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Encyclopedia > Collagen
Tropocollagen triple helix.
Tropocollagen triple helix.

Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue in animals and the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% of the total protein content. Image File history File links Summary Ribbon model of the collagen triple helix. ... Image File history File links Summary Ribbon model of the collagen triple helix. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in...

Contents

Uses

It is one of the long, fibrous structural proteins whose functions are quite different from those of globular proteins such as enzymes; tough bundles of collagen called collagen fibers are a major component of the extracellular matrix that supports most tissues and gives cells structure from the outside, but collagen is also found inside certain cells. Collagen has great tensile strength, and is the main component of fascia, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and teeth. Along with soft keratin, it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging. It strengthens blood vessels and plays a role in tissue development. It is present in the cornea and lens of the eye in crystalline form. It is also used in cosmetic surgery and burns surgery. Fibrous proteins, also called scleroproteins, are long filamentous protein molecules that form one of the two main classes of tertiary structure protein (the other being globular proteins). ... Globular proteins, or spheroproteins are one of the two main protein classes, comprising globelike proteins that are more or less soluble in aqueous solutions (where they form colloidal solutions). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Fascia is specialized connective tissue layer which surrounds muscles, bones, and joints, providing support and protection and giving structure to the body. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... A humans visible teeth. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The effects of ageing on a human face Elderly woman Ageing or aging is the process of systems deterioration with time. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... A human eye Eyes are organs of vision that detect light. ... Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms... “Facial reconstruction” redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Industrial uses

If collagen is partially hydrolyzed, the three tropocollagen strands separate into globular, random coils, producing gelatin, which is used in many foods, including flavored gelatin desserts. Besides food, gelatin has been used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and photography industries.[1] Nutritionally, collagen and gelatin are poor quality protein since they do not contain all the essential amino acids that the human body requires - they are not complete proteins. Manufacturers of collagen-based dietary supplements claim that their products can improve skin and fingernail quality as well as joint health. However, mainstream scientific research has not shown any evidence to support these claims. Individuals with problems in these areas are more likely to be suffering from some other underlying condition rather than protein deficiency. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Illustration of a 3-dimensional polypeptide A random coil is a polymer conformation where the monomer subunits are oriented randomly while still being bonded to adjacent units. ... Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and considered foul smelling, extracted from the collagen inside animals connective tissue. ... A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products for sale at a supermarket in the U.S. state of Wisconsin in 2004 Jelly, as sold in UK The most popular culinary use for gelatin is as a main ingredient in a variety of gelatin desserts. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... A complete protein or whole protein is a protein that contains all amino acids, most notably the nine essential amino acids to humans and most animals, in ratios appropriate to the body. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


From the Greek for glue, kolla, the word collagen means "glue producer" and refers to the early process of boiling the skin and sinews of horses and other animals to obtain glue. Collagen adhesive was used by Egyptians about 4,000 years ago, and Native Americans used it in bows about 1,500 years ago. The oldest glue in the world, carbon dated as more than 8,000 years old, was found to be collagen — used as a protective lining on rope baskets and embroidered fabrics, and to hold utensils together; also in crisscross decorations on human skulls.[2] Collagen normally converts to gelatin, but survived due to the dry conditions. Animal glues are thermoplastic, softening again upon reheating, and so they are still used in making musical instruments such as fine violins and guitars, which may have to be reopened for repairs — an application incompatible with tough, synthetic plastic adhesives, which are permanent. Animal sinews and skins, including leather, have been used to make useful articles for millennia. An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years[1]. Raw, i. ... Gold Embroidery Cross-stitch embroidery, Hungary, mid-20th century Phulkari from Punjab region, India 15th century embroidered cope, Ghent, Belgium Elizabethan embroidery styles include blackwork on linen and dense patterns worked in colored silk and metallic threads on velvet or other rich fabrics Embroidery is the art or handicraft of... “fabric” redirects here. ... This is a list of eating and serving utensils. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... A thermoplastic is a material that is plastic or deformable, melts to a liquid when heated and freezes to a brittle, glassy state when cooled sufficiently. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


Gelatin-resorcinol-formaldehyde glue (and with formaldehyde replaced by less-toxic pentanedial and ethanedial) has been used to repair experimental incisions in rabbit lungs.[3] Resorcin (or resorcinol) is the (1,3) isomer of dihydroxybenzene (dihydric phenol). ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... Glyoxal is an organic compound with the formula OCHCHO. This yellow-coloured liquid is the smallest dialdehyde. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Medical uses

