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Encyclopedia > Colonel General

Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. North Korea and Russia are two nations which have used the rank extensively throughout their histories. The rank is also closely associated with Germany, where Generaloberst has been the full General and a rank below Generalfeldmarschall. This article is about the use of the term rank. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ...

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Austria

Colonel General (Generaloberst) was the second-highest rank in the Austro-Hungarian Army, introduced following the German model in 1915. The rank was not used after World War I in the Austrian Army of the Republic. The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In 1955, Austria declared her Everlasting Neutrality and made neutrality a constitutional law. ...


China

The People's Liberation Army rank of Shang Jiang (上将 : literally Senior General) is variously translated as either Colonel General or General, with the translation as Colonel General generally reserved for the period 1955-1965 when it corresponded to the Soviet rank of Colonel General. Rank was not used in the PLA between 1965 and 1988. When rank was restored, there was a reduction in the number of officer ranks, and the ranks have since been normally translated into English as the corresponding American or British rank, rendering the rank of Shang Jiang as simply General. Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Shang Jiang insignia in the Peoples Liberation Army Yi Ji Shang Jiang insignia in the Peoples Liberation Army Shang Jiang (上將/上将) is a Chinese military rank. ...


England

The title of Colonel-General was used before and during the English Civil War in both Royalist and Parliamentarian armies. In these cases it often appears to have meant a senior colonel as opposed to a senior general. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ...


France

Main article: Colonel General (France)

In the French Army, under the Ancien régime, the officer in charge of all the regiments of a particular branch of service (i. e. infantry, cavalry, dragoons, Swiss troops, etc) was known as the Colonel General. This was not a rank, but an office of the Crown. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The Great Officers of the Crown were appointed by the King of France and there were seven all told. ...


Germany

German Generaloberst Insignia

A Colonel General (Generaloberst) was the second highest general officer rank — below Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) — in the Prussian Army and later in the Army of Imperial Germany (1871–1918), the Reichswehr (1918–1935), and the Wehrmacht (1935–1945). Oberstgruppenfuhrer Boards (Released by US National Archives) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Oberstgruppenfuhrer Boards (Released by US National Archives) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


The English translation of this rank is less than perfect. The rank in the German armed forces equivalent to a Colonel in the British or American army is an "Oberst". This word translates literally as "highest" and the literal, and functionally correct, translation of "Generaloberst" therefore is "highest General"; which is to say, the rank of general officer immediately below Field Marshal. For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ...


The rank was created originally for Emperor William I, then Prince of Prussia, because traditionally members of the royal family couldn't be promoted to the rank of a Field Marshal. William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ...


Since the rank Generalfeldmarschall also was reserved for wartime promotions, the additional rank of a Colonel General in the capacity of a Field Marshal, the Generaloberst im Range eines Generalfeldmarschalls was created for promotions during peace. Such generals were entitled to wear four pips on their shoulder boards, compared to the normal three.


The equivalent of a Colonel-General in the Kriegsmarine was a General Admiral (Generaladmiral). The equivalent SS rank was Oberstgruppenführer. The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... General Admiral was a Danish, Dutch, German, Russian, and Spanish naval rank. ... SS redirects here. ... SS-Oberstgruppenführer Collar Insignia Oberstgruppenführer was the highest commissioned SS rank with the exception of Reichsführer-SS, which was a special rank held by Heinrich Himmler. ...


East Germany's National People's Army (NVA) retained this rank as its third highest, behind Armeegeneral and Marschall der DDR. This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The National People’s Army (German: Nationale Volksarmee) served as the military of the German Democratic Republic. ... Armeegeneral was a senior military rank of East Germany, used until 1990. ...


The Bundeswehr (first in West Germany and since 1990 in a unified Germany) does not use the rank. The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ...


Hungary

In Hungary, the rank of Colonel General or vezérezredes has been introduced with the Imperial and Royal Army (the common ground force of the Dual Monarchy) in 1915. The rank replaced the ranks of gyalogsági tábornok (General of Infantry), lovassági tábornok (General of Cavalry), and táborszernagy (General of Artillery) in the early 1940s.


