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Encyclopedia > Collective bargaining
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more names Image File history File links Syndicalism. ... The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Timeline of organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s - 1860s - 1870s - 1880s - 1890s - 1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1797 (United States) Profit sharing originated at Albert Gallatins glass works in New Geneva, Pennsylvania. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... A young boy recycling garbage in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2006 Child labor is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... This is a list of federations of trade unions. ... Labor Unions: International comparisons To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... The International Workers Association (IWA) (Spanish: AIT - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, and in German: IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. ... Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes). ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A sympathy strike is a labour strike that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry. ... A sitdown strike is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by sitting down at their stations, effectively preventing their employers from replacing them with scab labor or, in some cases... Work-to-rule is a job action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace, and follow safety or other regulations to the letter in order to cause a slowdown. ... César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993), born in Yuma, Arizona, was an American farm worker of Mexican descent, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ... Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. ... For other uses, see Hoffa (disambiguation). ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the United States. ... Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa (October 10, 1941 - November 10, 1995) was a Nigerian author, television producer and environmental activist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street, Dublin (Oisín Kelly 1977) James (Big Jim) Larkin (Irish: Séamas Ó Lorcáin)(1874-1947), an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, was born in Liverpool, England on 28 January 1874, of Irish parents. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground_dwelling bird native to North America. ...

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Collective bargaining is the process whereby workers organize collectively and bargain with employers regarding the workplace. In various national labor and employment law contexts collective bargaining takes on a more specific legal meaning. In a broad sense, however, it is the coming together of workers to negotiate their employment. In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labor or labour history is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the labor movement and the working class. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining consists of the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers (represented by management, in some countries by employers' organization) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) or as a Collective Employment Agreement (CEA). It has been suggested that Work permit be merged into this article or section. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... An employers organization, employers association or employers federation is an association of employers. ... This article is about work. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... A grievance is a formal statement of complaint, generally against an authority figure. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...

Contents

Theories

A number of theories – from the fields of industrial relations, economics, political science, history and sociology (as well as the writings of activists, workers and labor organizations) – have attempted to define and explain collective bargaining.


One theory suggests that collective bargaining is a human right and thus deserving of legal protection. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights identifies the ability to organise trade unions as a fundamental human right.[1] Item 2(a) of the International Labor Organization's Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work defines the "freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining" as an essential right of workers.[2] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ...


In June 2007 the Supreme Court of Canada extensively reviewed the rationale for considering collective bargaining to be a human right. In the case of Facilities Subsector Bargaining Assn. v. British Columbia, the Court made the following observations:

  • The right to bargain collectively with an employer enhances the human dignity, liberty and autonomy of workers by giving them the opportunity to influence the establishment of workplace rules and thereby gain some control over a major aspect of their lives, namely their work.
  • Collective bargaining is not simply an instrument for pursuing external ends…rather [it] is intrinsically valuable as an experience in self-government.
  • Collective bargaining permits workers to achieve a form of workplace democracy and to ensure the rule of law in the workplace. Workers gain a voice to influence the establishment of rules that control a major aspect of their lives.[3]

Economic theories also provide a number of models intended to explain some aspects of collective bargaining. The first is the so-called Monopoly Union Model (Dunlop, 1944), according to which the monopoly union has the power to maximise the wage rate; the firm then chooses the level of employment. This model is being abandoned by the recent literature.[citation needed] The second is the Right-to-Manage model, developed by the British school during the 1980s (Nickell). In this model, the labour union and the firm bargain over the wage rate according to a typical Nash Bargaining Maximin (written as Ώ = UβΠ1-β, where U is the utility function of the labour union, Π the profit of the firm and β represents the bargaining power of the labour unions). The third model is called efficient bargaining (McDonald and Solow, 1981), where the union and the firm bargain over both wages and employment (or, more realistically, hours of work).[citation needed] People whose family name is or was Dunlop include James Dunlop (1793-1848), Scottish-Australian astronomer John Boyd Dunlop, Scottish inventor and founder of the Dunlop rubber company John Thomas Dunlop, United States administrator Sir Edward Weary Dunlop, Australian war hero Douglas Morton Dunlop, Scottish-American professor of history and... Robert Merton Bob Solow (born August 23, 1924) is an American economist particularly known for his work on the theory of economic growth. ...

