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Encyclopedia > College of William and Mary

College of William and Mary

Established 1693[1]
Type Public university
Endowment US $503 million
Chancellor Sandra Day O'Connor
President Gene R. Nichol
Faculty 763
Students 7,709
Undergraduates 5,734
Postgraduates 1,975
Location Williamsburg, Virginia, U.S.
Campus Small city, 1,200 acres (4.9 km²)
Colors Green and Gold            
Nickname The Tribe
Athletics NCAA Division I, CAA
Website www.wm.edu

The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. It is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. Image File history File links WMseal. ... The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A financial endowment is a transfer of money or property donated to an institution, with the stipulation that it be invested, and the principal remain intact. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... University President is the title of the highest ranking officer within a university, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as Chancellor or rector. ... Gene R. Nichol Gene R. Nichol is the twenty-sixth president of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... Nickname: The Burg Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Wikiquote has quotations related to United States. ... School colors are the colors chosen by a school to represent it on uniforms and other items of identification. ... Look up Green in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Green is a color seen commonly in nature. ... Gold is a shade of the color yellow closest to that of gold metal. ... The athletic nickname, or equivalently athletic moniker, of a university or college within the United States of America is the name officially adopted by that institution for at least the members of its athletic teams. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Division I (or DI) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. ... The Colonial Athletic Association, also known as the CAA, is a NCAA Division I college athletic conference whose members are located in East Coast states from Massachusetts to Georgia. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, typically common to a particular domain name or subdomain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. ... Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Burg Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the American Revolution (1775–1783). ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


William and Mary was founded in 1693 by a Royal Charter issued by King William III and Queen Mary II of England. William and Mary educated U.S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and John Tyler and other key figures important to the development of the nation, including U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall and 16 signers of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. W&M has a strong academic reputation and is notable in higher education for the founding of the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society. Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scotland (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... This article is becoming very long. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... In the USA, an honor society (or honour society) is an organization of rank, the induction into which recognizes excellence among ones peers. ...


Known for its commitment to undergraduate teaching and liberal arts program, William and Mary also offers a strong law school (the first in the United States), as well as several other graduate programs. Although considered one of the first universities in America, the school retains the traditional "College" in its name as was specified in its Royal Charter of 1693. A liberal arts college is an institution of higher education found in the United States, offering programs in the liberal arts at the post-secondary level. ... The Marshall-Wythe School of Law, also known as William & Mary Law School, is the oldest law school in the United States. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ...


William and Mary is one of the original eight Public Ivies. The institution's official name is "The College of William and Mary in Virginia." Wren Building (College of William and Mary) Alumni Hall (Miami U) Sather Gate (UC Berkeley) Central Campus Diag (U of Michigan) Old Well (UNC-Chapel Hill) UT Tower (U of Texas) Williams Hall (U of Vermont) The Rotunda (U of Virginia) Public Ivy is a colloquialism for a state-funded...

Contents

History

Prologue

Wren Building with a snow-covered statue of Lord Botetourt
Wren Building with a snow-covered statue of Lord Botetourt

A school of higher education for both Native American young men and the sons of the colonists was one of the earliest goals of the English leaders of the Virginia Colony, which was initially based at Jamestown in 1607. Within the first decade, a promising start of a school was initiated as part of the progressive colonial outpost of Henricus under the leadership of Sir Thomas Dale. However, the Indian Massacre of 1622 destroyed the Henricus development, postponing the colonists' hopes for a school of higher education. It would be almost 70 more years before their efforts to establish a school of higher education would be successfully renewed with the founding of William & Mary. Image File history File links Wren1. ... Image File history File links Wren1. ... The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, more commonly known as Lord Botetourt, (1718-1770) was governor of the Virginia Colony from 1768 to 1770. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... Jamestown, or Jamestown Island, was founded in 1607 on the James River in what is currently James City County, Virginia, about 40 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay and about 45 miles (70 kilometers) downstream and southeast of Richmond, Virginia. ... The Citie of Henricus was a city founded by Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative to the swampy and dangerous area around Jamestown Settlement, Virginia. ... Sir Thomas Dale was a British naval commander and colonial deputy-governor of Virginia. ... Indian massacre of 1622, depicted as a woodcut by Theodore de Bry The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on March 22, 1622. ...


Founding and colonial history

In 1691, the House of Burgesses sent James Blair (the colony's top religious leader and rector of Henrico Parish at Varina) to England to secure a charter to establish "a certain Place of Universal Study, a perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy, Languages, and the good arts and sciences...to be supported and maintained, in all time coming." Blair journeyed to London and began a vigorous campaign. With support from his friends, Henry Compton, the Bishop of London, and John Tillotson (Archbishop of Canterbury), Blair was ultimately successful. [3] Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. ... The Reverend Dr. James Blair James Blair, D.D., (1656–April 18, 1743), was a clergyman, missionary, educator, and is best known as the founder of the College of William and Mary. ... Varina (Va-ry-nah) is a former town and current magisterial district in easternmost portion of Henrico County, Virginia, USA. It was named for Varina Farms, a plantation on the James River about 35 miles upstream from the Jamestown Settlement in the Virginia Colony, and across the river from Sir... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Henry Compton (1632 - July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... John Tillotson (October 1630 - November 22, 1694) was an Archbishop of Canterbury (1691 - 1694). ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


See also article James Blair (Virginia) The Reverend Dr. James Blair James Blair D.D. (1656 – April 18, 1743) was a Scottish Episcopalian clergyman, missionary and educator, best known as the founder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. // James Blair was born in Banffshire, Scotland as one of five children. ...

