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Encyclopedia > Collective punishment

Collective punishment is the punishment of a group of people as a result of the behavior of one or more other individuals or groups. The punished group may often have no direct association with the other individuals or groups, or direct control over their actions. In times of war and armed conflict, collective punishment has resulted in atrocities, and is a violation of the laws of war and the Geneva Conventions. Historically, occupying powers have used collective punishment to retaliate against and deter attacks on their forces by resistance movements (eg. by burning villages where attacks have taken place). Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ...

Contents

History

Eighteenth Century

The Intolerable Acts were seen as a collective punishment of Massachusetts. The Intolerable Acts, by the British the Coercive Acts or Punitive Acts, were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to the growing unrest in thirteen American colonies, particularly in Boston, Massachusetts after incidents such as the Boston Tea Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ...


19th century

The principle of collective punishment was laid out by U.S General William Tecumseh Sherman in his Special Field Order 120, November 9, 1864, which laid out the rules for his ""March to the sea" in the American Civil War: William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... Shermans Special Field Orders, No. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting Shermans March Shermans March to the Sea is the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign, conducted in late 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

V. To army corps commanders alone is intrusted the power to destroy mills, houses, cotton-gins, &c., and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested no destruction of such property should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should order and enforce a devastation more or less relentless according to the measure of such hostility.[1]

20th century

British in the Boer War and Germans in the Franco-Prussian War and World War I justified such actions as being in accord with the laws of war then in force.[2]


During WWII, in 1942 the Germans destroyed the village of Lidice Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic) killing 340 inhabitants as collective punishment or reprisal for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich by commandos nearby the village. In the French village of Oradour-sur-Glane 642 of its inhabitants — men, women, and children — were slaughtered by the German Waffen-SS in 1944.[3] In the Dutch village of Putten[4] and the Italian villages of Sant'Anna di Stazzema[5] and Marzabotto,[6] as well as in the Soviet village of Kortelisy[7] (in what is now Ukraine), large scale reprisal killings were carried out by the Germans. Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in former Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic) which was completely destroyed by the Germans during World War II. About 340 men, women, and children from the village were murdered by the Germans. ... In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reich governor of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Oradour-sur-Glane was a village in the Limousin région of France that came under direct German control in 1942, after the occupation of Vichy France by the Wehrmacht. ... Putten ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a town in the middle Netherlands. ... SantAnna di Stazzema is a village in Italian Tuscany where, on August 12, 1944, SS of 16. ... Marzabotto is a small town in Italian region Emilia-Romagna, province of Bologna. ... Kortelisy is a village in Ukraine which was completely destroyed on September 23, 1942 by Germany during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. The entire population of 2,892 was killed. ...


The British used collective punishment against villages which concealed Communist rebels in Malaya in 1951.[8] The British used collective punishment as an official policy to suppress the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya in 1952.[9] In 1956, Britain officially used collective punishment in Cyprus in the form of evicting families from their homes and closing shops anywhere British soldiers and police had been murdered, to obtain information about the identity (ies) of the attackers[10] Today, it is considered by most nations contradictory to the modern concept of due process, where each individual receives separate treatment based on his or her role in the crime in question. Article 33 of the Fourth Geneva Convention specifically forbids collective punishment. In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ...


Joseph Stalin's mass deportations of several nations of the USSR to remote regions (including the Chechens, Crimean Tatars) is an example of officially-orchestrated collective punishment. Pogroms may be considered examples of unofficial collective punishment which resemble rioting. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


There have been claims that certain CIA and U.S. military programs such as Operation Phoenix were a form of collective punishment of Vietnamese civilians to terrorize them into submission. There have also been claims that special US Army units such as Tiger Force were involved in civilians massacres also designed to collectively punish Vietnamese civilians who supported the Viet Cong [1] [2]. The Phoenix Program, known as Kế Hoạch Phụng Hoàng (a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) in Vietnamese, was a covert intelligence operation undertaken by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in close collaboration with South Vietnamese intelligence during the Vietnam War. ... Tiger Force was a task force of the United States Army, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 327th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade (Separate), 101st Airborne Division, which fought in the Vietnam War, between November 1965 and November 1967. ...


