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Encyclopedia > Colon (anatomy)
Colon (anatomy)
Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for liver, stomach, and large intestine.
Gray's subject #249 1177
Dorlands/Elsevier c_47/12249855

In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is a part of the large intestine, but very often is incorrectly used in the meaning of the whole large intestine altogether; it is really only the biggest part of the large intestine. The main function of the colon appears to be extraction of water from feces. In mammals, it consists of the ascending colon, transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. The colon from cecum to the mid-transverse colon is also known as the right colon. The remainder is known as the left colon. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... Colon may refer to: Colon (anatomy) Colon (punctuation) Colon (rhetoric) Colon classification, a library classification system Colon, Michigan, a village within Colon Township Colon Township, Michigan Carly Colon, a professional wrestler Fred Colon, a Discworld character See also Colón This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... Diagram of the Human Intestine. ... Image File history File links Gray1223. ... Elseviers logo. ... Image File history File links Stomach_colon_rectum_diagram. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) In humans, defecation may occur (depending on the individual and the circumstances) from once every two or three days to several times a day. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and the presence of hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ...

Contents

Anatomy

The location of the parts of the colon are either in the abdominal cavity or behind it in the retroperitoneum. The colon in those areas is fixed in location.


Ascending colon

The ascending colon, on the right side of the abdomen, is about 12.5 cm long. It is the part of the colon from the cecum to the hepatic flexure (the turn of the colon by the liver). It is retroperitoneal in most humans. In grazing animals the cecum empties into the spiral colon. Anteriorly it is related to the coils of small intestine, the right edge of the greater omentum, and the anterior abdominal wall. Posteriorly, it is related to the iliacus, the iliolumbar ligament, the quadratus lumborum, the transverse abdominis, the diaphragm at the tip of the last rib; the lateral cutaneous, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves; the iliac branches of the iliolumbar vessels, the fourth lumbar artery, and the right kidney. Retroperitoneal is an anatomical term that refers to the relationship of the contents of the abdominal cavity to the peritoneal space. ...


The ascending colon is supplied by sympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X).


Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the part of the colon from the hepatic flexure (the turn of the colon by the liver) to the splenic flexure (the turn of the colon by the spleen). The transverse colon hangs off the stomach, attached to it by a wide band of tissue called the greater omentum. On the posterior side, the transverse colon is connected to the posterior abdominal wall by a mesentery known as the transverse mesocolon. A colic flexure is a flexure (a bend) in the colon. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Grays Fig. ... The spleen is an organ located the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old white blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Look up Tissue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The greater omentum (great omentum; gastrocolic omentum; epiploon) is a large fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach, and extends from the stomach to the transverse colon. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... The abdominal wall represents the boundaries of the abdominal cavity. ... In anatomy, a mesentery is a part of the peritoneum that connects an internal organ, such as the small intestine, to the abdominal wall. ... The transverse mesocolon is a broad, meso-fold of peritoneum, which connects the transverse colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen. ...


The transverse colon is encased in peritoneum, and is therefore mobile (unlike the parts of the colon immediately before and after it). More cancers form as the large intestine goes along and the contents become more solid (water is removed) in order to form feces. It is primarily supplied by the middle colic artery, a branch of superior mesenteric artery. In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) In humans, defecation may occur (depending on the individual and the circumstances) from once every two or three days to several times a day. ... The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. ... The superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the duodenum and pancreas to the left colic flexure. ...


Descending colon

The descending colon is the part of the colon from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon. It is retroperitoneal in two-thirds of humans. In the other third, it has a (usually short) mesentery.


Sigmoid colon

Diagram of the Human Intestine.

The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. The name sigmoid means S-shaped (see sigmoid). The walls of the sigmoid colon are muscular, and contract to increase the pressure inside the colon, causing the stool to move into the rectum. Diagram of the Human Intestine. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) In humans, defecation may occur (depending on the individual and the circumstances) from once every two or three days to several times a day. ...


Due to the intermittent high pressure within it, the colon can develop pockets called diverticuli in its walls. The presence of diverticuli, whether harmful or not, is called diverticulosis. An infection of the diverticuli is called diverticulitis. A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is medical term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid filled) structure in the body. ...


Sigmoidoscopy is a common diagnostic technique used to examine the sigmoid colon. Sigmoidoscopy is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the last part of the colon. ...


