see United States intervention in Chile) the Central Intelligence Agency covertly spent three million dollars in an effort to influence the outcome of the 1964 Chilean presidential election;[1] supported the attempted October 1970 kidnapping of General Rene Schneider (head of the Chilean army), part of a plot to prevent the congressional confirmation of socialist Salvador Allende as president (in the event, Schneider was shot and killed; Allende's election was confirmed);[1] the U.S. welcomed, though probably did not bring about the Chilean coup of 1973, in which Allende was overthrown and Augusto Pinochet installed[2] and provided material support to the military regime after the coup, continuing payment to CIA contacts who were known to be involved in human rights abuses;[3] and even facilitated communications for Operation Condor,[4] a cooperative program among the intelligence agencies of several right-wing South American regimes to locate, observe and assassinate political opponents. Meeting between General A. Pinochet and US Secretary of State H. Kissinger (1974). ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Generals C. Prats and R. Schneider (right) General René Schneider Chereau (1913-1970) was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army at the time of the 1970 Chilean presidential election, when he was assassinated during a kidnapping attempt. ... Salvador Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his suicide during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Captain General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South...


The proponents of the idea of neo-colonialism also cite the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada and the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, overthrowing Manuel Noriega, who was characterized by the U.S. government as a druglord. In Indonesia, Washington supported Suharto's New Order dictatorship. Combatants United States Antigua and Barbuda Barbados Dominica Jamaica Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Grenada Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2] Grenada: 45 military and... Combatants United States Panama Commanders Carl W. Stiner Manuel Noriega Strength 27,684+ 16,000+ Casualties 24 Dead, 325 Wounded 450 Military, 514-4,000 Civilian Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City, December 1989. ... For other persons named Noriega, see Noriega (disambiguation). ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The trade of illegal drugs is a global activity consisting of distribution, shipping, dilution and sale to the respective end-customer of a given (at the country or area observed) illegal psychoactive substance. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ...


This interference, in particular in South and Central American countries, is reminiscent of the 19th century Monroe doctrine and the Big stick diplomacy codified by U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt. Left-wing critics have spoken of an "American Empire", pushed in particular by the military-industrial complex, which president Eisenhower warned against in 1961. On the other hand, some Republicans have supported, without much success since World War I, isolationism. Defenders of U.S. policy have asserted that intervention was sometimes necessary to prevent Communist or Soviet-aligned governments from taking power during the Cold War. U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... Thomas Nasts 1904 cartoon recreates an episode in Gullivers Travels Big Stick Diplomacy or Big Stick Policy was the slogan describing U.S. President Theodore Roosevelts corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... American Empire is a term used to describe the historical expansionism and the current political, economic, and cultural influence of the United States on a global scale. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations, has had a long history in the United States. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Most of the actions described in this section constitute imperialism rather than colonialism, which usually involves one country settling in another country and calling it their own. U.S. imperialism has been called neocolonial because it is a new sort of colonialism: one that operates not by invading, conquering, and settling a foreign country with pilgrims, but by exercising economic control through international monetary institutions, via military threat, missionary interference, strategic investment, so-called "Free trade areas," and by supporting the violent overthrow of leftist governments (even those that have been democratically elected, as detailed above).


French foreign intervention

France wasn't inactive either: it supported dictatorships in the former colonies in Africa, leading to the expression Françafrique, coined by François-Xavier Verschave, a member of the anti-neocolonialist Survie NGO, which has criticized the way development aid was given to post-colonial countries, claiming it only supported neo-colonialism, interior corruption and arms-trade. The Third World debt, including odious debt, where the interest on the external debt exceeds the amount that the country produces, had been considered by some a method of oppression or control by first world countries; a form of debt bondage on the scale of nations. Françafrique is a term first used by president of the Côte dIvoire Félix Houphouët-Boigny, and borrowed to him by François-Xavier Verschave in a critic of Frances neocolonialism in Africa. ... François-Xavier Verschave (October 28, 1945, Lille, France; June 29, 2005, Villeurbanne) was primarily known as one of the founder of the French NGO Survie (Survival), which he presided since 1995, and as the coiner of the term Françafrique, since then passed into popular usage - the expression designed... Survie (French for survival) is a non-governmental organization (NG0) founded in 1984, with the objective of struggling against hunger and corruption in the Third World. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aid. ... Third World debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries. ... Odious debt is debt which is incurred by a regime for purposes which do not serve the interest of the state. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ...


Post-colonialism

Main articles: Post-colonialism and Postcolonial literature

Post-colonialism (aka post-colonial theory) refers to a set of theories in philosophy and literature that grapple with the legacy of colonial rule. In this sense, postcolonial literature may be considered a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. Many practitioners take Edward Said's book Orientalism (1978) to be the theory's founding work (although French theorists such as Aimé Césaire and Frantz Fanon made similar claims decades before Said). This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Postcolonial literature is a branch of Postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Edward Wadie Saïd (Arabic: , transliteration: ; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ...