Israel and Middle East

In recent history, supporters of the Palestinians use the term to refer to certain Israeli actions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. They have used the term to describe the Israeli policy of destroying the homes of alleged terrorists. [3].[4] [5]. Israel's extensive system of internal roadblocks and checkpoints in Palestinian land has been condemned as a form of economic collective punishment. Possibly the most serious charge of collective punishment pertains to Israel's systematic destruction of roads, bridges, power and water plants, ports, airports, and the civilian economy inflicted upon Palestinians and Lebanese, which Palestinians contend may constitute a war crime under Article 52, Additional Protocol I, which states that "Civilian objects shall not be the object of attack or of reprisals." Others counter that this article allows attack upon military objectives, "those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage." The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Demolition of a house in Iraq being used by insurgents House demolition is a military tactic which has been used systematically in numerous conflicts. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ...


The term "collective punishment" was freely used by the British government to refer to measures they took against Arabs when unknown Arabs attacked Jews, or against Jews when unknown Jews attacked Arabs during the British mandate over Palestine after 1919.[11][12][13][14][15] In that era, it meant closure of shops, restriction of movement, and taxes or fines levied on towns as punishment. Supporters of Israel charge that Palestinians and their supporters use the term "collective punishment" as an unjustified anti-Israel code word and/or power word, citing [6] the use of the term to describe even conventional methods of warfare[7] [8] [9]. In addition, some Israelis argue that Palestinian targeting of Israeli civilians to address Palestinian complaints with the Israeli government constitutes an Palestinian policy of collective punishment of Israelis.[16] Anti-Zionism is a term that has been used to describe several very different political and religious points of view, both historically and in current debates. ... A code word is a word or a phrase designed to evoke a predetermined meaning to certain listeners while disguising the speakers true meaning by allowing them to use a word that sounds much more acceptable to an average listener. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Recent

The term is also used to describe confiscation of assets connected with drug use and trafficking in the United States[citation needed]. More recently the U.S. Army has been accused of practicing collective punishment in Iraq [10]. Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many common law whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a persons property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States with the assistance of participating countries, which is intended to combat the illegal drug trade — to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances deemed harmful. ...


See also

This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... For the British Parliamentary discipline, see Collective responsibility Collective Responsibilty is a concept, or doctrine, according to which people are to be held responsible for other peoples actions by tolerating, ignoring, or harboring them, without actively collaborating in these actions. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ... In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ...

References

  1. ^ Sherman, William T., Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman, 2nd ed., D. Appleton & Co., 1913 (1889), Chapter XXI. Reprinted by the Library of America, 1990, ISBN 0-940450-65-8.
  2. ^ "The laws of war as to conquered territory" by William Miller Collier, New York Times, November 29, 1914, p SM6
  3. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9057248/Oradour-sur-Glane
  4. ^ *Official Website
  5. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/18/international/europe/18TUSC.html
  6. ^ http://members.iinet.net.au/~gduncan/massacres_axis.html#Italy
  7. ^ World War II in Ukraine: Kortelisy (Ukraine), Lidice (Czechoslovakia) & Oradour-sur-Glane (France): Razed Villages.
  8. ^ "British to step up Malaya campaign; 1951 plans include 'collective punishment' for aiding Reds, rewards and more troops" New York Times, Dec. 17, 1950, p 12
  9. ^ "Labor's censure over Kenya fails" New York Times, Dec 17, 1952, p16
  10. ^ Britain punishes Cypriote balking in informer role" New York Times,Mar. 17, 1956, p1
  11. ^ "Arab overtures to Jews Reported; Shieks of fined villages ask Palestine refugees to return to plow. Promise to protect them" New York Times, Dec. 19, 1929, p6
  12. ^ "Riot compensation fixed. Nothing to be paid in Palestine for deaths of those under 14" New York Times, March 27, 1930, p 21
  13. ^ "Britain will protect her hold in near east" New York Times, May 24, 1936, p E5
  14. ^ "Britain justifies acts in Palestine" New York Times, Jan. 10, 1939, p9
  15. ^ "Attack on an Arab shuts Jews' shops" New York Times, June 29, 1939, p 10
  16. ^ Anonymous Internet poster identified as "V. H. (Theoretical Zionist)" (March 4, 2002). How to solve "Palestinian problem".. www.netanyahu.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.

William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fourth Geneva Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (914 words)
Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.
Under the 1949 Geneva Conventions collective punishments are a war crime.
By collective punishment, the drafters of the Geneva Conventions had in mind the reprisal killings of World Wars I and II.
Encyclopedia4U - Collective punishment - Encyclopedia Article (145 words)
Collective punishment is a term to describe the punishment of a group of people for the same crime.
It is contradictory to the modern concept of due process, where each individual recieves separate treatment based on their individual circumstances-- as they relate to the crime in question.
Collective punishment thus is tied only to societies that are considered less 'advanced,' less wealthy, or otherwise less capable of giving "due process" to each defendant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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