The College was founded on February 8, 1693, under a Royal Charter secured by Blair. Named in honor of the reigning monarchs King William III and Queen Mary II, the College was one of the original Colonial colleges. The Charter named Blair as the College's first president (a lifetime appointment which he held until his death in 1743). The new school was also granted a coat of arms from the College of Arms.[4] Image File history File links James_Blair. ... The Reverend Dr. James Blair James Blair D.D. (1656 – April 18, 1743) was a Scottish Episcopalian clergyman, missionary and educator, best known as the founder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. // James Blair was born in Banffshire, Scotland as one of five children. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scotland (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the American Revolution (1775–1783). ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Colleges own coat of arms was granted in 1484. ...


William and Mary was founded as an Anglican institution; governors were required to be members of the Church of England, and professors were required to declare adherence to the Thirty-Nine Articles.[2] The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ...


The Royal Charter called for a center of higher education consisting of three schools: the Grammar School, the Philosophy School and the Divinity School. The Philosophy School instructed students in the advanced study of moral philosophy (logic, rhetoric, ethics) as well as natural philosophy (physics, metaphysics, and mathematics); upon completion of this coursework, the Divinity School prepared these young men for ordination into the Church of England. A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


This early curriculum, a precursor to the present-day liberal arts program, made William and Mary the first American college with a full faculty. The College has achieved many other notable academic firsts. In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


In 1693, the College was given a seat in the House of Burgesses and it was determined that the College would be supported by tobacco taxes and export duties on furs and animal skins. In 1694, Blair returned from England, and William and Mary opened in the original "College Building" at Middle Plantation, located on high ground midway across the Peninsula between the James and York Rivers. The College Building (the precursor to today's Wren Building) was completed in 1699 on a picturesque site comprising 330 acres. The present-day College still stands upon those grounds. Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Colonial Williamsburg is the historic district of the independent city of Williamsburg, Virginia. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... York River can refer to: The York River in Virginia in the United States. ... The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


After the statehouse at Jamestown burned in 1698, the legislature moved temporarily to Middle Plantation, as it had in the past. Upon suggestion of students of the College, the capital was permanently relocated there, and Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg. Jamestown, or Jamestown Island, was founded in 1607 on the James River in what is currently James City County, Virginia, about 40 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay and about 45 miles (70 kilometers) downstream and southeast of Richmond, Virginia. ... Nickname: The Burg Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ...

Thomas Jefferson (Class of 1762)
Thomas Jefferson (Class of 1762)

Williamsburg served as the capital of Colonial Virginia from 1699 to 1780. During this time, the College served as a law center and lawmakers frequently used its buildings. It educated future U.S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and John Tyler. The College issued George Washington his surveyor's certificate, which led to his first public office. Washington was later appointed the first American chancellor following the American Revolution Chancellors in 1788, which was his last public office that he held until his death in 1799. Download high resolution version (755x860, 47 KB) The Edgehill Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart, 1805. ... Download high resolution version (755x860, 47 KB) The Edgehill Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Gilbert Stuart, 1805. ... This article is becoming very long. ... This article is becoming very long. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ...

George Wythe (America's first law professor)
George Wythe (America's first law professor)

George Wythe, widely regarded as a pioneer in American legal education, attended the College as a young man, but dropped out unable to afford the fees. Wythe went on to become one of the more distinguished jurists of his time. Jefferson, who later referred to Wythe as "my second father," studied under Wythe from 1762 to 1767. By 1779, Wythe held the nation's first Law Professorship at the College. Wythe's other students included Henry Clay, James Monroe and John Marshall. [5] Image File history File links WytheGeorge. ... Image File history File links WytheGeorge. ... George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was a leading American statesman and orator who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ...


The College also educated three U.S. Supreme Court Justices (John Marshall, Philip Pendleton Barbour and Bushrod Washington) as well as several important members of government including Peyton Randolph and Henry Clay. The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... This article needs cleanup. ... External link Biography from the OYEZ Project Categories: People stubs | 1762 births | 1829 deaths | U.S. Supreme Court justices ... Peyton Randolph (September, 1721 – October 21, 1775) was the first President of the Continental Congress. ... Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was a leading American statesman and orator who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ...


Secret societies

John Heath and William Short (Class of 1779) founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society at William and Mary on December 5, 1776 as a secret literary and philosophical society. Additional chapters were soon established at Yale and at Harvard.[6], and there are now 270 chapters nationwide,[7]. Alumni John Marshall and Bushrod Washington were two of the earliest members of Phi Beta Kappa, elected in 1778 and 1780, respectively. [8] John Heath (May 8, 1758– October 13, 1810) was an American lawyer and politician from Northumberland County, Virginia. ... William Short can refer to: Willam J. Short was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... External link Biography from the OYEZ Project Categories: People stubs | 1762 births | 1829 deaths | U.S. Supreme Court justices ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ...


Some of the secret societies known to exist at the College today are the Seven Society, Order of the Crown and Dagger, the Bishop James Madison Society, the Flat Hat Club, the Alpha Club, the 13 Club, the W Society, the Williams, the Phi Society.[citation needed] At least two others are suspected to exist.[citation needed] The Seven Society, Order of the Crown and Dagger, was founded in 1797. ... The Bishop James Madison Society is a secret society of the College of William and Mary in Virginia. ... The Flat Hat Club or F.H.C. Society was the first of the collegiate secret societies founded in the present United States. ...


Post-colonial history

The colonies declared their independence in 1776 and William and Mary severed formal ties to England. However, the College's connection to British history remains as a distinct point of pride; it maintains a relationship with the British monarchy and includes former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher among those who have served as Chancellors. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ...