The rank title vezérezredes is still in use for the highest ranking (four-star) general officer of the Magyar Honvédség and foreign four-star general officers' rank titles are usually translated as vezérezredes in Hungarian.


North Korea

The North Korean rank of Sangjang translates as "Colonel General". Sangjang is senior to that of Jungjang (usually translated as "Lieutenant General") and junior to that of Daejang (usually translated as "General"). Comparative military ranks of Korea refer to the ranks and insignia maintained by the three primary military powers on the Korean Peninsula, those being the South Korean military, the armed forces of North Korea, and the military forces of the United States. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in almost every country in the world. ... Daejang (hangul: 대장, hanja: 大將) is a senior military rank of the Korean Peninsula, used by both North and South Korea. ...


This rank is typically held by the commanding officer of units along the Korean DMZ and the North Korean security zone at Panmunjon. Map of the Korean DMZ. The DMZ is given in red, the demarcation line runs in the middle of the DMZ (black line). ... Panmunjeom (Panmunjŏm) in Gyeonggi province is a village on the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 armistice that halted the Korean War was signed. ...


Russia

The rank of Colonel General (Russian: генерал-полковник, general-polkovnik, General-Polkovnik) did not exist in Imperial Russia and was first established in the Red Army in 1940, and still exists in the contemporary Russian Army. Unlike the German Generaloberst (which it most probably calqued), the Soviet and Russian Colonel General rank is neither an exceptional nor a rare one, because it occupies the position between Lieutenant General and General of the Army, which is normally reserved for a full General in Western armies. Polkovnik (Russian: ), universally treated as Colonel, began as a commander of a distinct group of troops, Old Slavonic polk (полк), arranged for a particular battle. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... General of the Army (Russian: генерал армии, general armii) was a rank of the Soviet Union which was first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the Marshal of the Soviet Union. ...


Other than that, the Soviet and Russian rank systems sometimes cause confusion in regard to equivalence of ranks, because the normal Western title for Brigadier or Brigadier General ceased to exist in the Russian Army since 1798. Positions typically reserved for these ranks, such as Brigade commanders, have always been occupied by Colonels (Polkovnik) or, very rarely, Major Generals (see History of Russian military ranks). Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Polkovnik (Russian: ), universally treated as Colonel, began as a commander of a distinct group of troops, Old Slavonic polk (полк), arranged for a particular battle. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. ...


The rank has usually been given to district, front and army commanders, and also to Deputy Ministers of Defense, Deputy Heads of General Staff etc.


During World War II, about 150 officers were promoted to Colonel General. Before 1943, Soviet Colonel Generals wore four stars on their collar patches (petlitsy). Since 1943, they have worn three stars on their shoulder straps. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In some post-Soviet CIS armies (for example in Belarus) there are no Generals of the Army or Marshals, and so Colonel General is the highest rank, usually held by the Minister of the Defense.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ...


The corresponding naval rank is Admiral, which is also denoted by four stars. For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ...


Sweden

Colonel General (Generalöverste) has also been a senior military rank in Sweden, used principally before the 1800s.


See also

The following list of Colonel Generals denotes those who have held the rank of Colonel General in the respective military forces of their countries. ...

References

Data about Germany and Austria are based in part on the corresponding article "Generaloberst" in the German-language Wikipedia, retrieved Oct 15, 2004.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Colonel General - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (754 words)
In cases where a Colonel General was acting in the capacity of a Field Marshal, the rank was referred to as Generaloberst mit dem Rang eines Generalfeldmarschalls.
The equivalent of a Colonel-General in the Kriegsmarine was a General Admiral (Generaladmiral).
In 2000, the Colonel General in command of Panmunjon was comically referred to as "The Iguana" by U.S. forces, as the General's Korean surname bore a resemblance to the English word.
Colonel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (627 words)
Colonel [ˈkɜː(r)nl] is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world.
In the modern age, a Colonel is usually a military title rated as the highest field rank below the general grades.
By the time of the late 19th century, Colonel was a professional military rank and typically held by an officer in command of a regiment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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