Collagen has been widely used in cosmetic surgery, as a healing aid for burn patients for reconstruction of bone and a wide variety of dental, orthopedic and surgical purposes. Some points of interest are:

  1. when used cosmetically, there is a chance of allergic reactions causing prolonged redness; however, this can be virtually eliminated by simple and inconspicuous patch testing prior to cosmetic use, and
  2. most medical collagen is derived from young beef cattle (bovine) from certified BSE (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy) free animals. Most manufacturers use donor animals from either "closed herds", or from countries which have never had a reported case of BSE such as Australia and New Zealand.
  3. porcine (pig) tissue is also widely used for producing collagen sheet for a variety of surgical purposes.
  4. due to the care in donor animal breeding and selection, as well as the technology used in the preparation of collagen from animal sources, the chance of immune reactions or disease transmission has been virtually eliminated.[citation needed]
  5. alternatives using the patient's own fat, hyaluronic acid or polyacrylamide gel are readily available.

Collagens are widely employed in the construction of artificial skin substitutes used in the management of severe burns, as well as for a wide range of dental, orthopedic, and surgical purposes. These collagens may be derived from bovine, equine or porcine, and even human, sources and are sometimes used in combination with silicones, glycosaminoglycans, fibroblasts, growth factors and other substances. The Three-Letter Acronym or Abbreviation (TLA) BSE could stand for Bachelor of Science in Engineering Baku Stock Exchange Barbados Stock Exchange Battle Space Entity (military simulations) Black Sun Empire - Dutch drum and bass production trio Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya (Большая Советская Энциклопедия, Great Soviet Encyclopedia) - the most comprehensive encyclopedia ever written in Russian... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ... Growth factor is any of about twenty small proteins that attach to specific receptors on the surface of stem cells in bone marrow and promote differentiation and maturation of these cells into morphotic constituents of blood. ...


Collagen is also sold commercially as a joint mobility supplement. This lacks supportive research as the proteins would just be broken down into its base amino acids during digestion, and could go to a variety of places besides the joints depending upon need and DNA orders.


Recently an alternative to animal-derived collagen has become available. Although expensive, this human collagen, derived from donor cadavers, placentas and aborted fetuses,[4] may minimize the possibility of immune reactions. The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ...


Composition and structure

The tropocollagen or "collagen molecule" subunit is a rod about 300 nm long and 1.5 nm in diameter, made up of three polypeptide strands, each of which is a left-handed helix, not to be confused with the commonly occurring alpha helix, which is right-handed. These three left-handed helices are twisted together into a right-handed coiled coil, a triple helix, a cooperative quaternary structure stabilized by numerous hydrogen bonds. Tropocollagen subunits spontaneously self-assemble, with regularly staggered ends, into even larger arrays in the extracellular spaces of tissues. There is some covalent crosslinking within the triple helices, and a variable amount of covalent crosslinking between tropocollagen helices, to form the different types of collagen found in different mature tissues — similar to the situation found with the α-keratins in hair. Collagen's insolubility was a barrier to study until it was found that tropocollagen from young animals can be extracted because it is not yet fully crosslinked. Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ... A coiled coil is a structural motif found in many proteins. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein (polypeptide) molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a double protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or sometimes between atoms and other covalent bonds. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... For the film, see Hair (film). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ...


Collagen fibrils are collagen molecules packed into an organized overlapping bundle. Collagen fibers are bundles of fibrils.


A distinctive feature of collagen is the regular arrangement of amino acids in each of the three chains of these collagen subunits. The sequence often follows the pattern Gly-X-Pro or Gly-X-Hyp, where X may be any of various other amino acid residues. Gly-Pro-Hyp occurs frequently. This kind of regular repetition and high glycine content is found in only a few other fibrous proteins, such as silk fibroin. 75-80% of silk is (approximately) -Gly-Ala-Gly-Ala- with 10% serine — and elastin is rich in glycine, proline, and alanine (Ala), whose side group is a small, inert methyl. Such high glycine and regular repetitions are never found in globular proteins. Chemically-reactive side groups are not needed in structural proteins as they are in enzymes and transport proteins. The high content of Pro and Hyp rings, with their geometrically constrained carboxyl and (secondary) amino groups, accounts for the tendency of the individual polypeptide strands to form left-handed helices spontaneously, without any intrachain hydrogen bonding. For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... Structure of hydroxyproline 4-Hydroxyproline, or hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an uncommon amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Fibroin is a type of protein created by silkworms in the production of silk. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... Elastin, also known as elasticin, is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... A transport protein is a protein involved in facilitated diffusion. ... A carboxyl or carboxylic group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom and an oxygen atom doubly bonded to each other. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ...