Wren Building in 1859
Wren Building in 1859

In 1842, alumni of the College formed the Society of the Alumni, which is now the sixth oldest alumni organization in the United States. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (810x548, 125 KB) Summary Rebuilt Wren building with Italianate towers c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (810x548, 125 KB) Summary Rebuilt Wren building with Italianate towers c. ...


During portions of the American Civil War (1861-1865), William and Mary was occupied by Union troops. The Battle of Williamsburg was fought nearby during the Peninsula Campaign on May 5, 1862; on September 9, 1862, drunken soldiers of the 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry set fire to the College Building, reportedly in an attempt to prevent Confederate snipers from using it for cover. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President...


Following restoration of the Union, the College's 16th president, Benjamin S. Ewell, sought war reparations from the U.S. Congress, but he was unsuccessful. The College closed in 1882 due to lack of funds. During this time, President Ewell sounded the bell in the Wren Building every year, an act traditionally regarded as the start of the academic term. [9] Benjamin Stoddert Ewell (1810 - 1894) was a U.S. army officer and educator. ... The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


In 1888, William and Mary resumed operations under a substitute charter when the Commonwealth of Virginia passed an act[10] appropriating $10,000 to support the College as a state teacher-training institution. Lyon Gardiner Tyler (son of US President and alumnus John Tyler) became the 17th president of the College following President Ewell's retirement. Tyler, along with 18th president J.A.C. Chandler, expanded the College into a modern institution. Then, in March of 1906 the general assembly passed an act taking over the grounds of the colonial institution, and it has remained publicly supported ever since. In 1918, William and Mary was one of the first universities in Virginia to become coeducational. During this time, enrollment increased from 104 students in 1889 to 1269 students by 1932. State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... Lyon Gardiner Tyler (August 24, 1853-February 12, 1935), U.S. educator and historian, he was the son of former President John Tyler and and former First Lady Julia Gardiner Tyler. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ...


Significant campus construction continued under the College's nineteenth president, John Stewart Bryan. In 1935, the Sunken Gardens were constructed, just west of the Wren Building. The sunken design is taken from a similar landscape feature at Chelsea Hospital in London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren. Thanks to the generosity of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the Sir Christopher Wren Building, the President's House and the Brafferton (the President's office) were restored to their eighteenth century appearance between 1928 and 1932. The Sunken Gardens are the central element of the Old Campus at the College of William and Mary. ... Figure Court of Royal Hospital Chelsea The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for British soldiers who are unfit for further duty due to injury or old age, located in the Chelsea region of central London. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh visited the College on October 16, 1957, where the Queen spoke to the College community from the balcony of the Wren Building. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the second cousin once removed, husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of...


In 1974, Jay Winston Johns willed Ash Lawn-Highland, the 535-acre historic Albemarle County, Virginia estate of alumnus and U.S. President James Monroe, to the College. The College restored this historic Presidential home near Charlottesville and opened it to the public. [11] Albemarle County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ...


The Sir Christopher Wren Building

The building officially referred to as the "Sir Christopher Wren Building" was so named upon its completion in 1931 to honor the English architect Sir Christopher Wren attributed with the design for the College's main building by an eighteenth century author. Wren was famous for designing St. Paul's Cathedral in London. The Wren Building is based on the design of original College Building (1699) as it appeared after a 1716 remodeling. The basis for the 1930s name is a 1724 history in which Hugh Jones stated that the 1699 design was "first modelled by Sir Christopher Wren" and then was adapted "by the Gentlemen there" in Virginia; little is known about how it looked, since it burned within a few years of its completion and was remodeled by 1716. Therefore historians have little evidence to substantiate Jones's claim that Wren actually designed the 1699 main building. The College's Alumni Association recently published an article exploring Sir Christopher Wren's potential involvement in the original College Building. [12] A follow-up letter clarified the apocryphal nature of the Wren connection. [13]. Christopher Wren. ... Christopher Wren. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


In the early 20th century, the Reverend Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin and John D. Rockefeller Jr. undertook a massive restoration project in Williamsburg -- the project culminated into Colonial Williamsburg. As part of this undertaking, the Wren Building was the first major building to be restored. Following a drawing on the Bodleian copper plate (ca. 1740) and plans Thomas Jefferson drew of the interior in 1772, the Boston architectural firm of Perry, Shaw & Hepburn restored the building to its second form (1705-1859). The architectural firm subsequently designed complete reconstructions of the Capitol and the Governor's Palace, the original versions of which had burned during the eighteenth century. [14] Reverend Dr. W. A. R. Goodwin (1869-1939), was the rector of Bruton Parish Church who began the 20th century effort which resulted in the preservation and restoration of Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia The Reverend Dr. William Archer Rutherfoord Goodwin (1869-1939) (or W.A.R. Goodwin as he preferred... John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ... View of Duke of Gloucester Street Colonial Williamsburg is the historic district of the independent city of Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


Two other buildings around the Wren Building complete a triangle known as Ancient Campus: the Brafferton (built in 1723 and originally housing the Indian School, now the President and Provost's offices) and the President's House (built in 1732).


The Wren Building also holds the distinction of being the oldest functional educational building in the United States. The Wren Building was known then only as "The College" since in the early years of the insitution, the entire College of William and Mary consisted solely of the Wren Building. This is where students (only males at that time) lived, ate, studied, and learned. The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


Academics

History and milestones

William and Mary is the second-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Of the original colonial colleges, William and Mary was the "most prominent and had the best classroom and residential buildings." [15] The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the American Revolution (1775–1783). ...


