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Encyclopedia > Colonial Brazil

History of Brazil
Indigenous peoples
Colonial Brazil
Brazilian Empire
1889–1930
1930–1945
1945–1964
1964–1985
1985–present

In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... The period of Brazilian History, from 1889 to 1930, is commonly called the República Velha (Old Republic). ... // The tenente rebellion did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazils bourgeois social reformers. ... The period between 1964 in Brazilian history, that is also known as Second Republic, was marked by a huge political instability. ... The military maintained power in Brazil from 1964 until March 1985 because of political struggles within the regime and Brazilian elite. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... After its independence from the Portuguese on September 7, 1822, Brazil became a monarchy, the Brazilian Empire, which lasted until the establishment of the Republican government on November 15, 1889. ...


During the over 300 years of Brazilian colonial history, the economic exploitation of the territory was based first on brazilwood extraction (16th century), sugar production (16th-18th centuries), and finally on gold mining (18th century). Slaves, specially those brought from Africa, provided most of the working force. Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In contrast to the neighbouring Spanish possessions, the Portuguese colony in Latin America kept its territorial and linguistic integrity after the independence, giving rise to the larger country in the region. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Contents

Early colonial history (15th century-1530)

The Age of Exploration

The European discovery of Brazil was preceded by a series of treaties between the kings of Portugal and Castile, which were the leading seafaring powers at the time. The most decisive of these treaties was the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, that created the Tordesillas Meridian, dividing the world between those two kingdoms. All land discovered or to be discovered east of that meridian was to be property of Portugal, west of it of Spain. The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the world outside of Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km) west of... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Tordesillas Meridian divided South America into two halves, leaving a large chunck of land to be exploited by the Portuguese. The Treaty of Tordesillas was arguably the most decisive event in all Brazilian history, since it alone determined that the country was settled by Portugal instead of Spain. Indeed, the present extent of Brazil's coastline is almost exactly that defined by the treaty.

Portuguese map by Lopo Homem (c. 1519) showing the coast of Brazil and natives extracting brazilwood.
Portuguese map by Lopo Homem (c. 1519) showing the coast of Brazil and natives extracting brazilwood.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Discovery and early settlement

On April 22, 1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, a fleet led by navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in Brazil and took possession of the land in the name of the king. Although it is debated whether previous Portuguese explorers had already been in Brazil, this date is widely and politically accepted as the day of the discovery of Brazil by Europeans. Cabral was leading a large fleet of 13 ships and more than 1000 men following Vasco da Gama's way to India, around Africa. The place where Cabral arrived is now known as Porto Seguro ("safe harbor"), in Northeastern Brazil. April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Pedro Álvares Cabral. ... The claim that the Portuguese explorer and navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil in April 22, 1500 is contested. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... See also Agbodrafo for the city in Togo formerly known as Porto Seguro. ...


After the voyage of Cabral, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the lucrative possessions in Africa and India and showed little interest in Brazil. Between 1500 and 1530, relatively few Portuguese expeditions came to the new land to chart the coast and to obtain brazilwood. In Europe, this wood was used to produce a valuable dye to stain luxury textiles. To extract brazilwood from the tropical rainforest, the Portuguese and other Europeans relied on the work of the natives, who worked in exchange for European goods like mirrors, scissors, knifes and axes. Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... This article is about the rainforest. ... The indigenous people of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ...


In this early stage of the colonisation of Brazil, and also later, the Portuguese frequently relied on the help of European adventurers who lived together with the aborigines and knew their languages and culture. The most famous of these were the Portuguese João Ramalho, who lived among the Guaianaz tribe near today's São Paulo, and Diogo Álvares Correia, nicknamed Caramuru, who lived among the Tupinamba natives near today's Salvador de Bahia. João Ramalho is a municipality/county in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Diogo Alvares Correia Diogo Alvares Correia Portuguese settler born in Viana, Diogo Alvares Correia departed for Brazil in 1509. ... Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, meaning Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. ...


