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Encyclopedia > Collard greens
Collard greens (shown on right)
Lacinato kale (left) with collard greens (right)
Species
Brassica oleracea
Cultivar group
Acephala Group
Origin
unknown
Cultivar Group members
Many, and some are known by other names.

Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. The plant is grown for its large, dark-colored, edible leaves and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal, the Southern United States, many parts of Africa, Montenegro, Spain and in Kashmir as well. They are classified in the same cultivar group as kale and spring greens, to which they are extremely similar genetically. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1355x1075, 1341 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Binomial name Brassica oleracea L. See also cabbage Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica native to coastal southern and western Europe, where its resistance to salt and lime but intolerance of competition from other plants typically restricts its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The Acephala Group is a cultivar group for the species Brassica oleracea. ... Binomial name Brassica oleracea L. See also cabbage Brassica oleracea or Wild Cabbage, is a species of Brassica native to coastal southern and western Europe, where its resistance to salt and lime but intolerance of competition from other plants typically restricts its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs. ... The Acephala Group is a cultivar group for the species Brassica oleracea. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Kale (also called Borecole) is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Spring greens are a form of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) in which the central leaves do not form a head or only a very loose one. ...


The plant is also called couve in Brazil, couve-galega in Portugal, (col) berza in Spanish-speaking countries and Raštan in Montenegro. The name collard is said to derive from Anglo-Saxon coleworts or colewyrts ("cabbage plants"). It is also said that collard is a pidginized version of colored. Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...

Contents

The plant

The Cultivar Group name Acephala ("without a head" in Greek) refers to the fact that this kind of cabbage does not have the usual close-knit core of leaves ("head") of regular cabbage. The plant is a biennial in cooler climates, perennial in warmer regions. It has a stout upright or twisted stalk, up to 60 cm tall. Compared to other cabbage cultivars, it is relatively resistant to cold and frost. A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... A Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Collards originate from the Mediterranean region, and were a regular food item in Ancient Greece and Rome.They can still be found grown in Montenegro under the name Raštan. The plant is very similar to kale (col crespa in Spanish), but kale has smaller and crinklier leaves, with tougher stems and veins. It is also very similar to spring greens. Popular cultivars of collard greens include Georgia Southern, Morris Heading, Butter Collard (or couve-manteiga), and couve tronchuda. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Kale (also called Borecole) is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Spring greens are a form of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) in which the central leaves do not form a head or only a very loose one. ...


Collards in cooking

Only firm, dark green leaves are fit for consumption; any wilted or yellowish leaves must be discarded. Collards have higher nutritional value when cooked than when raw due to the tough cell structure [1]; they can be blended into a juice, usually in combination with sweet fruit juices to improve the flavor. Collards are usually consumed cooked, as meal fillers and as a source of dietary fiber, especially as a balance to fish and meat dishes. Vegetable juice is a popular drink all over the world. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Mortal Kombat character, see Meat (Mortal Kombat). ...


Nutrition facts

Collard leaves are rich in calcium (226 mg per cup, cooked), vitamins B1, B2, B9, and C (which may be leached by cooking, however), as well as beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A). Each 100 g of leaves provides 46 calories (190 kilojoules) of food energy and contains 4 g of protein, 0.5 grams of fat, 7 g of carbohydrates. Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids, nor does it encompass the large number of other nutrients that... Vitamin B is a complex of eight water soluble vitamins, active in cell metabolism. ... Vitamin C is a nutrient required in very small amounts to allow a range of essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... It has been suggested that Retinol be merged into this article or section. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... A joule is the work done or energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one metre, so the same quantity may be referred to as a newton metre or newton-metre with the symbol N·m. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Collard greens in U.S. cuisine