The College was the first to teach Political Economy; Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations was a required textbook [16][17]. In 1781, William and Mary became the first college in America to become a university[3] by uniting its law, medicine and arts faculties; it was also the first college to establish a chair of modern languages. Chemistry was taught beginning in the nineteenth century; alumnus and future Massachusetts Institute of Technology founder William Barton Rogers served as the College's Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry from 1828-1835. Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of Adam Smith, published in 1776. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... William Barton Rogers (1804-1882) is best known for incorporating the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1861. ...


Beginning with his 1778 Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, alumnus and future University of Virginia founder Thomas Jefferson was involved with efforts to reform the College. Jefferson guided the College to adopt the nation's first elective system of study and to introduce the first student-adjudicated Honor System.[4] The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... This article is becoming very long. ... An honor code or honor system is a set of rules or principles governing a community based on a set of rules or ideals that define what constitutes honorable behavior within that community. ...


Also at Jefferson's behest, the College appointed his friend and mentor George Wythe as the first Professor of Law in America in 1779. John Marshall, who would later go on to become Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was one of Wythe's students. The College's Marshall-Wythe School of Law is the oldest law school in the United States[18]. George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... The Marshall-Wythe School of Law, also known as William & Mary Law School, is the oldest law school in the United States. ...


William and Mary has had five Rhodes Scholars since 1988 and many students have won Fulbright, Truman and Goldwater fellowships. [19] Rhodes House in Oxford Rhodes Scholarships were created by Cecil John Rhodes. ...


Popular majors

The most popular majors at the College are government, history, economics, English, biology, and business administration. The undergraduate and graduate accounting program is ranked Top 25. [20] The government department is well regarded, adjunct professor Lawrence Wilkerson and instructor General Anthony Zinni are favorites among government majors. Colonel Lawrence B. Wilkerson (US Army, retired) was the chief of staff to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell. ... Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a retired general in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). ...


Rankings

In 2007 and for the past several years, William and Mary has ranked #6 among all U.S. public universities by U.S. News and World Report. [21] And among America's public four-year, degree-granting institutions, William and Mary is ranked #2 for its high graduation rate. [22] In the latest available US News rankings, it is ranked 31st among all national universities,[23] 27th among all law schools,[24] and 2nd among doctoral programs in American colonial history. [25] 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ...


William & Mary ticked up one place to rank as the 3rd "best value" among America's public colleges in the 2007 issue of Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine. [26] Kiplingers magazine cover Kiplingers Personal Finance is a magazine that has been continuously published, on a monthly basis, from 1947 to the present day. ...


In Summer 2005, Newsweek Magazine dubbed William and Mary the "hottest small state school" due to William and Mary's small enrollment (for a public university) and 34% increase in the number of applicants since 1999. [27] Newsweek Logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and Canada. ...


William and Mary's athletes are known to keep up with their academics, hence the long tradition of the "student-athlete." According to a 2006 survey by the NCAA, William and Mary athletes were ranked #5 for graduation rates (tied with Stanford University). Of the six sports that are individually highlighted in the NCAA report, William and Mary shows a 100 percent graduation rate in three (football, women’s basketball and women’s track and field/cross county).[28] For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often said NC-Double-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in an unincorporated area of Santa Clara County. ...


Learning environment

The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, a state organization charged with promoting Virginia's institutions of higher education, concluded:

William & Mary is one of the nation's premier public universities, combining the best features of an undergraduate college with those of a research university. [29]

William and Mary's small university environment, with only 5,635 undergraduates enrolled, distinguishes it from larger research universities, and its 11:1 student-to-faculty is lower than most top public universities. 86% percent of undergraduate classes have fewer than 40 students. [30] Many applicants indicate that they were drawn to W&M's small-college environment.


Graduate programs

William and Mary also enrolls approximately 2,000 students in the following graduate or professional schools:

The Marshall-Wythe School of Law, also known as William & Mary Law School, is the oldest law school in the United States. ...

Admissions and selectivity

Nationally, W&M's acceptance rates (ranging from 31% to 37%) place it among the most selective universities in the U.S. [31][32]


The top five overlap schools for William and Mary applicants are the University of Virginia, Duke, Georgetown, Cornell, and Vanderbilt. [33] The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Duke was founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, moved to Durham in 1892. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Founded on January 23, 1789 by Father John Carroll, it is both the oldest Roman Catholic and oldest... Cornell redirects here. ... Vanderbilt University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Nashville, Tennessee. ...


For the 2005-06 academic year, 31.0% of applicants were admitted to William and Mary, more selective than the University of Virginia (37.7%) and Vanderbilt University (35.3%) but less selective than Georgetown University (21.5%), Duke University (21%), and Cornell University (27.1%). [34] Of those admitted to the 2005 enrolling class, 40.9% matriculated at William and Mary, an admissions yield that leads Vanderbilt's (39.4%) but trails those of the University of Virginia (52.8%), Georgetown University (47.2%), Cornell University (46.5%) and Duke University (43.2%). [35] The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Vanderbilt University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Founded on January 23, 1789 by Father John Carroll, it is both the oldest Roman Catholic and oldest... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Duke was founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, moved to Durham in 1892. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ...


Graduate placement

According to the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, William and Mary graduates experience acceptance to the nation's law and medical schools at rates notably above the national average. [36] [37]


In 2003, The Wall Street Journal published the results of a survey of the alma maters of entering students at the nation's "elite" business, medical and law schools. William and Mary placed 2nd among Virginia's public universities, 7th among all state-supported universities, and 82nd overall among all private and public institutions for student placement in this ranking. [38][39] The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


Student life

Campus activities

The College enjoys a temperate climate[40]. In addition to renovations on the student recreation center, (including a new gym, rock climbing wall, and larger exercise rooms)[41] the largely wooded campus has its own lake and outdoor amphitheatre. Beaches at Virginia Beach are an hour and a half away, and Washington DC is a three-hour drive to the north. Part of the Virginia Beach oceanfront resort strip. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ...