As time passed, the Portuguese realised that some European countries, specially France, were also sending excursions to the land to extract brazilwood. Worried about the foreign incursions and hoping to find mineral riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land and combat the French. In 1530, an expedition led by Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived to patrol the entire coast, ban the French, and to create the first colonial villages, like São Vicente, at the coast. Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Martim Afonso de Sousa (1500-1571) was a Portuguese explorer. ... The title of this article contains the character ã. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Sao Vicente. ...


Colonisation

Captaincies of Brazil

The first attempt to colonise Brazil followed the system of hereditary captaincies (Capitanias Hereditárias), which had previously been used successfully in the colonisation of the Madeira Island. The costs were transferred to private hands, saving the Portuguese crown from the high costs of colonisation. Thus, between 1534 and 1536 King John III divided the land in 15 Captaincies of Brazil, which were given to Portuguese noblemen who wanted and had the means to administer and explore them. The captains were granted ample powers to administer and profit from their possessions. Madeira Island is the largest island of the Madeira Islands archipelago, with 741 km ², has a length of 30 geographical miles (57 km), an extreme breadth of 13 miles (22 km), and a coastline of 80 or 90 miles. ... John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... The Captaincies of Brazil (in Portuguese Capitanias do Brasil, from capitão, in English captain) were the Administrative divisions and hereditary fiefs of the Portuguese state in some of its colonies. ...


From the 15 original captaincies, only two, Pernambuco and São Vicente, prospered. The failure of most captaincies was related to the resistance of the Indigenous peoples, shipwrecks and internal disputes between the colonisers. Pernambuco, the most successful captaincy, belonged to Duarte Coelho, who founded the city of Olinda in 1536. His captaincy prospered with sugarcane mills used to produce sugar installed after 1542. Sugar was a very valuable good in Europe, and its production became the main Brazilian colonial produce in the next 150 years. Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... A small city at the beaches of Southern São Paulo, Brazil, it was the first Portuguese permanent settlement in America and the first capital of the Captaincy of São Vicente, now the state of São Paulo. ... Igreja da Sé Ruas de Olinda Olinda (means oh beautiful) is a city in Pernambuco, Brazil, next to Recife and Paulista. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ...


The captaincy of São Vicente, owned by Martim Afonso de Sousa, also produced sugar but its main economic activity was the traffic of indigenous slaves.

View of a sugar-producing farm (engenho) in colonial Pernambuco by Dutch painter Frans Post (17th century).
View of a sugar-producing farm (engenho) in colonial Pernambuco by Dutch painter Frans Post (17th century).

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ...

General government

With the failure of most captaincies and the menacing presence of French ships in the Brazilian coast, the government of King John III decided to turn the colonisation of Brazil back into a royal enterprise. In 1549, a large fleet led by Tomé de Sousa set sail to Brazil to establish a central government in the colony. Tomé de Sousa, the first Governor-General of Brazil, brought detailed instructions, prepared by the King's aides, about how to administer and foster the development of the colony. His first act was the foundation of the capital city, Salvador da Bahia, in Northeastern Brazil, in today's state of Bahia. The city was built on a slope by a bay (Todos-os-Santos Bay) and was divided into an upper administrative area and a lower commercial area with a harbour. Tomé de Sousa also visited the captaincies to repair the villages and reorganise their economies. In 1551, the colony was turned into a diocese with its seat in Salvador. Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Thomé de Souza (1515-1573) or Thomé De Souza was the first governor-general of Brazil, when it was a Portuguese colony. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, or in literal translation: Holy Savior of All Saints Bay) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the northeastern... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...


The second Governor General, Duarte da Costa (1553-1557), faced conflicts with the aborigines and severe disputes with other colonisers and the bishop. Wars against the natives around Salvador consumed much of his government. The fact that the first bishop of Brazil, Pero Fernandes Sardinha, was killed and eaten by the Caeté natives after a shipwreck in 1556 illustrates how strained the situation was between the Portuguese and many indigenous tribes.


