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Encyclopedia > Collagenous
Tropocollagen triple helix.
Tropocollagen triple helix.

Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue in animals and the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% of the total protein content. It is one of the long, fibrous structural proteins whose functions are quite different from those of globular proteins such as enzymes., tough bundles of collagen called collagen fibers are a major component of the extracellular matrix that supports most tissues and gives cells structure from the outside, but collagen is also found inside certain cells. Collagen has great tensile strength, and is the main component of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and teeth. Along with soft keratin, it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging. It strengthens blood vessels and plays a role in tissue development. It is present in the cornea and lens of the eye in crystalline form. It is also used in cosmetic surgery and burns surgery. Image File history File links Summary Ribbon model of the collagen triple helix. ... Image File history File links Summary Ribbon model of the collagen triple helix. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In the human body there are four types of tissue: (1) Epithelial, (2) Connective, (3) Muscle, and (4) Nervous Tissue. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Fibrous proteins, also called scleroproteins, are long filamentous protein molecules that form one of the two main classes of tertiary structure protein (the other being globular proteins). ... Globular proteins, or spheroproteins are one of the two main protein classes, comprising globelike proteins that are more or less soluble in aqueous solutions (where they form colloidal solutions). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Tensile strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... A wrinkled finger after a warm bath A wrinkle is a ridge or crease of a surface. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... The human eye. ... Quartz crystal In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Plastic surgery is a specialty that uses surgical techniques to improve the appearance and function of patients bodies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Synthesis

Collagen has an unusual amino acid composition and sequence. Glycine (Gly) is found at almost every third residue, and collagen contains large amounts of proline, (Pro) — as well as two uncommon derivative amino acids not directly inserted during translation of mRNA: hydroxyproline (Hyp) and hydroxylysine. Prolines and lysines at specific locations relative to glycine are modified post-translationally by different enzymes, both of which require vitamin C as a cofactor. Depending on the type of collagen, varying numbers of hydroxylysines have disaccharides attached to them. The general structure of an α-amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... Glycine (Gly, G) is a nonpolar amino acid. ... A residue, broadly, is anything left behind by a reaction or event. ... L-Proline is one of the twenty proteinogenic units which are used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Structure of hydroxyproline 4-Hydroxyproline, or hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an uncommon amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e. ... Hydroxylysine is an amino acid, C6H14N2O3. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ...


Collagen I Formation: Most collagen forms in a similar manner, but the following process is typical for type I

  1. Three peptide chains are formed (2 alpha-1 and 1 alpha-2 chain) in ribosomes along the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER). These peptide chains (known as preprocollagen) have registration peptides on each end; and a signal peptide is also attached to each
  2. Peptide chains are sent into the lumen of the RER
  3. Signal Peptides are cleaved inside the RER and the chains are now known as procollagen
  4. Hydroxylation of lysine and proline amino acids occurs inside the lumen. This process is dependent on Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) as a cofactor
  5. Glycosylation of specific hydroxylated amino acid occurs
  6. Triple helical structure is formed inside the RER
  7. Procollagen is shipped to the golgi apparatus, where it is packaged and secreted by exocytosis
  8. Outside the cell, registration peptides are cleaved and tropocollagen is formed by procollagen peptidase.
  9. Multiple tropocollagen molecules form collagen fibrils, and multiple collagen fibrils form into collagen fibers
  10. Collagen is attached to cell membranes via several types of protein, including fibronectin and integrin.

Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ... A signal peptide is a short (15-60 amino acids long) peptide chain that directs the post transrational transport of a protein. ... Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... L-Proline is one of the twenty proteinogenic units which are used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... A cofactor is the following: In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Diagram of the endomembrane system in a typical eukaryote cell Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... This page is currently under construction. ...

Synthetic Pathogenesis

Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, a serious and painful disease in which defective collagen prevents the formation of strong connective tissue. Gums deteriorate and bleed, with loss of teeth; skin discolors, and wounds do not heal. Prior to the Eighteenth Century, this condition was notorious among long duration military, particularly naval, expeditions during which participants were deprived of foods containing Vitamin C. In the human body, a malfunction of the immune system, called an autoimmune disease, results in an immune response in which healthy collagen fibers are systematically destroyed with inflammation of surrounding tissues. The resulting disease processes are called Lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, or collagen tissue disorders. (See references below) Scurvy (N.Lat. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... In the human body there are four types of tissue: (1) Epithelial, (2) Connective, (3) Muscle, and (4) Nervous Tissue. ... The gingivae (sing. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... Healing is the process whereby the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