The College's University Center Activities Board (UCAB) hosts concerts, comedians, and speakers on campus and in the 8,600-capacity Kaplan Arena. [42] Kaplan Arena is an 8,600-seat multi-purpose arena in Williamsburg, Virginia. ...


Honor System

William and Mary's Honor System was first established by Thomas Jefferson in 1779. During the orientation week, nearly every entering student recites the Honor Pledge in the Great Hall of the Wren Building pledging: An honor code or honor system is a set of rules or principles governing a community based on a set of rules or ideals that define what constitutes honorable behavior within that community. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

As a Member of the William & Mary community I pledge, on my Honor, not to lie, cheat, or steal in either my academic or personal life. I understand that such acts violate the Honor Code and undermine the community of trust of which we are all stewards.

The Honor System stands as one of the College's most important traditions; it remains student-administered through the Honor Council with the advice of the faculty and administration of the College. The College's Honor System is codified such that students found guilty of cheating, stealing or lying are subject to sanctions ranging from an oral warning to dismissal. [43]


Traditions

Crim Dell in the heart of W&M's wooded campus
Crim Dell in the heart of W&M's wooded campus

William and Mary has a number of traditions, including the Yule Log Ceremony, at which the president dresses as Santa Claus and reads a rendition of "How the Grinch Stole Christmas," "A Visit from Saint Nicholas," or other holiday texts. Image File history File links Crim Dell bridge, College of William and Mary in Virginia This photograph was taken by Joy Schoenberger, in Fall of 2004 and uploaded by her. ... Image File history File links Crim Dell bridge, College of William and Mary in Virginia This photograph was taken by Joy Schoenberger, in Fall of 2004 and uploaded by her. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... How the Grinch Stole Christmas! is one of the best-known childrens books by Dr. Seuss. ...


Incoming freshmen participate in Opening Convocation, at which they pass through the entrance of the Wren Building and are officially welcomed as the newest members of the College. Freshmen also have the opportunity, during orientation week, to serenade the President of the College at his home with the Alma Mater song. The Senior Walk is similar, in that graduating seniors walk through the Wren Building in their "departure" from the College. On the last day of classes, Seniors are invited to ring the bell in the cupola of the Wren Building.


Unofficial traditions include the Triathlon, a set of three tasks to be completed by each student prior to graduation. These include jumping the wall of the Governor's Palace in Colonial Williamsburg after hours, and if so inclined, running through the Boxwood Maze to the Palace itself, streaking through the Sunken Gardens, and swimming in the Crim Dell (pictured). A participant of the Bay to Breakers. ...


Legends include: kissing a date on the Crim Dell Bridge results in a future marriage. The crypt under the chapel can be reached via steam ducts under the campus and were supposedly used to steal bones from the grave of Lord Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt who is entombed in the Wren Chapel. Many ghosts supposedly haunt the older sections of this school as it enters its 4th Century.


W&M trivia

  • Hollywoodland, the recent L.A. film noir centering around the mysterious death of Superman actor George Reeves, is based upon a book co-authored by W&M professor Nancy Schoenberger
  • As a college student at W&M, Thomas Jefferson attended lavish dinner parties held by royal governor Francis Fauquier where he developed his early love for wine (his favorites were madeira and claret). [44]
  • There are elaborate catacombs running under the Wren Building and leading to tombs under the Wren Chapel, which have been closed off due to student explorations.
  • The reigning British monarch Queen Elizabeth II and her husband Prince Philip spoke at the College on October 16, 1957, as did Prince Charles in 1993 at the 300th anniversary (or Tercentenary) of the founding of the College.
  • The Steely Dan song "My Old School" with its lyric about William and Mary was widely thought to be about the College, but apparently is about songwriter Donald Fagen's student days at Bard College.
  • Upon graduation in 1965, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates received the Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award naming him the graduate that "has made the greatest contribution to his fellow man."

Hollywoodland is a biopic/docudrama directed by TV alum Allen Coulter (his feature directorial debut) about a down-on-his-luck detective, Louis Simo (Adrien Brody), investigating the suspicious suicide of actor George Reeves (Ben Affleck), the star of televisions Superman. ... This article is about the character. ... George Reeves (January 5 [1], 1914 – June 16, 1959), born George Keefer Brewer to Don Brewer and Helen Lescher, was an American actor best known for playing the title role in the television series Adventures of Superman in the 1950s. ... A Painting of Francis Fauquier Francis Fauquier was a Lieutenant Governor of the colony of Virginia (in what is today the United States), and served as acting governor from 1758 until his death in 1768. ... The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the second cousin once removed, husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Steely Dan is an American rock band centered around the core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. ... Donald Jay Fagen (born January 10, 1948 in Passaic, New Jersey) is an American musician and songwriter, best known as co-writer, co-founder, singer, and pianist with the jazz-rock band Steely Dan. ... For other meanings of the word Bard, see Bard (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served under Presidents Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush. ... Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ... Cover of the report The Iraq Study Group (ISG), also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission,[1] was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making...