The third Governor General of Brazil was Mem de Sá (1557-1573), an efficient administrator that managed to defeat the aborigines and, with the help of the Jesuits, expel the French Calvinists that had established a colony in Rio de Janeiro (the France Antarctique). His nephew, Estácio de Sá, founded the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1565. Mem de Sá was a Governor-General of Brazil from 1557-1572. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Estácio de Sá (1520-1567) was a Portuguese soldier and officer who came to Brazil on orders of the Portuguese crown to wage war on the French invaders commanded by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (1510-1571), who had established themselves in 1555 at the Guanabara Bay in Rio de...


The huge size of Brazil led to the colony being divided into two Estados (states) after 1621, when King Philip II created the Estado do Brasil, the most important colony with Salvador as capital, and the Estado do Maranhão, with capital in São Luís. The state of Maranhão was still further divided in 1737 into the Estado do Maranhão e Piauí and the Estado do Grão-Pará e Rio Negro, with its capital in Belém do Pará. Philip III of Spain, by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz. ... São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ... This article is about the city in Brazil. ...


After 1640, the governors of Brazil coming from the high nobility started to use the title of Vice-rei (Viceroy). Brazil became officially a Viceroyalty around 1763, when the capital of the Estado do Brazil was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. In 1775 all Brazilian Estados (Brasil, Maranhão and Grão-Pará) were unified into the Viceroyalty of Brazil, with Rio de Janeiro as capital. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... A viceroy is somebody who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ...


As in Portugal, each colonial village and city had a city council (câmara municipal), whose members were prominent figures of colonial society (land owners, merchants, slave traders). Colonial city councils were responsible for regulating commerce, public infrastructure, professional artisans, prisons etc. A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ...


Jesuit missions

Main article: Jesuit Reductions

Tomé de Sousa, first Governor General of Brazil, brought the first group of Jesuits to the colony. More than any other religious order, the Jesuits represented the spiritual side of the enterprise and were destined to play a central role in the colonial history of Brazil. The spreading of the Catholic faith was an important justification for the Portuguese conquests, and the Jesuits were officially supported by the King, who instructed Tomé de Sousa to give them all the support needed to Christianise the indigenous peoples. The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish colonial strategy of building reducciones de indios in order to civilise and catechise the native populations of South America. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


The first Jesuits, guided by Father Manuel da Nóbrega and including prominent figures like Juan de Azpilcueta Navarro, Leonardo Nunes and later José de Anchieta, established the first Jesuit missions in Salvador and in São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga, the settlement that gave rise to the city of São Paulo. Nóbrega and Anchieta were instrumental in the defeat of the French colonists of the France Antarctique by managing to pacify the Tamoio natives, who had previously fought the Portuguese. The Jesuits took part in the foundation of the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1565. It has been suggested that Father Nobrega be merged into this article or section. ... José de Anchieta (1534-1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Brazil, South America, in the second half of the 16th century. ... Pátio do Colégio in São Paulo. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Peace is generally defined as a state of quiet or tranquillity, as an absence of disturbance or agitation (Latin derivation Pax = Absentia Belli). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


The success of the Jesuits in converting the indigenous peoples to Catholicism is linked to their capacity to understand the native culture, specially the language. The first grammar of the Tupi language was compiled by José de Anchieta and printed in Coimbra in 1595. The Jesuits often gathered the aborigines in communities (the Jesuit Reductions) where the natives worked for the community and were evangelised. As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... For the surname, see Grammer. ... The Tupi languages are a language family of 70 languages which are spoken by Indian tribesmen in South America. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish colonial strategy of building reducciones de indios in order to civilise and catechise the native populations of South America. ...