Composition and structure

The tropocollagen or "collagen molecule" subunit is a rod about 300 nm long and 1.5 nm in diameter, made up of three polypeptide strands, each of which is a left-handed helix, not to be confused with the commonly occurring alpha helix, which is right-handed. These three left-handed helices are twisted together into a right-handed coiled coil, a triple helix, a cooperative quaternary structure stabilized by numerous hydrogen bonds. Tropocollagen subunits spontaneously self-assemble, with regularly staggered ends, into even larger arrays in the extracellular spaces of tissues. There is some covalent crosslinking within the triple helices, and a variable amount of covalent crosslinking between tropocollagen helices, to form the different types of collagen found in different mature tissues — similar to the situation found with the α-keratins in hair. Collagen's insolubility was a barrier to study until it was found that tropocollagen from young animals can be extracted because it is not yet fully crosslinked. Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral staircase. ... A coiled coil is a structural motif found in many proteins. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein (polypeptide) molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ... Snapshot from a simulation of liquid water. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a single protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... Self-assembly is the fundamental principle which generates structural organization on all scales from molecules to galaxies. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Covalent bonding is a description of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... Young Girl Fixing her Hair, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson Hair is a filamentous outgrowth of dead cells from the skin, found only in mammals. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ...


Collagen fibrils are collagen molecules packed into an organized overlapping bundle. Collagen fibers are bundles of fibrils.


A distinctive feature of collagen is the regular arrangement of amino acids in each of the three chains of these collagen subunits. The sequence often follows the pattern Gly-X-Pro or Gly-X-Hyp, where X may be any of various other amino acid residues. Gly-Pro-Hyp occurs frequently. This kind of regular repetition and high glycine content is found in only a few other fibrous proteins, such as silk fibroin. 75-80% of silk is (approximately) -Gly-Ala-Gly-Ala- with 10% serine — and elastin is rich in glycine, proline, and alanine (Ala), whose side group is a small, inert methyl. Such high glycine and regular repetitions are never found in globular proteins. Chemically-reactive side groups are not needed in structural proteins as they are in enzymes and transport proteins. The high content of Pro and Hyp rings, with their geometrically constrained carboxyl and (secondary) amino groups, accounts for the tendency of the individual polypeptide strands to form left-handed helices spontaneously, without any intrachain hydrogen bonding. The triple helix tightens under tension, resisting stretching, making collagen inextensible. Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fibre, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Serine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Elastin, also known as elasticin, is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride and ammonia meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride Chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... A transport protein is a protein involved in facilitated diffusion. ... A carboxyl or carboxylic group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom and an oxygen atom doubly bonded to each other. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ...


Because glycine is the smallest amino acid, it plays a unique role in fibrous structural proteins. In collagen, Gly is required at every third position because the assembly of the triple helix puts this residue at the interior (axis) of the helix, where there is no space for a larger side group than glycine’s single hydrogen atom. For the same reason, the rings of the Pro and Hyp must point outward. These two amino acids thermally stabilize the triple helix — Hyp even more so than Pro — and less of them is required in animals such as fish, whose body temperatures are low. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


In bone, entire collagen triple helices lie in a parallel, staggered array. 40 nm gaps between the ends of the tropocollagen subunits probably serve as nucleation sites for the deposition of long, hard, fine crystals of the mineral component, which is (approximately) hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH), with some phosphate. It is in this way that certain kinds of cartilage turn into bone. Collagen gives bone its elasticity and contributes to fracture resistance. Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone becomes cracked, splintered, or bisected as a result of physical trauma. ...


Industrial uses

If collagen is partially hydrolyzed, the three tropocollagen strands separate into globular, random coils, producing gelatin, which is used in many foods, including flavored gelatin desserts. Besides food, gelatin has been used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and photography industries [[1]]. Nutritionally, collagen and gelatin are considered poor quality protein because they lack adequate amounts of some of the essential amino acids. Some collagen based dietary supplements are claimed to improve skin and fingernail quality and aid joint health, although mainstream scientific research does not support these claims. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water, which has the chemical formula H2O. One of the parts gets an OH- from the water molecule and the other part gets an H+ from the water. ... Illustration of a 3-dimensional polypeptide A random coil is a polymer conformation where the monomer subunits are oriented randomly while still being bonded to adjacent units. ... Gelatin (also gelatine) is a translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless, which is created by prolonged boiling of animal skin, connective tissue or bones. ... A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products for sale at a supermarket in the U.S. state of Wisconsin in 2004 Jelly, as sold in UK The most popular culinary use for gelatin is as a main ingredient in a variety of gelatin desserts. ... An essential amino acid or indispensible amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... A prescribed dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