Fraternities and sororities

William and Mary has a long history of fraternities and sororities dating back to Phi Beta Kappa, the first "greek-letter" organization, which was founded there in 1776. Today, Greek organizations play an important role in the College community, along with other social organizations (e.g., soccer house, theatre organizations). Overall, about one-third of its undergraduates are active members of the following 14 national fraternities and 12 sororities. [45] The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Delta Sigma Phi, Rotary International, Ordo Templi Orientis or the Shriners. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Fraternities

Sororities Alpha Epsilon Pi (ΑΕΠ or AEPi) is currently the only international Jewish college fraternity in the United States and Canada. ... Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first intercollegiate fraternity established by African Americans. ... ATΩ (Alpha Tau Omega) is an American fraternity. ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a college social fraternity founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad. ... The Chi Phi (ΧΦ) fraternity is a college social fraternity in the United States founded in 1824 at Princeton University, in 1858 at the University of North Carolina, and in 1860 at Hobart College, making it one of the oldest college social Greek-letter society. ... Delta Chi (ΔΧ) (del-ta Kai)or D-Chi is an international fraternity formed on October 13, 1890 at Cornell University as a fraternity for law students. ... The Delta Phi (ΔΦ) fraternity was founded in 1827 at Union College in Schenectady, New York. ... The Kappa Alpha Order (KA) is a secret collegiate fraternity. ... nickname: Kappa Sig Founded December 10, 1869 International Headquarters Charlottesville, VA Official Colors Scarlet, White, and Emerald green Official Flower Lily of the valley Official Jewel Pearl Official Badge Official Crest ΚΣ (Kappa Sigma) is an international fraternity with at least 300 chapters and colonies in North America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ΛΧΑ (Lambda Chi Alpha), headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is one of the largest mens general fraternities in North America with more than 250,000 initiated members and chapters (called Zetas) at more than 300 universities. ... Pi Kappa Alpha International Fraternity (ΠΚΑ) is an international, secret, social, Greek-letter, college fraternity. ... ΦΚΤ (Phi Kappa Tau) is a U.S. national college fraternity. ... The ΦΜΑ Sinfonia (usually referred to as Sinfonia rather than ΦΜΑ) is a collegiate social fraternity for men of musicianly character. ... Sigma Chi (ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest international all-male college social fraternities, with chapters at universities predominantly in the United States and several in Canada. ... Official Name Sigma Pi Fraternity, International Founded February 26, 1897 Vincennes University Headquarters Brentwood, TN Grand Sage (President) Lawrence P. Rovira Grand Second Counselor (Vice President) George N. Hakim Grand Third Counselor (Treasurer) Christopher R. Brown Esq. ... Theta Delta Chi (ΘΔΧ, Theta Delt) is a social fraternity that was founded in 1847 at Union College. ...

Alpha Chi Omega (ΑΧΩ) is a womens fraternity founded on October 15, 1885. ... Alpha Kappa Alpha (ΑΚΑ) Sorority, Incorporated, formed in January 15, 1908 at Howard University, became Americas first Greek-letter organization established by Black college women, and remains a predominately African-American sorority. ... Chi Omega (ΧΩ) is the largest womens fraternal organization in the National Panhellenic Conference [1] as well as over 171 active collegiate chapters. ... Delta Delta Delta (ΔΔΔ), also known as Tri Delta, is a national collegiate sorority founded on November 27, 1888. ... Delta Gamma (ΔΓ) Fraternity is one of the oldest and largest womens fraternities in the United States, based in Columbus, Ohio. ... Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, (ΔΣΘ) Incorporated is a non-profit Greek letter organization of college educated women committed to constructive development of its members and to public service with a primary focus on the Black community. ... Gamma Phi Beta (ΓΦΒ) is an international sorority that was founded in November 1874 at Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York. ... Kappa Alpha Theta (ΚΑΘ) is an international womens fraternity founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University. ... Kappa Delta (ΚΔ) is sorority founded at the State Female Normal School, now Longwood University in Farmville, Virginia. ... Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ) is a college womens fraternity, founded on October 13, 1870 at Monmouth College, Illinois. ... Phi Mu (ΦΜ) is the second oldest secret organization for women in the United States. ... Pi Beta Phi (ΠΒΦ) is an international fraternity for women that was founded on April 28, 1867 in Monmouth, Illinois at Monmouth College as I.C. Sorosis. ...

Athletics

William and Mary's sports teams are known as "The Tribe." The College fields NCAA Division I teams for men and women in basketball, cross country, golf, gymnastics, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, and indoor and outdoor track and field. In addition, there are women's field hockey, lacrosse and volleyball squads as well as men's baseball and football. In the 2004-05 season, the Tribe garnered 5 Colonial Athletic Association titles, and it leads the conference with over 80 titles. In that same year, several teams competed in the NCAA Championships, and the football team appeared in the I-AA semifinals. [46] The men's soccer team has produced some notable players; the goalkeeper Adin Brown was a back-to-back NCAA First Team All-American in 1998 and 1999. Image File history File links Logo_wm. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Division I (or DI) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. ... The Colonial Athletic Association, also known as the CAA, is a NCAA Division I college athletic conference whose members are located in East Coast states from Massachusetts to Georgia. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Adin Brown (born May 27, 1978 in Pleasant Hill, California) is an American soccer goalkeeper, who currently plays for Aalesund of the Norwegian Premier League. ... The NCAA each year names the 11 best Division I college soccer players to its annual First-Team All-American list. ...


In May of 2006, the NCAA ruled that the athletic logo (which includes two green and gold feathers) could create an environment that is offensive. In June the College appealed the decision regarding the use of the institution’s athletic logo to the NCAA Executive Committee; this appeal was rejected on August 3, 2006. The "Tribe" nickname, by itself, was found to be neither hostile nor abusive, but rather communicates ennobling sentiments of commitment, shared idealism, community and common cause. [47]. As a result, the current athletic logo contains only the word "Tribe." In October 2006 the College notified the NCAA that it would phase out the use of the two feathers before the fall of 2007.[48] Some students have vowed to display it on their own at NCAA post-season games.