The Jesuits had frequent disputes with other colonists who wanted to enslave the natives. The action of the Jesuits saved many natives from slavery, but also disturbed their ancestral way of life and inadvertently helped spread infectious diseases against which the aborigines had no natural defences. Slave labour and trade were essential for the economy of Brazil and other American colonies, and the Jesuits usually did not object the enslavement of African peoples. Slave redirects here. ...


French incursions

The potential riches of tropical Brazil led the French, who did not recognise the Tordesillas Treaty, to attempt to colonise parts of the Portuguese colony. In 1555, the Huguenot Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon founded a settlement within Guanabara Bay, in an island in front of today's Rio de Janeiro. The colony, named France Antarctique, led to conflict with Governor General Mem de Sá, who waged war against the colony in 1560. Estácio de Sá, nephew of the Governor, founded Rio de Janeiro in 1565 and managed to expel the last French settlers in 1567. Jesuit priests Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta were instrumental in the Portuguese victory by pacifying the natives who supported the French. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, born 1510 in Villegaignon, Seine et Marne, France was a naval officer (vice-admiral of Brittany) who attempted to help the Huguenots in France escape persecution. ... Satellite image of Guanabara Bay In Portuguese, Baía da Guanabara is an oceanic bay located in southeastern Brazil in the state of Rio de Janeiro. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Mem de Sá was a Governor-General of Brazil from 1557-1572. ... Estácio de Sá (1520-1567) was a Portuguese soldier and officer who came to Brazil on orders of the Portuguese crown to wage war on the French invaders commanded by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (1510-1571), who had established themselves in 1555 at the Guanabara Bay in Rio de...


Another French colony, the France Équinoxiale, was founded in 1612 in present-day São Luís, in the North of Brazil. In 1614 the French were again expelled from São Luís by the Portuguese. Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ...


The Sugarcane Cycle (1530-18th century)

Since the initial attempts to find gold and silver failed, the Portuguese colonists adopted an economy based on the production of agricultural goods that were to be exported to Europe. Tobacco, cotton, cachaça and some other agricultural goods were produced, but sugar became by far the most important Brazilian colonial product until the early 18th century. The first sugarcane farms were established in the mid-16th century and were the key for the success of the captaincies of São Vicente and Pernambuco, leading sugarcane plantations to quickly spread to other coastal areas in colonial Brazil. The period of sugar-based economy (1530-c.1700) is known as the "Sugarcane Cycle" in Brazilian history. This article is about the product manufactured from Tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ...


Sugarcane was cultivated on large patches of land, harvested and processed in the engenhos, which were the houses were sugarcane was milled and the sugar refined. Over time, the term engenho was applied to the whole sugarcane farm. The dependencies of the farm included a casa-grande (big house) where the owner of the farm lived with his family, and the senzala, where the slaves where kept. Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Engenho is a colonial-era Portuguese term for a sugar mill and the associated facilities. ...


Initially, the Portuguese relied on aborigine slaves to work on sugarcane harvesting and processing, but they soon began importing black African slaves. Portugal owned several commercial facilities in Western Africa, where slaves were bought from African merchants. These slaves were then sent by ship to Brazil, chained and in crowded conditions. The idea of using African slaves in colonial farms based on monoculture was also adopted by other European colonial powers when colonising tropical regions of America, like Spain in Cuba, France in Haiti, the Netherlands in the Dutch Antilles and England in Jamaica. Slave redirects here. ... The Atlantic slave trade, first begun with the Portuguese[1], was the selling of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Motto Libertate unanimus (Latin: Unified by freedom) Anthem Anthem without a title Capital (and largest city) Willemstad Official languages Dutch, English, Papiamento Government  -  Monarch Beatrix  -  Governor Frits Goedgedrag  -  Prime minister Emily de Jongh-Elhage constitutional monarchy part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands  Area  -  Total 960 km² (184th) 371 sq... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate...


