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Encyclopedia > Colloidal gold
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Nanomedicine
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Colloidal gold · Colloidal silver
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Colloidal gold is a suspension (or colloid) of sub-micrometre-sized particles of gold in a fluid, usually water. The liquid is usually either an intense red colour (for particles less than 100 nm), or a dirty yellowish colour (for larger particles) [1] [2]. The nanoparticles themselves can come in a variety of shapes: spheres, rods, cubes and caps are some of the more frequently observed ones. Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ... Nanotechnology reaches back to the late 19th century, when colloidal science first took root. ... Groups opposing the installation of nanotechnology laboratories in Grenoble, France, have spraypainted their opposition on a former fortress above the city Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into three areas: the risk to health and environment from nanoparticles and nanomaterials; the risk posed by molecular manufacturing (or advanced... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of organizations involved in nanotechnology. ... This is a list of references and appearances of Nanotechnology in works of fiction. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the field of nanotechnology. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e. ... Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... Nanolithography — or lithography at the nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. ... Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... The Icosahedral Fullerene C540 C60, C-60 and Buckyballs redirect here. ... 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes [1] [2] [3]. Research in this field is driven by the need to functionalize fullerenes and tune their properties. ... Carbon nanotubes have many potential applications, here is a short list of some of the most important: // clothes: waterproof tear-resistant cloth fibers combat jackets: MIT is working on combat jackets that use carbon nanotubes as ultrastrong fibers and to monitor the condition of the wearer. ... Examples of fullerenes in popular culture are numerous. ... Timeline of carbon nanotubes: Inside a carbon nanotube 1952 Radushkevich and Lukyanovich publish a paper in the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry showing hollow graphitic carbon fibers that are 50 nanometers in diameter. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that nanopowder be merged into this article or section. ... A quantum dot is a semiconductor nanostructure that confines the motion of conduction band electrons, valence band holes, or excitons (bound pairs of conduction band electrons and valence band holes) in all three spatial directions. ... Colloidal silver is a colloid of silver particles in water. ... A molecular assembler is a molecular machine capable of assembling other molecules given instructions, energy, and a supply of smaller building block molecules to work from. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mechanochemistry. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10-9 metres). ... Grey goo refers to a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... K. Eric Drexler in 2001. ... Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology Engines of Creation (ISBN 0-385-19973-2) is a seminal molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler in 1986. ... In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases, a type of mixture intermediate between a homogeneous mixture (also called a solution) and a heterogeneous mixture with properties also intermediate between the two. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand-millionth of a metre, which is the current SI base unit of length. ...


Known since ancient times, the synthesis of colloidal gold was originally used as a method of staining glass. Modern scientific evaluation of colloidal gold did not begin until Michael Faraday's [3] work of the 1850s. Due to the unique optical, electronic and molecular recognition properties of gold nanoparticles they are the subject of substantial research, with applications in a wide variety of areas, including electronics and nanotechnology [4] [5] and the synthesis of novel materials with unique properties. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...

Contents

Synthesis

Generally, gold nanoparticles are produced in a liquid ("liquid chemical methods") by reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4), although more advanced and precise methods do exist. After dissolving HAuCl4, the solution is rapidly stirred while a reducing agent is added. This causes Au3+ ions to reduce to un-ionized gold atoms. As more and more of these gold atoms form, the solution becomes supersaturated, and gold gradually starts to precipitate in the form of sub-nanometer particles. The rest of the gold atoms that form stick to the existing particles, and, if the solution is stirred vigorously enough, the particles will be fairly uniform in size. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... In physics, the term supersaturation or oversaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under existing circumstances. ...


To prevent the particles from aggregating, some sort of stabilizing agent that sticks to the nanoparticle surface is usually added. They can be functionalized with various organic ligands to create organic-inorganic hybrids with advanced functionality. [3]


Turkevich et al. method

Pioneered by J. Turkevitch et al. in 1951 and refined by G. Frens in 1970s, this recipe is the simplest one available. Generally, it is used to produce modestly monodisperse spherical gold nanoparticles suspended in water of around 10–20 nm in diameter. Larger particles can be produced, but this comes at the cost of monodispersity and shape. A collection of objects are called monodisperse if they have the same size - i. ...

  • Take 5.0×10−6 mol of HAuCl4, dissolve it in 19 ml of deionized water (the result should be a faintly yellowish solution) .
  • Heat it until it boils.
  • Continue the heating and, while stirring vigorously, add 1 ml of 0.5% sodium citrate solution; keep stirring for the next 30 minutes.
  • The colour of the solution will gradually change from faint yellowish to clear to grey to purple to deep purple, until settling on wine-red.
  • Add water to the solution as necessary to bring the volume back up to 20 ml (to account for evaporation).