Previously, the College's "unofficial" mascot was "Colonel Ebirt" ("Tribe" backwards), which was discontinued.[49]


Leadership

On July 1, 2005, Gene R. Nichol (formerly Dean and Burton Craige Professor of the Law School of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) was sworn in as the College's 26th President, succeeding Timothy J. Sullivan. He recently introduced the Gateway William and Mary Program, extending debt-free undergraduate education to applicants from underprivileged economic backgrounds. Although the student senate and a majority of faculty support him, Nichol's tenure has encountered controversy over his decision to remove a cross from the College's Wren Chapel, as well as a yearly exhibit in the College's fine arts museum entitled "Sex Workers Art Show"; Nichol defended both decisions based on separation of church and state and First Amendment principles, respectively. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gene R. Nichol Gene R. Nichol is the twenty-sixth president of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... Tim Sullivan Timothy J. Sullivan was the Twenty-fifth President of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... Jesus vertreibt die Händler aus dem Tempel (Jesus and the Money Changers [in the Temple]) by Giovanni Paolo Pannini. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Sandra Day O'Connor was installed as the College's 23rd Chancellor on April 7, 2006. Until 1776, the Chancellor was an English subject, usually the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop of London, who served as the College’s advocate to the crown, while a colonial President oversaw the day-to-day activities of the Williamsburg campus. Following the Revolutionary War, General George Washington was appointed as the first American chancellor; later President John Tyler held the post. The College has recently had a number of distinguished Chancellors: former Chief Justice of the United States Warren E. Burger (1986-1993), former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1993-2000), and former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger (2000-2005). Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. ... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923 in Fürth) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


The Student Assembly, the College's student government organization charged with student advocacy, social event planning, and appropriating funds to other student groups, has existed since 1915, with some structural reforms made in recent years.


See Also: List of presidents of the College of William and Mary It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with College of William and Mary. ...


W&M Board of Visitors

William P. Barr William Pelham Barr (born May 23, 1950) is an American attorney who served as the 77th Attorney General of the United States. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served under Presidents Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush. ... Michael Powell Michael K. Powell (born March 23, 1963) is an American politician and a Republican. ...

Commencement speakers

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tim Sullivan Timothy J. Sullivan was the Twenty-fifth President of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jon Stewart (born Jonathan Stuart Leibowitz on November 28, 1962) is a nine-time Emmy-winning American comedian, satirist, actor, author, and producer. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Her Majesty Queen Noor with her late husband, King Hussein. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) served as the 64th United States Secretary of State. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... John William Warner (born February 18, 1927) is an American statesman and politician, who served as Secretary of the Navy from 1972-1974 and has served as a Republican senator from Virginia since 1979. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Joseph John Ellis (1943- ) is a Pulitzer Prize - winning professor of history at Mount Holyoke College. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning, conservative American newspaper columnist, journalist, and author. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... William Henry Bill Cosby, Jr. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... James Addison Baker III (born 28 April 1930 in Houston, Texas) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hanna Holborn Gray (born 1930), is a historian of political thought in the Renaissance and Reformation, and an American educator. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lawrence Douglas Wilder Lawrence Douglas Wilder (born January 17, 1931) is an American politician. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glenn Close (born March 19, 1947) is a five time Academy Award-nominated American film and stage actress. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roger Mudd, born February 9, 1928 in Washington, is a U.S. television journalist. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grace Hopper Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy officer. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Economist Paul Adolph Volcker (September 5, 1927 - ) born in Cape May, New Jersey, is best-known as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan (from August 1979 to August 1987). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth Hanford Liddy Dole, (born July 29, 1936) was elected to the United States Senate in 2002 to represent North Carolina for a term ending in 2009. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Garry Trudeau Garretson Beekman Trudeau (born July 21, 1948, in New York City) is an American cartoonist, best known for the Doonesbury comic strip. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William F. Buckley, Jr. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Art Buchwald Arthur Buchwald (October 20, 1925 – January 18, 2007) was an American humorist best known for his long-running column that he wrote in The Washington Post newspaper, which in turn was carried as a syndicated column in many other newspapers. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Jeffrey Kenneth MacNelly (1948 - June 8, 2000) was a famous American editorial cartoonist, widely considered to be one of the best editorial cartoonists of the modern era. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Barbara Jordan Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 – January 17, 1996) was an American politician from Texas. ...

Distinguished William and Mary alumni

This is a List of Notable Alumni from the College of William and Mary. ...

Government

Distinguished William and Mary alumni include three U.S. Presidents: For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ...

This article is becoming very long. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Tyler, Jr. ...

Academic

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... William Barton Rogers (1804-1882) is best known for incorporating the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1861. ... Dr. David P. Gushee is the Graves Professor of Moral Philosophy and the Senior Fellow of the Carl F.H. Henry Center for Christian Leadership at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... This article is about the Union University in Tennessee. ...

Legal

John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ...

Political

Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was a leading American statesman and orator who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ... Peyton Randolph (September, 1721 – October 21, 1775) was the first President of the Continental Congress. ... The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ...

Military

Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... General David McKiernan speaking. ...

Sports

City Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Team colors Black and Gold Head Coach Mike Tomlin Owner Dan Rooney General manager Kevin Colbert League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1933–present) Eastern Division (1933–1943; 1945–1949) Western Division (1944) American Conference (1950–1952) Eastern Conference (1953–1969) Century Division (1967–1969) American Football... Mike Tomlin (born March 15, 1972 in Hampton, Virginia), is the head coach of the National Football Leagues Pittsburgh Steelers. ... Lou Creekmur(Born:January 22,1927,in Hopelawn,New Jersey) was a National Football League star offensive tackle/guard for theDetroit Lionsfrom 1951-59. ... Steve Christie was an NFL kicker, who as a member of the Buffalo Bills became known for his ability to kick clutch field goals, even in poor weather. ...