Because glycine is the smallest amino acid, it plays a unique role in fibrous structural proteins. In collagen, Gly is required at every third position because the assembly of the triple helix puts this residue at the interior (axis) of the helix, where there is no space for a larger side group than glycine’s single hydrogen atom. For the same reason, the rings of the Pro and Hyp must point outward. These two amino acids thermally stabilize the triple helix — Hyp even more so than Pro — and less of them is required in animals such as fish, whose body temperatures are low. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


In bone, entire collagen triple helices lie in a parallel, staggered array. 40 nm gaps between the ends of the tropocollagen subunits probably serve as nucleation sites for the deposition of long, hard, fine crystals of the mineral component, which is (approximately) hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH), with some phosphate. It is in this way that certain kinds of cartilage turn into bone. Collagen gives bone its elasticity and contributes to fracture resistance. Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... It has been suggested that Bone healing be merged into this article or section. ...


Types of collagen and associated disorders

Collagen occurs in many places throughout the body. There are 28 types of collagen described in literature.


Collagen diseases commonly arise from genetic defects that affect the biosynthesis, assembly, postranslational modification, secretion, or other processes in the normal production of collagen.

Type Notes Gene(s) Disorders
I This is the most abundant collagen of the human body. It is present in scar tissue, the end product when tissue heals by repair. It is found in tendons, the endomysium of myofibrils and the organic part of bone. COL1A1, COL1A2 osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
II Hyaline cartilage, makes up 50% of all cartilage protein COL2A1 Collagenopathy, types II and XI
III This is the collagen of granulation tissue, and is produced quickly by young fibroblasts before the tougher type I collagen is synthesized. Reticular fiber. Also found in artery walls, intestines and the uterus COL3A1 Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
IV basal lamina; eye lens. Also serves as part of the filtration system in capillaries and the glomeruli of nephron in the kidney. COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5, COL4A6 Alport syndrome
V most interstitial tissue, assoc. with type I, associated with placenta COL5A1, COL5A2, COL5A3 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Classical)
VI most interstitial tissue, assoc. with type I COL6A1, COL6A2, COL6A3 Ulrich myopathy and Bethlem myopathy
VII forms anchoring fibrils in dermal epidermal junctions COL7A1 epidermolysis bullosa
VIII some endothelial cells COL8A1, COL8A2 -
IX FACIT collagen, cartilage, assoc. with type II and XI fibrils COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3 -
X hypertrophic and mineralizing cartilage COL10A1 -
XI cartilage COL11A1, COL11A2 Collagenopathy, types II and XI
XII FACIT collagen, interacts with type I containing fibrils, decorin and glucosaminoglycans COL12A1 -
XIII transmembrane collagen, interacts with integrin a1b1, fibronectin and components of basment membranes like nidogen and perlecan. COL13A1 -
XIV FACIT collagen COL14A1 -
XV - COL15A1 -
XVI - COL16A1 -
XVII transmembrane collagen, also known as BP180, a 180 kDa protein COL17A1 Bullous Pemphigoid and certain forms of junctional epidermolysis bullosa
XVIII source of endostatin COL18A1 -
XIX FACIT collagen COL19A1 -
XX - COL20A1 -
XXI FACIT collagen COL21A1 -
XXII - COL22A1 -
XXIII - COL23A1 -
XXIV - COL24A1 -
XXV - COL25A1 -
XXVII - COL27A1 -
XXVIII - COL28A1 -