The sodium citrate first acts as a reducing agent. Later the negatively-charged citrate ions are adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles, introducing the surface charge that repels the particles and prevents them from aggregating. The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid with the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... In chemistry, adsorption of a substance is its concentration on a particular surface. ...


To produce larger particles, less sodium citrate should be added (possibly down to 0.05%, after which there simply would not be enough to reduce all the gold). The reduction in the amount of sodium citrate will reduce the amount of the citrate ions available for stabilizing the particles, and this will cause the small particles to aggregate into bigger ones (until the total surface area of all particles becomes small enough to be covered by the existing citrate ions).


Brust et al. method

This method was discovered by Brust and Schifrinn in early 1990s, and can be used to produce gold nanoparticles in organic liquids that are normally not miscible with water (like toluene). Organic liquids such as mixtures of anthracene in benzene or toluol, or stilbene in the same solvents, fluoresce with ultraviolet or gamma ray irradiation. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ...

  • Dissolve 9.0×10−4 mol of HAuCl4 (about 0.3 g) in 30 ml of water.
  • Dissolve 4.0×10−3 mol of tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) (about 2.187 g) in 80 ml of toluene.
  • Add the HAuCl4 solution to the TOAB and stir vigorously for about 10– minutes. The colour of the aqueous phase should become clear, and the colour of the organic phase (the toluene) should become orange.
  • While stirring vigorously, add (preferably dropwise, but really doesn't matter) sodium borohydride.(NaBH4); the colour should change from orange to white to purple to eventually reddish, although the latter colours will be poorly discernible, since the solution will be quite concentrated and thus will look very dark.
  • Keep stirring the solution for up to 24 hours to ensure monodispersity (especially if NaBH4 was not added dropwise; otherwise just an hour or two is enough).
  • Separate the organic phase, wash it once with dilute H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) to neutralize it, and several times with distilled water.

Here, the gold nanoparticles will be around 5–6 nm. NaBH4 is the reducing agent, and TOAB is both the phase transfer catalyst and the stabilizing agent. BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Tetraoctylammonium brimide, (also tetraoctyl ammonium bromide, TOAB, or TOABr), chemical formula: [ C H3 (CH2)7]4N Br. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydroborate, has the chemical formula NaBH4. ... NA may refer to: Namibia (ISO country code) Narcotics Anonymous National Association, a banking term National Association of Professional Baseball Players North America North American Airlines, IATA airline designator One of several Northern Alliances Not Applicable (usually written N/a) Nucleic acid Numerical aperture - A specification in optical systems. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ... A phase transfer catalyst or PTC in chemistry is a type of chemical compound, often a quaternary ammonium salt, which facilitates the migration of a particular chemical component in one phase into a other phase in a heterogeneous system. ...


It is important to note that TOAB does not bind to the gold nanoparticles particularly strongly, so the solution will aggregate gradually over the course of two weeks or so, which can be very annoying. To prevent this, one can add a stronger binding agent, like a thiol (in particular, alkanethiols seem to be popular), which will bind to gold covalently, and hence pretty much permanently. Alkanethiol protected gold nanoparticles can be precipitated and then redissolved. Some of the phase transfer agent may remain bound to the purified nanoparticles, this may affect physical properties such as solubility. In order to remove as much of this agent as possible the nanoparticles must be further purified by soxhlet extraction. Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... A schematic representation of a Soxhlet extractor 1: Stirrer bar 2: Still pot 3: Distillation path 4: Thimble 5: Solid 6: Siphon top 7: Siphon exit 8: Expansion adapter 9: Condensor 10: Cooling water in 11: Cooling water out A Soxhlet extractor is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in...


Sonolysis

Another method for the experimental generation of gold particles is by sonolysis. In one such process based on ultrasound, the reaction of an aqueous solution of HAuCl4 with glucose[citation needed], the reducing agents are hydroxyl radicals and sugar pyrolysis radicals (forming at the interfacial region between the collapsing cavities and the bulk water) and the morphology obtained is that of nanoribbons with width 30 -50 nm and length of several micrometers. These ribbons are very flexible and can bend with angles larger than 90°. When glucose is replaced by cyclodextrin (a glucose oligomer) only spherical gold particles are obtained suggesting that glucose is essential in directing the morphology towards a ribbon. In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of sonic waves and wave properties on chemical systems. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Chemical structure of the three main types of cyclodextrins. ...