Entertainment

Jon Stewart (born Jonathan Stuart Leibowitz on November 28, 1962) is a nine-time Emmy-winning American comedian, satirist, actor, author, and producer. ... Glenn Close (born March 19, 1947) is a five time Academy Award-nominated American film and stage actress. ... Theodore Scott Glenn (born January 26, 1941) is an American actor known for supporting roles. ... Scrubs is an American situation comedy that premiered on October 2, 2001 on NBC. It was created by Bill Lawrence, who also co-created Spin City. ... Bill Lawrence (born 1969[1]) is a creator, writer, producer, and director of television programmes. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Robert Michael Gates, Ph. ...

Notable professors

Category: Possible copyright violations ... The House of the Academy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Susan Wise Bauer (born 1968, Charles City County, VA) is a Christian American author, minister, English instructor of writing and American literature at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, and founder of Peace Hill Press who is perhaps best known as a speaker and expert on homeschooling. ... Peace Hill Press is an American publishing company based in Charles City County, Virginia. ... Noted, bald professor Clayton M. Clemens is the Hamilton Professor of Government and Assistant Chair of the Government Department at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... Henri Cole (born 1956) is a poet. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... Roman Catholic priests in clerical clothing. ... Dr. David P. Gushee is the Graves Professor of Moral Philosophy and the Senior Fellow of the Carl F.H. Henry Center for Christian Leadership at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... This article is about the Union University in Tennessee. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Charles Rider Hobson, Baron Hobson (18 February 1904 – 17 February 1966) was a British Labour politician. ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... The Marshall-Wythe School of Law, also known as William & Mary Law School, is the oldest law school in the United States. ... David L. Holmes is a professor of religious studies at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... The Creek language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ... Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov (Russian: Александр Михайлович Прохоров) (July 11, 1916 – January 8, 2002) was an Australian-Russian physicist. ... Mitchell Reiss Mitchell Reiss is a senior American diplomat. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... Colonel Lawrence B. Wilkerson (US Army, retired) was the chief of staff to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a retired general in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). ...

References

  1. ^ The College gives its founding date as 1693[1], but has not operated continuously since that time, closing in 1882 and re-opening in 1888; v. s. Post-colonial history
  2. ^ Webster, Homer J. (1902) "Schools and Colleges in Colonial Times," The New England Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly, v. XXVII, p. 374, Google Books[2]
  3. ^ http://www.wm.edu/law/about/firsts.shtml
  4. ^ However, a biographer notes that "Jefferson would one day sharply criticize William and Mary, and eventually he designed, built, and administered the University of Virginia in open opposition to his alma mater." Willard Sterne Randall (1994). Thomas Jefferson: A Life. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-097617-9.  p. 40
  5. ^ http://www.davidgushee.com/
  6. ^ http://www.wm.edu/modlang/directory2.php?personid=7147
  7. ^ http://www.wm.edu/history/directory.php?personid=6545
  8. ^ http://www.wm.edu/english/directory.php?personid=5058
  9. ^ http://www.wm.edu/government/directory.php?personid=8959
  10. ^ http://www.wm.edu/news/?id=4267
  11. ^ http://www.bu.edu/sth/faculty/staff/daw.html
  12. ^ http://www.davidgushee.com/
  13. ^ http://www.phyllistheauthor.com/
  14. ^ http://www.wm.edu/jmp/hobson.htm
  15. ^ http://www.wm.edu/religiousstudies/directory.php?personid=1228888
  16. ^ http://www.wm.edu/linguistics/directory.php?personid=12595
  17. ^ http://www.wm.edu/modlang/directory2.php?personid=7148
  18. ^ http://www.wm.edu/modlang/directory2.php?personid=7149
  19. ^ http://www.wm.edu/government/directory.php?personid=8963
  20. ^ http://www.wm.edu/chemistry/facultydirectory.php?personid=1228082
  21. ^ http://www.wm.edu/news/?id=4556
  22. ^ http://www.wm.edu/law/facultyadmin/faculty/van_alstyne-873.shtml
  23. ^ http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/people/faculty/vandover2.html
  24. ^ http://www.wm.edu/physics/faculty.php?personid=4833
  25. ^ http://www.wm.edu/news/index.php?id=6966
  26. ^ http://www.wm.edu/news/?id=6479
  27. ^ http://www.wm.edu/news/?id=5181

External links

Further information

Alumni organizations

Student organizations

Institutes and special projects


  Results from FactBites:
 
Research at William and Mary | Research (435 words)
At William and Mary, teaching, research, and public service are linked through programs designed to preserve, transmit, and expand knowledge.
A number of research centers and institutes represent the vitality of the research and scholarship at the College of William and Mary.
Research funding at the College of William and Mary is on a moderate increase, according to the 2004-2005 Annual Report of Sponsored Programs released recently by the Office of Grants and Research Administration.
College of William and Mary (1468 words)
William & Mary Journal of Women & the Law is a relatively young journal at the Law School with a self described goal of facilitating discourse on gender-issues as they relate to the law.
William and Mary College of Law purports that their Moot Court program is a great opportunity for students to engage in both trial advocacy and competitive argumentation.
Selection to represent William and Mary at a competition is based on a stiff competition which involves the drafting of an appellate brief and argument by around 120 individuals until a winner is selected.
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