Type-I collagen is the most abundant collagen of the human body. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI and sometimes known as Brittle Bone Disease) is a genetic bone disorder. ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting humans and domestic animals caused by a defect in collagen synthesis. ... Type-II collagen is the basis for articular cartilage and hyaline cartilage. ... Cartilage is type of dense connective tissue. ... The type II and XI collagenopathies are a group of disorders that affect connective tissue, the tissue that supports the bodys joints and organs. ... Type-III collagen is a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling. ... Granulation tissue is the tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing tissue. ... Reticular fibers are the structural fiber in some connective tissues. ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting humans and domestic animals caused by a defect in collagen synthesis. ... Type-IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina There are six genes associated with it: COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5, COL4A6 Mutations to the genes coding for collagen type IV lead to Alport syndrome. ... The basal lamina (often erroneously called basement membrane) is a layer on which epithelium sits. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by the progressive loss of kidney function and hearing. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting humans and domestic animals caused by a defect in collagen synthesis. ... Bethlem myopathy is a form of myopathy caused by a variation in one of the three genes coding for type VI collagen. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A cell junction is a structure within a tissue of a multicellular organism. ... FACIT collagen (Fibril Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple helices[1]) refers to a type of collagen which is also a proteoglycan. ... Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ. ... The type II and XI collagenopathies are a group of disorders that affect connective tissue, the tissue that supports the bodys joints and organs. ... FACIT collagen (Fibril Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple helices[1]) refers to a type of collagen which is also a proteoglycan. ... Decorin is a proteoglycan on average 90 - 140 kilodaltons (kD) in size. ... Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ... Entactin (nidogen): a component of the basement membrane along side other components such as collagen type IV, proteoglycans ( heparan sulphate and glycosaminoglycans), laminin and fibronectin. ... Perlecan is a large multidomain proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellualr matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. ... FACIT collagen (Fibril Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple helices[1]) refers to a type of collagen which is also a proteoglycan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bullous pemphigoid, also referred to as BP, is a chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters below the surface of the skin and antibodies against collagen XVII. It can also (albeit only rarely) involve the mucous membranes, and has been shown to afflict dogs, cats, pigs, and horses... Type XVIII collagen is a type of collagen which can be cleaved to form endostatin. ... An endostatin is a naturally-occurring chemical in the human body that serves as an anti-angiogenesis agent. ... FACIT collagen (Fibril Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple helices[1]) refers to a type of collagen which is also a proteoglycan. ... FACIT collagen (Fibril Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple helices[1]) refers to a type of collagen which is also a proteoglycan. ...

Staining

In histology, collagen is brightly eosinophilic (pink) in standard H&E slides. The dye methyl violet may be used to stain the collagen in tissue samples. A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... H&E stained lung tissue sample from an end-stage emphysema patient. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Structure of Methyl Violet 2B Methyl violet is the name given to a group of similar chemicals used as pH indicators and dyes. ... Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ...


The dye methyl blue can also be used to stain collagen and immunohistochemical stains are available if required. Structural formula of methyl blue Methyl blue, also known as Cotton blue, Helvetia blue, or Acid blue 93, is a chemical compound used as a stain in histology. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ...


The best stain for use in differentiating collagen from other fibers is Masson's trichrome stain. Massons trichrome is a three-color staining protocol used in histology. ...


Collagen is birefringent when stained with Sirius red F3B (C.I. 35782). [5] A calcite crystal laid upon a paper with some letters showing the double refraction Birefringence, or double refraction, is the division of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals, depending on...


Synthesis

Amino acids

Collagen has an unusual amino acid composition and sequence: Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ...

  • Glycine (Gly) is found at almost every third residue
  • Proline (Pro) makes up about 9% of collagen
  • Collagen contains two uncommon derivative amino acids not directly inserted during translation. These amino acids are found at specific locations relative to glycine and are modified post-translationally by different enzymes, both of which require vitamin C as a cofactor.

For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... A residue, broadly, is anything left behind by a reaction or event. ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Structure of hydroxyproline 4-Hydroxyproline, or hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an uncommon amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e. ... Hydroxylysine is an amino acid, C6H14N2O3. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ...