Collagen means "glue producer" (kolla is Greek for glue), derived from the early process of boiling the skin and sinews of horses and other animals to obtain glue. Collagen adhesive was used by Egyptians about 4,000 years ago, and Native Americans used it in bows about 1,500 years ago. The oldest glue in the world, carbon dated as more than 8,000 years old, was found to be collagen — used as a protective lining on rope baskets and embroidered fabrics, and to hold utensils together; also in crisscross decorations on human skulls.[2] Collagen normally converts to gelatin, but survived due to the dry conditions. Animal glues are thermoplastic, softening again upon reheating, and so they are still used in making musical instruments such as fine violins and guitars, which may have to be reopened for repairs — an application incompatible with tough, synthetic plastic adhesives, which are permanent. Animal sinews and skins, including leather, have been used to make useful articles for millennia. An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... An Aani (Atsina) named Assiniboin Boy. ... A bow is ancient weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to ca 60,000 years. ... Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Elizabethan embroidery styles include blackwork on linen and dense patterns worked in colored silk and metallic threads on velvet or other rich fabrics Embroidery is the art or handicraft of... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ... This is a list of eating and serving utensils. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal apes belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... A thermoplastic is a material that is plastic or deformable, melts to a liquid when heated and freezes to a brittle, glassy state when cooled sufficiently. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In chemistry, the phrase chemical synthesis appears to have one of two meanings. ... Household items made out of plastic. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides, pelts and skins of animals, primarily cows. ...


Gelatin-resorcinol-formaldehyde glue (and with formaldehyde replaced by less-toxic pentanedial and ethanedial) has been used to repair experimental incisions in rabbit lungs. (Ann Thorac Surg. 1994 Jun; 57(6): 1622-7) Resorcin (or resorcinol) is the (1,3) isomer of dihydroxybenzene (dihydric phenol). ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal), is a gas with a strong pungent smell. ... Glyoxal is an organic compound. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Medical Uses

Collagen has been widely used in cosmetic surgery and certain skin substitutes for burns patients. The cosmetic use of collagens is declining because:

  1. there is a fairly high rate of allergic reactions causing prolonged redness and requiring inconspicuous patch testing prior to cosmetic use, and
  2. most medical collagen is derived from cows, posing the risk of transmitting prion diseases like BSE
  3. alternatives using the patient's own fat or hyaluronic acid are readily available.

Collagens are still employed in the construction of artificial skin substitutes used in the management of severe burns. These collagens may be bovine or porcine and are used in combination with silicones, glycosaminoglycans, fibroblasts, growth factors and other substances. A prion (IPA: [1]  ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle — (by analogy to virion) is a type of infectious agent. ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) commonly known as mad cow disease, is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that surprised biologists on its discovery in the late 20th century. ... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Silicone caulking can be used as a basic sealant against water and air penetration. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ... Growth factor is any of about twenty small proteins that attach to specific receptors on the surface of stem cells in bone marrow and promote differentiation and maturation of these cells into morphotic constituents of blood. ...


Collagen is also sold commercially as a joint mobility supplement.


Types of collagen

Collagen occurs in many places throughout the body, and occurs in different forms known as types. There are 28 types of collagen described in literature until now:

Type Notes Gene(s)
I This is the most abundant collagen of the human body. It is present in scar tissue, the end product when tissue heals by repair. It is found in tendons, the endomysium of myofibrils and the organic part of bone. COL1A1, COL1A2
II Articular cartilage and Hyaline cartilage COL2A1
III This is the collagen of granulation tissue, and is produced quickly by young fibroblasts before the tougher type I collagen is synthesized. Reticular fiber. COL3A1
IV basal lamina; eye lens COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5, COL4A6
V most interstitial tissue, assoc. with type I, associated with placenta COL5A1, COL5A2, COL5A3
VI most interstitial tissue, assoc. with type I COL6A1, COL6A2, COL6A3
VII forms anchoring fibrils in dermal epidermal junctions COL7A1
VIII some endothelial cells COL8A1, COL8A2
IX FACIT collagen, cartilage, assoc. with type II and XI fibrils COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3
X hypertrophic and mineralizing cartilage COL10A1
XI cartilage COL11A1, COL11A2
XII FACIT collagen, interacts with type I containing fibrils, decorin and glucosaminoglycans COL12A1
XIII transmembrane collagen, interacts with integrin a1b1, fibronectin and components of basment membranes like nidogen and perlecan. COL13A1
XIV - COL14A1
XV - COL15A1
XVI - COL16A1
XVII transmembrane collagen, also known as BP180, a 180 kDa protein involved in the diseases Bullous Pemphigoid and certain forms of junctional epidermolysis bullosa COL17A1
XVIII - COL18A1
XIX - COL19A1
XX - COL20A1
XXI - COL21A1
XXII - COL22A1
XXIII - COL23A1
XXIV - COL24A1
XXV - COL25A1
XXVII - COL27A1
XXVIII - COL28A1