The Portuguese severely restricted colonial trade, meaning that Brazil was only allowed to export and import goods from Portugal and other Portuguese colonies. Brazil exported sugar, tobacco, cotton and native products and imported from Portugal wine, olive oil, textiles and luxury goods - the latter imported by Portugal from other European countries. Africa played an essential role as the supplier of slaves, and Brazilian merchants frequently exchanged cachaça, a distilled spirit derived from sugarcane, for slaves. This comprised what is now known as the Triangular trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas during the colonial period. A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Olive oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. ... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... An example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term denoting trade between three ports or regions. ...


Even though the Brazilian sugar was reputed as being of high quality, the industry faced a crisis during the 17th and 18th centuries when the Dutch and the French started producing sugar in the Antilles, located much closer to Europe, causing the sugar prices to fall. The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean. ...


The Iberian Union and Dutch incursions

In 1580, a succession crisis led to Portugal forming a personal union with Spain under the Habsburg King Philip II. The unification of the two Iberian kingdoms, known as the Iberian Union, lasted until 1640. The Netherlands (the Seventeen Provinces) obtained independence from Spain in 1581, leading Philip II to prohibit commerce with Dutch ships, including in Brazil. Since the Dutch had invested large sums in finacing sugar production in the Brazilian Northeast, a conflict began with Dutch privateers plundering the coast: they sacked Bahia in 1604, and after the Twelve Years' Truce ran out, in 1624 they captured the capital San Salvador, from which they removed gold and silver literally in barrels before a Spanish fleet recaptured the town. History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, King... Iberian Union is modern day term that refers to the historical political unit that governed all of the Iberian peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580-1640. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ... A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ...


From 1630 to 1654, the Dutch set up more permanently in commercial Recife and aristocratic Olinda, and with the capture of Parahyba in 1635, the Dutch controlled a long stretch of the coast most accessible to Europe, without, however, penetrating the interior. But the large Dutch ships were unable to moor in the coastal inlets where lighter Portuguese shipping came and went, and the ironic result of the Dutch capture of the sugar coast was that the price of sugar rose in Amsterdam (Braudel). During the Nieuw Holland episode, the colonists of the Dutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant state of siege, in spite of the presence in Recife of the Grand Duke John Maurice of Nassau as governor (1637-1641?). Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km²  (84. ... Igreja da Sé Ruas de Olinda Olinda (means oh beautiful) is a city in Pernambuco, Brazil, next to Recife and Paulista. ... During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Johan Maurits van Nassau, 1604-1679) was a count of Nassau-Siegen. ...


It was probably during this period that runaway slaves consolidated the many scattered mocambos (runaway settlements) into the great quilombo of Palmares that severely threatened the colony both during and after the Dutch invasion. After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in 1661; the Portuguese paid off a war debt in payments of salt (Braudel). A quilombo (from a Kimbundu word) is a hinterland settlement originally created by runaway slaves in Brazil and sometimes included a minority of marginalised Portuguese, indigenous Native Americans and other non-black, non-slave Brazilians. ... Palmares is a municipality/county in the state of Pernambuco in Brazil. ...


Little Dutch cultural and ethnic influences remained of these failed attempts.


Inland expansion: the entradas and bandeiras

Since the 16th century the exploration of the Brazilian inland was attempted several times, mostly to try to find mineral riches like the silver mines found in 1546 by the Spanish in Potosí (now in Bolivia). Since no riches were initially found, colonisation was restricted to the coast where the soil was suitable for sugarcane plantations. General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Potosí is a city, the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... // This article is about crop plantations. ...


The expeditions to inland Brazil are divided into two types: the entradas and the bandeiras. The entradas were done in the name of the Portuguese crown and were financed by the colonial government. Its main objective was to find mineral riches, as well as to explore and charter unknown territory.