History

A so-called Elixir of Life, a potion made from gold, was discussed, if not actually manufactured, in ancient times. Colloidal gold has been used since Ancient Roman times to colour glass an intense shades of yellow, red, or mauve, depending on the concentration of gold. In the 16th century, the alchemist Paracelsus claimed to have created a potion called Aurum Potabile (Latin: potable gold). In the 17th century the glass-colouring process was refined by Andreus Cassius and Johann Kunchel. In 1842, John Herschel invented a photographic process called Chrysotype (from the Greek word for gold) that used colloidal gold to record images on paper. Paracelsus' work is known to have inspired Michael Faraday to prepare the first pure sample of colloidal gold, which he called 'activated gold', in 1857. He used phosphorus to reduce a solution of gold chloride. Faraday was the first to recognise that the colour was due to the minute size of the gold particles. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... Chrysotype (or gold print) is a photographic process invented by John Herschel in 1842. ... Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is one of the most common compounds of gold. ...


Current research

Research in 2005 demonstrated that nanogold-coated bacteria can be used for electronic wiring [6]. Bacillus cereus was deposited on a silicon / silicon dioxide wafer lined with gold electrodes. This device was covered with poly(L-lysine). The bacterium's surface has a negative charge, even more so due to the presence of flexible teichoic acid brushes. Poly(L-lysine)-coated nanogold particles carry a positive charge when washed with nitric acid and therefore the particles will only stick to the bacteria and nothing else. The bacteria survive this treatment. When the humidity increases in a sample, the bacterium absorbs water and the resulting membrane expansion can be monitored by measuring the electrical current flowing through the bacteria. The Fowler-Nordheim equation is obeyed when the interbacterial distance is very small. Some fascinating examples of gold nanoparticles having a strong activity have been recently highlighted by Vanga Reddy in a Spotlight article [3]a. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Binomial name Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland 1887 Bacillus cereus is an endemic, soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod shaped, beta hemolytic bacteria that causes foodborne illness. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark grey with bluish tinge Standard atomic weight 28. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Electric charge is a fundamental property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ... Teichoic acids are polymers of glycerol or ribitol linked via phosphodiester bonds. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Fowler-Nordheim equation relates current, work and electronic field strength and has two parts: an equation for field emitted current density, and the equation for total current. ...


The reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate by sodium borohydride in the presence of one of the enantiomers of penicillamine results in optical active colloidal gold particles [7]. Penicillamine anchors to the gold surface by virtue of the thiol group. In this study the particles are fractionated by electrophoresis into three fractions, Au6, Au50 and Au150 as evidenced by Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The D and L isomers have a mirror image relationship in circular dichroism. Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydroborate, has the chemical formula NaBH4. ... In chemistry, enantiomers (from the Greek ἐνάντιος, opposite, and μέρος, part or portion) are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable complete mirror images of each other, much as ones left and right hands are the same but opposite. ... Penicillamine is a pharmaceutical of the chelator class. ... When polarized light is passed through a substance containing chiral molecules (or nonchiral molecules arranged asymmetrically), the direction of polarization can be changed. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Look up Fraction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In common usage a fraction is any part of a unit. ... It has been suggested that Electrophoretic mobility be merged into this article or section. ... SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) is a small-angle scattering (SAS) technique where the elastic scattering of X-rays (wavelength 0. ... Circular dichroism (CD), is the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. ...


References

  1. ^ Bernhard Wessling, Conductive Polymer / Solvent Systems: Solutions or Dispersions?, 1996 (on-line here)
  2. ^ University of Edinburgh School of Physics: Colloids (mentions Elixir of Life)
  3. ^ a b c a) V. R. Reddy, "Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications" 2006, 1791, and references therein; b) Michael Faraday, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 1857
  4. ^ Paul Mulvaney, University of Melbourne, The beauty and elegance of Nanocrystals, Use since Roman times
  5. ^ C. N. Ramachandra Rao, Giridhar U. Kulkarni, P. John Thomasa, Peter P. Edwards, Metal nanoparticles and their assemblies, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2000, 29, 27-35. (on-line here; mentions Cassius and Kunchel)
  6. ^ Sonochemical Formation of Single-Crystalline Gold Nanobelts Jianling Zhang, Jimin Du, Buxing Han, Zhimin Liu, Tao Jiang, Zhaofu Zhang Angewandte Chemie International Edition Volume 45, Issue 7 , Pages 1116 - 1119 2006 Abstract
  7. ^ Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles on Live Bacterium: An Avenue to Fabricate Electronic Devices Vikas Berry, Ravi F. Saraf Angewandte Chemie International Edition Volume 44, Issue 41 , Pages 6668 - 6673 2005 Abstract

1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Angewandte Chemie or Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the chemistry journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists). ... Angewandte Chemie or Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the chemistry journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists). ...

See also


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