Scar Tissue is the Red Hot Chili Peppers first single from their album Californication. ... Healing is the process whereby the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Cartilage is type of dense connective tissue. ... Granulation tissue is the tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing tissue. ... Reticular fibres are the main structural fibre in connective tissues. ... The basal lamina (often erroneously called basement membrane) is a layer on which epithelium sits. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A cell junction is a structure within a tissue of a multicellular organism. ... Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ. ... Decorin is a proteoglycan on average 90 - 140 kilodaltons (kD) in size. ... Fibronectin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ... Entactin (nidogen): a component of the basement membrane along side other components such as collagen type IV, proteoglycans ( heparan sulphate and glycosaminoglycans), laminin and fibronectin. ... Perlecan is a large multidomain proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellualr matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Genetic Diseases

Collagen diseases commonly arise from genetic defects that affect the biosynthesis, assembly, postranslational modification, secretion, or other processes in the normal production of collagen.


The most common genetic disease associated with collagen defects is osteogenesis imperfecta or "brittle bone disease". This results from decreased quantity or quality of collagen I in the bone. This type of collagen may also be affected by certain types of Ehlers-Danlos_Syndrome. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of genetic bone disorders. ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders that diminish the bodys ability to make connective tissues. ...


Deficiencies in other collagen types have been linked to other diseases, including the congenital muscular dystrophies. For example, Ulrich myopathy and Bethlam myopathy are caused by mutations in collagen VI. Mutations to genes coding for collagen type IV lead to Alport syndrome. Also notable are cartilage pathologies known as chondrodysplasia. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into muscular dystrophy. ... Alport syndrome is a hereditary disease characterized by hematuria. ...


Collagen type VII disease causes a form of epidermolysis bullosa.


Staining

In histology, collagen is brightly eosinophilic (pink) in standard H&E slides. The dye methyl violet may be used to stain the collagen in tissue samples. The dye methyl blue can also be used to stain collagen and immunohistochemical stains are available if required. The best stain for use in differentiating collagen from other fibers is Masson's Trichrome stain. A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... H&E stained lung tissue sample from an end-stage emphysema patient. ... Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Structure of Methyl Violet 2B Methyl violet is the name given to a group of similar chemicals used as pH indicators and dyes. ... Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ...


See also

Osteoid is a protein mixture which is secreted by osteoblasts. ... Outline Trout pout is a British slang term for over-sized lips, usually on women, due to collagen implants. ... Fibrous proteins, also called scleroproteins, are long filamentous protein molecules that form one of the two main classes of tertiary structure protein (the other being globular proteins). ...

External links and references


Connective tissue
v  d  e
classification: proper (loose/areolar, dense, adipose, reticular) embryonic (mucous, mesenchymal) specialized (cartilage, bone, blood)

extracellular matrix: ground substance (tissue fluid) fibers (collagen, reticular fiber, elastic fibers) In the human body there are four types of tissue: (1) Epithelial, (2) Connective, (3) Muscle, and (4) Nervous Tissue. ... Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types Areoloar tissue is the most common connnective tissue type and can be found in the skin as well as in places that connect epithelium to other tissues. ... Dense Connective Tissue is. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... Reticular connective tissue are a network of reticular fibers (fine collagen) that form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. ... Mucous connective tissue (or mucous tissue) is a type of connective tissue found during fetal development. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interstitial fluid. ... Reticular fibres are the main structural fibre in connective tissues. ... Elastic fibers are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. ...


cells: resident (fibroblast, adipocyte, chondroblast, osteoblast), wandering cell Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A chondroblast is a cell, which originates from a mesenchymal stem cell and forms Chondrocytes, commonly known as cartilage cells. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ... In anatomy and histology, the term wandering cell (or ameboid cell) is used to describe cells that are found in loose connective tissue, but arent fixed in place. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Collagen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1758 words)
Collagen's insolubility was a barrier to study until it was found that tropocollagen from young animals can be extracted because it is not yet fully crosslinked.
Collagen means "glue producer" (kolla is Greek for glue), derived from the early process of boiling the skin and sinews of horses and other animals to obtain glue.
Collagens are still employed in the construction of artificial skin substitutes used in the management of severe burns.
Collagen (476 words)
Collagen is a major component of the connective tissue meshwork that runs through animal bodies.
Collagen is first synthesized as a large precursor protein containing over 1400 amino acids.
Glycine is the smallest of the amino acids and in the collagen triple helix, the glycines of adjacent polypeptide chains are packed close together.
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