The bandeiras, on the other hand, were private initiatives sponsored and carried out mostly by settlers of the São Paulo region (the paulistas). The expeditions of the bandeirantes, as these adventurers were called, were aimed at obtaining native slaves for trade and finding mineral riches. The paulistas, who at the time were mostly of mixed Portuguese and native ancestry, knew all the old indigenous pathways (the peabirus) through the Brazilian inland and were used to the harsh conditions of these journeys. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians...


At the end of the 17th century, the bandeirantes expeditions discovered gold in central Brazil, in the region of Minas Gerais, which started a gold rush that led to a dramatic urban development of inland Brazil during the 18th century. Another consequence of the inland expeditions was the westward expansion of the frontiers of colonial Brazil, beyond the limits established by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the world outside of Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km) west of...


The gold cycle (18th century)

View of Ouro Preto, one of the main villages founded during the gold rush of Minas Gerais. The village has preserved its colonial appearance to this day.
View of Ouro Preto, one of the main villages founded during the gold rush of Minas Gerais. The village has preserved its colonial appearance to this day.

At the end of the 17th century, the bandeirantes found gold in the interior of Brazil. The news were met with great enthusiasm by Portugal, which had an economy in disarray following years of wars against Spain and the Netherlands. A gold rush quickly ensued, with people from other parts of the colony and Portugal flooding the region in the first half of the 18th century. The large portion of the Brazilian inland where gold was extracted became known as the Minas Gerais (General Mines). Gold mining in these Minas Gerais would become the main economic activity of colonial Brazil during the 18th century. In Portugal, the gold was mainly used to pay for industrialised goods (textiles, weapons) obtained from countries like England and, specially during the reign of King John V, to build magnificent Baroque monuments like the Convent of Mafra. Apart from gold, diamonds deposits were also found in 1729 around the village of Tijuco, now Diamantina. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 742 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colonial Brazil Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 742 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colonial Brazil Metadata This file... View of Ouro Preto Vila Rica do Ouro Preto, a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque architecture. ... A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Palaces main façade The Mafra National Palace is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... Diamantina is a Brazilian town in the state of Minas Gerais. ...


In the hilly landscape of Minas Gerais, gold was present in alluvial deposits by streams and was extracted using pans and other rudimentary instruments that required little technology. The hard work of gold extraction was mostly done by slaves imported from Africa. The Portuguese Crown allowed particulars to extract the gold, requiring a fifth (20%) of the gold (the quinto) to be sent to the colonial government as tribute. To prevent smuggling and charge the quinto, in 1725 the government ordered all gold to be casted into bars in the Casas de Fundição (Casting Houses), and sent armies to the region to prevent disturbances and oversee the mining process. The Royal tribute was very unpopular in Minas Gerais, and gold was frequently hidden from the colonial authorities. Eventually, the quinto contributed to rebellious movements like the Levante de Vila Rica, in 1720, and the Inconfidência Mineira, in 1789 (see below). An alluvial deposit is an accumulation of alluvium (sediment), sometimes containing valuable ore and gemstones, or simply consisting of gravel, sand, or clay, in the bed or former bed of a river. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Casting may be used to create artistic sculptures Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. ...


The large number of adventurers coming to the Minas Gerais led to the foundation of several villages, the first of which were created in 1711: Vila Rica de Ouro Preto, Sabará and Mariana, followed by São João Del Rei (1713), Serro, Caeté (1714), Pitangui (1715) and São José do Rio das Mortes (1717, now Tiradentes). In contrast to other regions of colonial Brazil, people coming to Minas Gerais settled mostly in villages instead of the countriside. View of Ouro Preto Vila Rica do Ouro Preto, a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque architecture. ... Sabará is a city in Minas Gerais, Brazil. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... One of the many ornate churches and the most popular in the city, Igreja São Francisco de Assis. ... Tiradentes is a municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. ...


Gold production declined towards the end of the 18th century, beginning a period of relative stagnation of the Brazilian hinterland.