Collard greens are a staple of southern U.S. cuisine and soul food. They are often prepared with other similar green leaf vegetables, such as kale, turnip greens, spinach, and mustard leaves in "mixed greens". They are generally a "winter" dish in the South, as the plants tend to run to seed during warmer weather. Traditionally, collards are eaten on New Year's Day (along with black-eyed peas or field peas and corn bread) to ensure wealth in the coming year, as the leaves resemble folding money. Cornbread is a common accompaniment to collards and is used to soak up the collard broth, or "potlikker," which is rich in nutrients. The Southern United States has a distinct cuisine that draws heavily on influences of the various groups that have inhabited the area. ... For other uses, see Soul food (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For other uses, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text The mustards are several plant species in the genus Brassica whose proverbially tiny mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into a condiment also known as mustard. ... The Black Eyed Peas are an American hip hop crew from Los Angeles, who have lately enjoyed massive international pop success. ... Cornbread is a variety of quick bread (a bread leavened chemically, rather than by yeast) containing cornmeal. ... Cornbread or Johnny cake is a generic name for any number of quick breads (a bread leavened chemically, rather than by yeast) containing cornmeal. ... Collard liquor, also known as pot liquor, sometimes spelled potlikker[1] or pot likker[2] is the liquid that is left behind after boiling greens (collard greens, mustard greens, turnip greens). ...


Collard greens in Brazil and Portugal

In Brazil and Portugal, collard (or couve) greens are common accompaniments of fish and meat dishes. In Brazilian cuisine, they are a standard side dish for feijoada (a popular pork and beans-style stew). The leaves are sliced into strips, 1 to 3 mm wide (sometimes by the grocer or market vendor, with a special hand-cranked slicer) and sautéed with oil or butter, flavored with garlic, onion, and salt. The population of Brazil is a racial mix of native Amerindians, Portuguese, Africans, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Syrians, Lebanese and Japanese among others. ... Brazilian Feijoada and common accompanying dishes. ... Pork and beans is a dish largely thought of as a part of American cuisine. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... Sauté [V. saw-tay] is a method of cooking food a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a perennial plant in the family Alliaceae and genus Allium, closely related to the onion, shallot, and leek. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa, also called the garden onion. ...


Thinly sliced collard greens are also the main ingredient of a popular soup, caldo verde ("green broth"). Soup is a savoury liquid food that is made by combining ingredients, such as meat, vegetables and beans in stock or hot water, until the flavor is extracted, forming a broth. ... Caldo verde is a popular soup of Portuguese cuisine. ...


The juice pressed from fresh leaves and leaf stalks, taken regularly, is popularly believed to be a remedy for gout, bronchitis, and blood circulation problems. This article is not about asthma. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


Cultivation and storage

The plant is commercially cultivated for its thick, slightly bitter edible leaves. They are available year-round, but many people believe that they are tastier and more nutritious in the cold months, after the first frosts. For best flavor and texture, the leaves should be picked before they reach their maximum size. Flavor and texture also depend on the cultivar; the couve-manteiga and couve tronchuda are especially appreciated in Brazil and Portugal. Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... Flavor or flavour (see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell. ... Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Fresh collard leaves can be stored for up to 10 days if refrigerated to just above freezing (1 °C) at high humidity (>95%). In domestic refrigerators, fresh collard can be stored for about three days. Once cooked, it can be frozen and stored indefinitely.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Watch Your Garden Grow - Collards (1393 words)
Collard (also known as tree-cabbage or nonheading cabbage), is a cool-season vegetable green that is rich in vitamins and minerals.
Collards grow from a main stalk with leaves that grow outward on inedible stems.
Collard greens are tough and depending on the maturity of the leaves, may require 20 minutes to one hour of cooking time.
Collard greens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (641 words)
Collard greens (also called collards or borekale) are a group of loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea Acephala Group, grown for their large, dark-colored greens and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal, the Southern United States, and in many parts of Africa.
Collard greens are a basic "soul food" of the Southern United States cuisine.
In Brazil and Portugal, collard greens are common accompaniments of fish and meat dishes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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