Collagen I formation

Most collagen forms in a similar manner, but the following process is typical for type I:

  1. Inside the cell
    1. Three peptide chains are formed (2 alpha-1 and 1 alpha-2 chain) in ribosomes along the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER). These peptide chains (known as preprocollagen) have registration peptides on each end; and a signal peptide is also attached to each
    2. Peptide chains are sent into the lumen of the RER
    3. Signal Peptides are cleaved inside the RER and the chains are now known as procollagen
    4. Hydroxylation of lysine and proline amino acids occurs inside the lumen. This process is dependent on Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) as a cofactor
    5. Glycosylation of specific hydroxylated amino acid occurs
    6. Triple helical structure is formed inside the RER
    7. Procollagen is shipped to the golgi apparatus, where it is packaged and secreted by exocytosis
  2. Outside the cell
    1. Registration peptides are cleaved and tropocollagen is formed by procollagen peptidase.
    2. Multiple tropocollagen molecules form collagen fibrils, and multiple collagen fibrils form into collagen fibers
    3. Collagen is attached to cell membranes via several types of protein, including fibronectin and integrin.

Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ... A signal peptide is a short (15-60 amino acids long) peptide chain that directs the post transrational transport of a protein. ... Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... A cofactor is the following: In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Diagram of the endomembrane system in a typical eukaryote cell Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... This page is currently under construction. ... Procollagen peptidase is an endopeptidase involved in the processing of collagen. ... Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ... An integrin, or integrin receptor, is an integral membrane protein in the plasma membrane of cells. ...

Synthetic pathogenesis

Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, a serious and painful disease in which defective collagen prevents the formation of strong connective tissue. Gums deteriorate and bleed, with loss of teeth; skin discolors, and wounds do not heal. Prior to the eighteenth century, this condition was notorious among long duration military, particularly naval, expeditions during which participants were deprived of foods containing Vitamin C. In the human body, a malfunction of the immune system, called an autoimmune disease, results in an immune response in which healthy collagen fibers are systematically destroyed with inflammation of surrounding tissues. The resulting disease processes are called Lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, or collagen tissue disorders.[6] Scurvy (N.Lat. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... The gingiva (sing. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


Many bacteria and viruses have virulence factors which destroy collagen or interfere with its production.


Collagen in art

Julian Voss-Andreae's sculpture Unraveling Collagen (2005), stainless steel, height 11'3" (3.40 m).
Julian Voss-Andreae's sculpture Unraveling Collagen (2005), stainless steel, height 11'3" (3.40 m).

Julian Voss-Andreae has created sculptures based on the collagen structure out of bamboo and stainless steel. His piece "Unraveling Collagen" is, according to the artist, a "metaphor for aging and growth"[7][8]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 633 × 599 pixels Full resolution (811 × 768 pixel, file size: 278 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artist: Julian Voss-Andreae Sculpture shown: Unraveling Collagen, 2005, stainless steel, height: 113 (3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 633 × 599 pixels Full resolution (811 × 768 pixel, file size: 278 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artist: Julian Voss-Andreae Sculpture shown: Unraveling Collagen, 2005, stainless steel, height: 113 (3. ...


See also

Osteoid is a protein mixture which is secreted by osteoblasts. ... Outline Trout pout is a British slang term for over-sized lips, usually on women, due to collagen implants. ... Fibrous proteins, also called scleroproteins, are long filamentous protein molecules that form one of the two main classes of tertiary structure protein (the other being globular proteins). ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.gmap-gelatin.com/gelatin_adv.html
  2. ^ http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/glue.html
  3. ^ Ann Thorac Surg. 1994 Jun; 57(6): 1622-7
  4. ^ http://www.lipaugmentation.com/bioimplants.htm
  5. ^ Junqueira LCU, Bignolas G, Brentani RR. Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections. Histochem J 1979).
  6. ^ AJR article about lupus and other collagen disorders
  7. ^ Ward, Barbara (April 2006). "'Unraveling Collagen' structure to be installed in Orange Memorial Park Sculpture Garden". Expert Rev. Proteomics 3 (2): 174. 
  8. ^ Interview with J. Voss-Andreae "Seeing Below the Surface" in Seed Magazine

Additional images

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Collagen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1758 words)
Collagen's insolubility was a barrier to study until it was found that tropocollagen from young animals can be extracted because it is not yet fully crosslinked.
Collagen means "glue producer" (kolla is Greek for glue), derived from the early process of boiling the skin and sinews of horses and other animals to obtain glue.
Collagens are still employed in the construction of artificial skin substitutes used in the management of severe burns.
Collagen (476 words)
Collagen is a major component of the connective tissue meshwork that runs through animal bodies.
Collagen is first synthesized as a large precursor protein containing over 1400 amino acids.
Glycine is the smallest of the amino acids and in the collagen triple helix, the glycines of adjacent polypeptide chains are packed close together.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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