Edward Said analyzed the works of Balzac, Baudelaire and Lautréamont, exploring how they were both influenced by and helped to shape a societal fantasy of European racial superiority. Post-colonial fictional writers interact with the traditional colonial discourse, but modify or subvert it; for instance by retelling a familiar story from the perspective of an oppressed minor character in the story. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's Can the Subaltern Speak? (1998) gave its name to the Subaltern Studies. “Balzac” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Comte de Lautréamont is a pseudonym for Isidore Lucien Ducasse (Montevideo, Uruguay, April 4, 1846 - Paris, November 24, 1870), a French poet and writer. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (born February 24, 1942) is an Indian literary critic and theorist. ... The term subaltern is used in postcolonial theory to refer to marginalized groups and the lower classes; this sense of the word was coined by Antonio Gramsci. ... The Subaltern Studies Group (SSG) or Subaltern Studies Collective are a group of South Asian scholars interested in the postcolonial and post-imperial societies of South Asia in particular and the developing world in general. ...


In A Critique of Postcolonial Reason (1999), Spivak explored how major works of European metaphysics (e.g., Kant, Hegel) not only tend to exclude the subaltern from their discussions, but actively prevent non-Europeans from occupying positions as fully human subjects. Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) is famous for its explicit ethnocentrism, in considering the Western civilization as the most accomplished of all, while Kant also allowed some traces of racialism to enter his work. Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Hegels work Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) is called The Phenomenology of Spirit or The Phenomenology of Mind in English; the German word Geist has connotations of both spirit and mind in English. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Impact of colonialism and colonization

Debate about the perceived negative and positive aspects (infrasctructures, medical advances etc.) of colonialism has occurred for centuries, amongst both colonizer and colonized, and continues to the present day. The questions of miscegenation; the alleged ties between colonial enterprises, genocides — see the Herero Genocide — and the Holocaust; and the questions of the nature of imperialism, dependency theory and neocolonialism (in particular the Third World debt) continues to retain their actuality. This article refers to the evaluation of Western colonialism. ... Infrastructure is generally a set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework supporting an entire structure. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts. ... Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. ... Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic...


References

  1. ^ a b CIA Reveals Covert Acts In Chile, CBS News, September 19, 2000. Accessed online November 26, 2006.
  2. ^ The Kissinger Telcons: Kissinger Telcons on Chile, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 123, edited by Peter Kornbluh, posted May 26, 2004. See especially TELCON: September 16, 1973, 11:50 a.m. Kissinger Talking to Nixon: Nixon: Well we didn't – as you know – our hand doesn't show on this one though. Kissinger: We didn't do it. I mean we helped them. [Garbled] created the conditions as great as possible. Nixon: That is right. And that is the way it is going to be played. Accessed online November 26, 2006.
  3. ^ Peter Kornbluh, CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression Report to Congress Reveals U.S. Accountability in Chile, Chile Documentation Project, National Security Archive, September 19, 2000. Accessed online November 26, 2006.
  4. ^ Operation Condor: Cable suggests U.S. role, National Security Archive, March 6, 2001. Accessed online November 26, 2006.

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This map of the world in 1898 shows the large colonial empires that European nations established in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific Settler colonialism is defined as the perpetuation of colonial-esque relationships of economic domination by European settlers. ... The arms of the British South Africa Company Chartered companies are associations formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonisation. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by another entity than the state which holds sovereignty over it. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Wars of national liberation. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Map of the Belgian colonial empire The Belgian colonial empire was the set of colonies of Belgium, lasting from 1901 to 1962. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Denmark-Norways possessions c. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... -1... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Capital Toledo (until 1561) Madrid (after 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1898 Alfonso XIII¹ Regent  - 1886-1898 Maria Christina History  - Discovery of America 1402  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the Inca Empire 1532–1537  - Spanish-American... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ...

Bibliography

Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... The Origins of Totalitarianism is a book by Hannah Arendt, dedicated to her husband Heinrich Blücher. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad NaÅ‚Ä™cz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... Heart of Darkness is a novella by Joseph Conrad. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... The Wretched of the Earth (French: Les Damnés de la Terre, first published 1961) is Frantz Fanons most famous work, written during and regarding the Algerian struggle for independence from colonial rule. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the racialist theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ... Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino, O.P. (born 8 June 1928 Lima) is a Peruvian theologian and Dominican priest regarded as the founder of Liberation Theology. ... Liberation theology is an important and controversial school in the theology of the Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council. ... This article is about the British author. ... The white mans burden - a satiric take This advertisement for soap uses the theme of the White Mans Burden, encouraging white people to teach cleanliness to members of other races The White Mans Burden is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. ... Bartolomé de Las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ... A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written by friar Bartolomé de las Casas in 1552 about the mistreatment of American Indians in colonial times and sent to King Philip II of Spain. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ... Sven Lindqvist (born April 28, 1932) is a Swedish author and professor. ... Edward Wadie Saïd (Arabic: , transliteration: ; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Flagship Games presents... Rampant Colonialism! (517 words)
Rampant Colonialism can be played with two or more players, and in fact makes a great multi-player game.
Each side is organized into a number of units, and optional command and control rules have been provided to maintain a chain of command for issuing and receiving orders.
These rules will also work for playing engagements which were part of the larger conflicts of the period, and you will even find they work when two "civilized", or European-styled armies, fight against one another.
informal and non-formal education, development and colonialism @ the encyclopedia of informal education (4814 words)
Colonialism in its most traditional sense involves the gaining of control over particular geographical areas and is usually associated with the with the exploitation of various areas in the world by European powers from about 1500 on.
Colonialism commonly involves the settlement of the controlling (often western) population in a territory; and the exploitation of local economic resources for metropolitan use.
Sometimes the term domestic or internal colonialism is used to describe such exploitative relationships between the ‘centre’ (the metropolis) and the ‘periphery’ (the satellite) of particular societies or nation states.
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