United Kingdom

The British academic Beatrice Webb reputedly coined the term "collective bargaining" in the late 19th century: the OED quotes her use of it in 1891 in Cooperative Movement. Webb aimed to characterise a process alternative to that of individual bargaining between an employer and individual employees. Other writers have emphasised the conflict-resolution aspects of collective bargaining, but in Britain the most important refinement in usage came from Allan Flanders, who defined collective bargaining as a process of rule-making leading to joint regulation in industry. Most commentators see the process of collective bargaining as necessarily containing an element of negotiation and hence as distinct from processes of consultation, which lack the element of negotiation and where employers determine outcomes unilaterally. Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Potter Webb (January 2, 1858 - April 30, 1943) (also called Beatrice Webb) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, usually referred to in the same breath as her husband, Sidney Webb. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the episode of the television series The Office, see Conflict Resolution (The Office episode) As you know, wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Consultant (disambiguation). ...


In the United Kingdom collective bargaining has become, and has received endorsement for many years as, the dominant and most appropriate means of regulating workers' terms and conditions of employment, in line with ILO Convention No. 84. However, the importance of collective bargaining in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the industrialised world has declined considerably since the early 1980s. Its decline in the public sector stems in part from the growth of Review-Body arrangements provided through the Office of Manpower Economics for groups of workers, including for the majority of National Health Service staff. In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... The International Labour Organization issues labor standards as conventions. For a listing of some of these conventions, see Category:International Labour Organization Conventions. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... A Review Body in the United Kingdom is a government mechanism to replace collective bargaining for certain groups of employees in the public sector, for example doctors and nurses in the National Health Service. ... The Office of Manpower Economics is a non-statutory body set up to provide an independent Secretariat for each of the six Pay Review Bodies and the Police Negotiating Board and Police Advisory Board for England & Wales. ... NHS redirects here. ...


Despite its significance, in the United Kingdom there remains no statutory basis for collective bargaining in the fields of learning and training, a situation that has attracted the attention of both the Trades Union Congress and members of the Royal College of Nursing. A coalition has formed which actively seeks to remedy this situation by expanding the scope of collective bargaining to encompass learning and training. Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ... Image:TradeUnionsCongress20050108 CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) is a membership organisation with over 395,000 members in the United Kingdom. ...


United States

In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector. This act makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers because of their union membership or retaliate against them for engaging in organizing campaigns or other "concerted activities" to form "company unions", or to refuse to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represents their employees. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The industrial revolution brought a swell of labor organizing in the US. The American Federation of Labor was formed in 1886, providing unprecedented bargaining powers for a variety of workers.[4] The Railway Labor Act (1926)required employers to bargain collectively with unions. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... The Railway Labor Act is a United States federal law that governs labor relations in the railway and airline industries. ...


In 1930, the Supreme Court, in the case of Texas & N.O.R. Co. v. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, upheld the act's prohibition of employer interference in the selection of bargaining representatives.[4] In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order giving public employee unions the right to collectively bargain with government agencies.[4] The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Several notable collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) in the United States have involved major professional sports leagues, due in part to a history of poor relations and the vast sums of money involved. One half of the 1998-99 NBA season was canceled due to a lockout, as was half of the 1994-95 NHL season. A breakdown in talks caused a cancellation of the entire 2004-05 NHL season, making it the first major North American sports league to lose an entire season to labor issues. Major League Baseball experienced player strikes in 1972, 1981, and 1994. In 2006 the National Football League (NFL) faced the prospect of an eventual strike, but an agreement was reached in March. The NFL did experience season-shortening strikes in 1982 and 1987, the latter of which involved the inclusion of replacement players for three games. Professional sports began at North Panola High School in the early 1600s. ... A list of professional sports leagues: Auto racing Champcars, formerly CART (Official Page) Formula One, Grand Prix racing (Official Site) IRL (Indy Racing League) (Official Page) NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) (Official Page) NHRA (National Hot Rod Association) (Official Page) Baseball Major League Baseball Minor League Baseball... The 1998-99 NBA season was the 53rd season of the National Basketball Association. ... A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. ... The 1994-95 NHL season was the 78th regular season of the National Hockey League. ... The 2004-05 NHL season would have been the 88th regular season of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... The 1972 baseball strike was the first players strike in Major League Baseball history. ... The 1981 baseball strike was the fifth work stoppage since 1972. ... The 1994 Major League Baseball strike was the eighth work stoppage in baseball history, as well as the fourth in-season work stoppage in 23 years. ... NFL redirects here. ...


Continental Europe

Many continental European countries, like Austria, the Netherlands and Sweden, have a social market economy where collective bargaining over wages, is done on the national level between national federations of labor unions and employers' organizations. In Finland, a Comprehensive Income Policy Agreement can be reached in some years. It is collective bargaining taken to its logical maximum, setting a single percentage raise for virtually all wage-earners. The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... An employers organization, employers association or employers federation is an association of employers. ... The Comprehensive Income Policy Agreement (Finnish: tulopoliittinen kokonaisratkaisu) is a tri-lateral treaty crafted by the Finnish government together with employees and employers trade unions. ...