Redundant colon

One variation on the normal anatomy of the colon occurs when extra loops form, resulting in a longer than normal organ. This condition, referred to as redundant colon, typically has no direct major health consequences, though rarely volvulus occurs resulting in obstruction and requiring immediate medical attention.[1] A significant indirect health consequence is that use of a standard adult colonoscope is difficult and in some cases impossible when a redundant colon is present, though specialized variants on the instrument (including the pediatric variant) are useful in overcoming this problem.[2] A volvulus is a loop of the bowel whose nose has twisted on itself. ... Colonoscopy is the minimally invasive endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ...


Function

The large intestine comes after the small intestine in the digestive tract and measures approximately 1.5 meters in length. Although there are differences in the large intestine between different organisms, the large intestine is mainly responsible for storing waste, reclaiming water, maintaining the water balance, and absorbing some vitamins, such as vitamin K. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... Look up length, width, breadth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ...


By the time the chyme has reached this tube, almost all nutrients and 90% of the water have been absorbed by the body. At this point some electrolytes like sodium, magnesium, and chloride are left as well as indigestible carbohydrates known as dietary fiber. As the chyme moves through the large intestine, most of the remaining water is removed, while the chyme is mixed with mucus and bacteria known as gut flora, and becomes feces. The bacteria break down some of the fiber for their own nourishment and create acetate, propionate, and butyrate as waste products, which in turn are used by the cell lining of the colon for nourishment. This is an example of a symbiotic relationship and provides about one hundred Calories a day to the body. The large intestine produces no digestive enzymeschemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. The pH in the colon varies between 5.5 and 7 (slightly acidic to neutral). Chyme is the liquid substance found in the stomach before passing through the pyloric valve and entering the duodenum. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colon (anatomy). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... An acetate, or ethanoate, is a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... The propionate (also propanoate) ion is C2H5COO− (propionic acid minus one hydrogen ion). ... The butyrate (also butanoate) ion is C3H7COO- (butyric acid minus one hydrogen ion). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. ... The correct title of this article is . ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... Some things which can be neutral are: Neutral country, in politics, a country takes no side in a conflict. ...


Pathology

An appendectomy in progress.
An appendectomy in progress.

There are a number of diseases or disorders of the colon: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1360, 786 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Appendicectomy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1360, 786 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Appendicectomy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ...

An angiodysplasia in the colon being treated with argon plasma coagulation administered via probe through the colonoscope. ... Chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP) is the ongoing presence of abdominal pain for which there is no physical explanation. ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining in between). ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Diverticulitis is a common digestive disorder particularly found in the large intestine. ... Diverticulosis, otherwise known as diverticular disease, is the condition of having diverticula in the large colon which are outpocketings of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. ... Hirschsprungs disease, or congenital aganglionic megacolon, involves an enlargement of the colon, caused by bowel obstruction resulting from an aganglionic section of bowel (the normal enteric nerves are absent) that starts at the anus and progresses upwards. ... An intussusception is a situation in which a part of the intestine has prolapsed into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another. ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps to form in the epithelium of the large intestine. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is a life-threatening complication of other intestinal conditions. ...

References

  1. ^ Mayo Clinic Staff (2006-10-13). Redundant colon: A health concern?. Ask a Digestive System Specialist. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  2. ^ Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Peter D. Park, William B. Long, Gregory G. Ginsberg, Michael L. Kochman (18 August 1998). "Use of a Push Enteroscope Improves Ability to Perform Total Colonoscopy in Previously Unsuccessful Attempts at Colonoscopy in Adult Patients". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 94 (1): 187. PMID 9934753. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.  Note:Single use PDF copy provided free by Blackwell Publishing for purposes of Wikipedia content enrichment.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ...

Additional images

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (often referred to simply as The Merck Manual) is one of the worlds most widely used medical textbooks. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The University of Iowa -- or Iowa for short -- is a major national research university located on a 1,900-acre campus in Iowa City, Iowa, USA, on the banks of the Iowa River in East Central Iowa. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Colon Anatomy What It Does (751 words)
It is the part of the colon from the cecum to the hepatic flexure (the turn of the colon by the liver).
Transverse colon The transverse colon is the part of the colon from the hepatic flexure (the turn of the colon by the liver) to the splenic flexure (the turn of the colon by the spleen).
Descending colon The descending colon is the part of the colon from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon.
Colon (anatomy) (191 words)
In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum.
Its primary purpose is to extract water from feces.
In mammals, it consists of the ascending colon on the right side, the transverse colon, the descending colon on the left side, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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