Inconfidência Mineira

In 1788/89, Minas Gerais was the setting of the most important of the conspiracies against colonial authorities, the so called Inconfidência Mineira. The Inconfidência was inspired by the ideals of the French liberal philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment and the successful American Revolution, which had taken place in 1776. The conspirators belonged to the white upper class of Minas Gerais and many had studied in Europe, specially in the University of Coimbra. Several of them, like a great part of the elite of Minas Gerais, had large debts with the colonial government. In the context of a declining gold production, the intention of the Portuguese government to impose the obligatory payment of all debts (the derrama) was a leading cause behind the conspiracy. The conspirators wanted to create a Republic in which the leader would be chosen through democratic elections. The capital would be São João Del Rei, and Ouro Preto would become a university town. The structure of the society, including the right to property and the ownership of slaves, would be kept intact. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... The University of Coimbra (Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... One of the many ornate churches and the most popular in the city, Igreja São Francisco de Assis. ... View of Ouro Preto Vila Rica do Ouro Preto, a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque architecture. ...


The conspiracy was discovered by the Portuguese colonial government in 1789, before the planned military rebellion could take place. Eleven of the conspirators were banned to Portuguese colonial possessions in Angola, but Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, nicknamed Tiradentes, was sentenced to death. Tiradentes was hanged in Rio de Janeiro in 1792. He later became a symbol of the struggle for Brazilian independence and liberty from Portuguese rule. Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes (1746-April 21, 1792), was part of the Brazilian seditious movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira. ...


The Inconfidência Mineira was not the only rebellious movement in colonial Brazil against the Portuguese. Later, in 1798, there was the Incofidência Baiana in the former capital, Salvador. In this episode, which had more participation of the common people, four people were hanged, and 41 were jailed. Members included slaves, middle-class people and even some landowners.


United Kingdom period (1808-1822)

In 1808, the French troops of Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal, and Dom João, who governed on behalf of his mother, the Queen (Dona Maria I), ordered the transfer of the royal court to Brazil. Brazil was elevated to the condition of United Kingdom creating the Reino Unido de Portugal, Algarve e Brasil (English: The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve) (1815). There was also the election of Brazilian representatives to the Cortes Constitucionais Portuguesas (Portuguese Constitutional Courts). Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Maria I of Portugal (pron. ... The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve was a monarchy consisting of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Flag of the Principality of Brazil
Flag of the Principality of Brazil

The King of Portugal, fleeing before Napoleon's army, moved the seat of government to Brazil in 1808. Brazil thereupon became a kingdom under Dom João VI. Although the royal family returned to Portugal in 1821, the interlude led to a growing desire for independence amongst Brazilians, In 1822, the son of Dom João VI, then prince-regent Dom Pedro I, proclaimed the independence, September 7, 1822, and was crowned emperor. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Image File history File links Flag_Kingdom_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_Kingdom_of_Brazil. ... The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve was a monarchy consisting of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Territorial evolution of colonial Brazil

References

  • Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, Vol. III of Civilization and Capitalism, 1984.


Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

History of Brazil: Timeline & Topics

Indians | Colonial | Empire | 1889–1930 | 1930–1945 | 1945–1964 | 1964–1985 | 1985–present
Military | Diplomatic | Religious This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Empire of Brazil is a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, dissolved and replaced by a republic in 1889. ... // The Constitutionalist Revolution From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, with the presidency alternating between the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. ... // Depression, coffee oligarchs, and the Revolution of 1930 The Great Depression The tenente rebellion (See History of Brazil (1889-1930)) did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazils bourgeois social reformers. ... // End of the Estado Novo As World War II ended with Brazil participating on the Allied side, President Getúlio Vargas moved to liberalize his own fascist-influenced Estado Novo regime. ... The military maintained power in Brazil from 1964 until March 1985 because of political struggles within the regime and Brazilian elite. ... After the end of the military dictatorship, Brazil went into a troubled process of redemocratization. ...


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