For the trade unions, several sectoral federations are in charge of the collective bargaining for their affiliates.


In some countries, such as Finland, collective agreements with enough support are universally applicable, in a particular field, regardless of union membership. Effectively, the universal collective agreement sets the minimum wages and other benefits, under which no employer may go with any employee, union member or not. Personal benefits can be given regardless. Contrast this with the U.S. practise where in non right-to-work states all employees are required to join the union and then cannot earn anything but the negotiated union wage.


In France, collective bargaing became legal with the Matignon agreements passed in 1936 by the Popular Front government. Also known as the Magna Carta of French Labor, the Matignon Accords of 1936 were an agreement to help the French Labor movement. ... For the generic use of the term see Popular front The Popular Front (French: Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the Socialist SFIO and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. ...


See also

Template:Organised labour portal

Collective Bargaining Convention, 1981 is an International Labour Organization Convention. ... An Enterprise Bargaining Agreement (EBA) is the name for a statutory agreement made under the Workplace Relations Act, and then properly registered with the Australian Industrial Relations Commission, that is made between an employer and a group of workers who work for that employer with two additional optional parties being... Mutual gains bargaining (MGB) is an approach to collective bargaining intended to reach win-win outcomes for the negotiating parties. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent agency of the United States Government charged with conducting elections for union representation and with investigating and remedying unfair labor practices. ... The term right of recall has two different meanings: The right of citizens to recall a representative or executive. ... Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 is an International Labour Organization Convention. ... A union organizer (sometimes spelled organiser) is one type of employee or elected official of a trade union. ...

References

  1. ^ United Nations General Assembly (1948). "Article 23". Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Paris. Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  2. ^ International Labor Organization (1998). Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. 86th Session: Geneva. Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  3. ^ Supreme Court of Canada (2007). Health Services and Support – Facilities Subsector Bargaining Assn. v. British Columbia, 2007 SCC 27. Online at the Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada. Retrieved on 29 August 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Illinois Labor History Society. A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. Online at the Illinois Labor History Society. Retrived on 29 August 2007.
  • Buidens, Wayne, and others. "Collective Gaining: A Bargaining Alternative." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 63 (1981): 244-245.
  • DeGennaro, William, and Kay Michelfeld. "Joint Committees Take the Rancor out of Bargaining with Our Teachers." THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 173 (1986): 38-39.
  • Herman, Jerry J. "With Collaborative Bargaining, You Work WITH the Union--Not Against It." THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 172 (1985): 41-42, 47.
  • Huber, Joe; and Jay Hennies. "Fix on These Five Guiding Lights, and Emerge from the Bargaining Fog." THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 174 (1987): 31.
  • Liontos, Demetri. COLLABORATIVE BARGAINING: CASE STUDIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Eugene: Oregon School Study Council, University of Oregon, September 1987. OSSC Bulletin Series. 27 pages. ED number not yet assigned.
  • McMahon, Dennis O. "GETTING TO YES." Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Association of School Administrators, New Orleans, LA, February 20-23, 1987. ED 280 188.
  • Namit, Chuck; and Larry Swift. "Prescription for Labor Pains: Combine Bargaining with Problem Solving." THE AMERICAN SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 174 (1987): 24.
  • Nyland, Larry. "Win/Win Bargaining Takes Perseverance." THE EXECUTIVE EDUCATOR 9 (1987): 24.
  • Smith, Patricia; and Russell Baker. "An Alternative Form of Collective Bargaining." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 67 (1986): 605-607.

Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Collective bargaining - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (512 words)
Collective bargaining is the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers (represented by management) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions.
Other writers have emphasised the conflict resolution aspects of collective bargaining, but in Britain the most important refinement was that made by Allan Flanders, who defined it as a process of rule-making, leading to joint regulation in industry.
In Britain collective bargaining has been, and has been endorsed as, the dominant and most appropriate means of regulating workers' terms and conditions of employment, in line with ILO Convention No. 84 for many years.
Collective - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (238 words)
Collectives are also characterised by attempts to share and exercise political and social power and to make decisions on a consensus-driven and egalitarian basis.
Collectives differ from cooperatives in that they are not necessarily focused upon an economic benefit or saving (but can be that as well).
Collective consciousness is a term created by French social theorist Émile Durkheim that describes how an entire community comes together to share similar values.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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