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Encyclopedia > Collective security

Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any "breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states," 1 and will result in a collective response. This began in 1918 after the international balance of power was perceived by many nations to be no longer working correctly. A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... The economic theory of collective action is concerned with the provision of public goods (and other collective consumption) through the collaboration of two or more individuals, and the impact of externalities on group behavior. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ...


The lines between what is considered "collective defense" and "collective security" have been blurred. The concept of "collective security" forwarded by men such as Martin Wight, Immanuel Kant, and Woodrow Wilson, are deemed to apply interests in security in a broad manner, to "avoid grouping powers into opposing camps, and refusing to draw dividing lines that would leave anyone out."2 Although this aspiration has never successfully worked, tenets of collective security continue to be behind many famous current and historical military alliances, most notably NATO. The term "collective security" has also been cited as a principle of the United Nations, and the League of Nations before that. By employing a system of collective security, the UN hopes to dissuade any member state from acting in a manner likely to threaten peace, thereby avoiding any conflict. Collective defense is an arrangement, usually formalized by a treaty and an organization, among participant states that commit support in defense of a member state if it is attacked by another state outside the organization. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ...


The theory is considered by politicians to be more successful when applied to military alliances than in attempts to use it as a universal principle as with the League of Nations and UN.


Cited examples of the limitations of the latter form of collective security include the Falklands War. When Argentina invaded the islands, which are overseas territories of the United Kingdom, many UN members stayed out of the issue, as it did not directly concern them. There was also a controversy about the United States role in that conflict due their obligations as a Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (the "Rio Pact") member. Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Commanders Sir John Fieldhouse Sir John Woodward Margaret Thatcher Leopoldo Galtieri Mario Menéndez Ernesto Crespo Casualties 258 killed[1] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the... The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR) was an agreement made in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many American countries that states among its articles that an attack against one would be considered an attack against...


Examples given of the failure of the League of Nations to adhere to collective security is the Manchurian Crisis, when Japan occupied part of China (who was a League member). After two years of deliberation, the League passed a resolution condemning the invasion without committing the League's members to any action against it. The Japanese replied by quitting the League of Nations. As became the self-evident conclusion in the Ethiopian-Italian conflict, appeasement of facsist Italy by the larger member states within the League would ultimately be viewed as abandonment of Ethiopia - also a League member - to a larger aggressor. Inaction by the League subjected it to criticisms that it was weak and concerned more with European issues (most leading members were European), and is considered by many to have encouraged, or at least to have not deterred, the aggression shown by the Axis powers leading to World War II. The Ethiopian monarch Emperor Haile Selassie I continued to support collective security though, having assessed that impotence lay not in the principle but in its covenantors commitment to honor its tenets. see Mukden Incident or Manchukuo Manchurian Crisis: September 18, 1931 - Mukden Incident - Members of Japanese Quantum Army stage an explosion and blow up a Japanese owned railroad track in Manchuria. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The most active and articulate exponent of collective security during the immediate pre-war years was the Soviet foreign minister Maxim Litvinov, but after the Munich Agreement in September 1938 and Western passivity in the face of German occupation of the remainder of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 showed that the Western Powers were not prepared to engage in collective security against aggression by the Axis Powers together with the Soviet Union, Soviet foreign policy was revised and Litvinov was replaced as foreign minister in early May 1939, in order to facilitate the negotiations that led to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, signed by Litvinov's successor, Vyacheslav Molotov, on 23 August of that year. The war in Europe broke out a week later, with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September. Maxim Litvinov Maxim Maksimovich Litvinov (ru: Макси́м Макси́мович Литви́нов) (July 17, 1876–December 31, 1951) was a Russian revolutionary and prominent Soviet diplomat. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total: 950...


However, many politicians who view the system as having faults also believe it remains a useful tool for keeping international peace.


Henry Kissinger, in "Diplomacy", argued that collective security is fundamentally flawed, since the cost of enforcing security can be (or be perceived to be) exceedingly high while the benefit of doing so can be (or be perceived to be) exceedingly low, which strongly discourages action, while at the same time, there are no formal military alliance in place (which would enforce action), since the adaptation of such treaties by countries engaged in collective security would already imply that collective security was not trusted or expected to work. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923 in Fürth) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


For example, prior to WW2, there was absolutely no chance France would intervene to save Czechoslovakia, since this would involve war with Germany, an enormously costly and dangerous act which was also massively unpopular. Any French politician of the time attempting to follow this course would have been removed from office by popular protest. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Note 1: Martin Wight, "Systems of States" ed. Hedley Bull (London: Leicester University Press, 1977), 149. Note 2: David S. Yost, "NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security," (Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 1998), pp. 9-26


See also

A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Collective defense is an arrangement, usually formalized by a treaty and an organization, among participant states that commit support in defense of a member state if it is attacked by another state outside the organization. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...

External links

Poopy pants at the bottom


  Results from FactBites:
 
Collective security - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (587 words)
Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any "breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states,"
The term "collective security" has also been cited as a principle of the United Nations, and the League of Nations before that.
An example given of the failure of the League of Nations to adhere to collective security is the Manchurian Crisis, when Japan occupied part of China (who was a League member).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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