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Encyclopedia > Collaboration
Related terms:
Co-operation
Coordination

Collaboration is a structured, recursive process where two or more people work together toward a common goal—typically an intellectual endeavor[1] [2] that is creative in nature[3]—by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus. Collaboration does not require leadership and can sometimes bring better results through decentralization and egalitarianism.[4] In particular, teams that work collaboratively can obtain greater resources, recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources.[5] Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... Collaborative methodologies are processes, behaviors and conversations that relate to collaboration between individuals. ... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... now. ... Leader redirects here. ... Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ...


Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of behavior and communication.[4] These methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Forms, rubrics, charts and graphs are useful in these situations to objectively document personal traits with the goal of improving performance in current and future projects. This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ...


Since the Second World War the term "Collaboration" acquired a very negative meaning as referring to persons and groups which help a foreign occupier of their country—due to actual use by people in France and other European countries who worked with and for the Nazi German occupiers. Linguistically, "collaboration" implies more or less equal partners who work together—which is obviously not the case when one party is an army of occupation and the other are people of the occupied country living under the power of this army. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


In order to make a distinction, the more specific term "Collaborationism" is often used for this phenomenon of collaboration with an occupying army. However, there is no water-tight distinction; "Collaboration" and "Collaborator", as well as "Collaborationism" and "Collaborationist", are often used in this pejorative sense—and even more so, the equivalent terms in French and other languages spoken in countries which experienced direct Nazi occupation. Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ...

Contents

History

Trade

The trade of goods is an economic activity providing mutual benefit
The trade of goods is an economic activity providing mutual benefit

Trade originated with the start of communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other when there was no such thing as the modern day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.[6] Image File history File links Photo by Nathan Freitas. ... Image File history File links Photo by Nathan Freitas. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... The history of communication dates back to the earliest signs of life. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Peter Watson is a business writer and intellectual historian from London, England. ... The history of international trade chronicles the way that the flow of trade over long distances has shaped, and been shaped by history. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ...


Trade exists for many reasons. Due to specialisation and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of production, trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have a comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. As such, trade at market prices between locations benefits both locations. In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Market price is an economic concept with commonplace familiarity; it is the price that a good or service is offered at, or will fetch, in the marketplace; it is of interest mainly in the study of microeconomics. ...


Community organization

Organization and cooperation between community members provides economic and social benefits
Organization and cooperation between community members provides economic and social benefits

Main article: intentional community Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links First_aliyah_BILU_in_kuffiyeh. ... Image File history File links First_aliyah_BILU_in_kuffiyeh. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ...


An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, political or spiritual vision. They also share responsibilities and resources. Intentional communities include cohousing, residential land trusts, ecovillages, communes, kibbutzim, ashrams, and housing cooperatives. Typically, new members of an intentional community are selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by real-estate agents or land owners (if the land is not owned by the community). A residential community is a community, usually a small town or city, that is composed mostly of residents, as opposed to commercial businesses and/or industrial facilities, all three of which are considered to be the three main types of occupants of the typical community. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... A cohousing community is a kind of intentional community composed of private homes with full kitchens, supplemented by extensive common facilities. ... In common law legal systems, a trust is a contractual relationship in which a person or entity (the trustee) has legal title to certain property (the trust property or trust corpus), but is bound by a fiduciary duty to exercise that legal control for the benefit of one or more... Ecovillages are intended to be socially, economically and ecologically sustainable intentional communities. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity, usually a corporation, that owns real estate, one or more residential buildings. ...

Hutterite, Austria (1500s)
Hutterites practice a near-total community of goods: all property is owned by the colony, and provisions for individual members and their families come from the common resources. This practice is based largely on Hutterite interpretation of passages in chapters 2, 4, and 5 of Acts, which speak of the believers "having all things in common". Thus the colony owns and operates its buildings and equipment like a corporation. Housing units are built and assigned to individual families but belong to the colony and there is very little personal property. Meals are taken by the entire colony in a common long room.
Oneida Community, Oneida, New York (1848)
The Oneida Community practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions) and Mutual Criticism, where every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. The goal was to eliminate bad character traits.
Early Kibbutz settlements founded near Jerusalem (1890)
A Kibbutz is an Israeli collective community. The movement combines socialism and Zionism in a form of practical Labor Zionism, founded at a time when independent farming was not practical or perhaps more correctly—not practicable. Forced by necessity into communal life, and inspired by their own ideology, the kibbutz members developed a pure communal mode of living that attracted interest from the entire world. While the kibbutzim lasted for several generations as utopian communities, most of today's kibbutzim are scarcely different from the capitalist enterprises and regular towns to which the kibbutzim were originally supposed to be alternatives.

Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The Oneida Society (Oneida Community) was a utopian commune founded by John H. Noyes in 1848 near Oneida, New York. ... Oneida is a city located in Madison County, New York. ... In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ...

Modern art

  • DADA—Switzerland
  • Impressionists Paris
  • Islington, London
  • Modernists Russia

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Game theory

The prisoner's dilemma is an example of game theory
The prisoner's dilemma is an example of game theory

Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics and economics that looks at situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. The first documented discussion of it is a letter written by James Waldegrave in 1713. Antoine Augustin Cournot's Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth in 1838 provided the first general theory. It was not until 1928 that this became a recognized, unique field when John von Neumann published a series of papers. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in the 1944 book The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. In 1950, the first discussion of the prisoner's dilemma appeared, and an experiment was undertaken on this game at the RAND corporation. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Prison. ... Image File history File links Prison. ... Will the two prisoners cooperate to minimize total loss of liberty or will one of them, trusting the other to cooperate, betray him so as to go free? In game theory, the prisoners dilemma (sometimes abbreviated PD) is a type of non-zero-sum game in which two players... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ... Antoine Augustin Cournot Antoine Augustin Cournot (28 August 1801‑ 31 March 1877) was a French philosopher and mathematician. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Oskar Morgenstern (January 24, 1902 - July 26, 1977) was an German- American economist who, working with John von Neumann, helped found the mathematical field of game theory. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ...


Military-industrial complex

The term military-industrial complex refers to a close and symbiotic relationship among a nation's armed forces, its private industry, and associated political and commercial interests. In such a system, the military is dependent on industry to supply material and other support, while the defense industry depends on government for revenue. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...

Skunk Works
Skunk Works is a term used in engineering and technical fields to describe a group within an organization given a high degree of autonomy and unhampered by bureaucracy, tasked with working on advanced or secret projects. Founded at Lockheed Martin in 1943, the team developed highly innovative aircraft in short time frames, even beating its first deadline by 37 days.[7] Creator of the organization, Kelly Johnson is said to have been an 'organizing genius' and had fourteen basic operating rules.[7]
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was the project to develop the first nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) during World War II by the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1941–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.
While the aforementioned persons were influential in the project itself, the value of this project as an influence on organized collaboration is better attributed to Vannevar Bush.[7] In early 1940, bush lobbied for the creation of the National Defense Research Committee. Frustrated by previous bureaucratic failures in implementing technology in World War I, Bush sought to organize the scientific power of the United States for greater success.[7]
The project succeeded in developing and detonating three nuclear weapons in 1945: a test detonation of a plutonium implosion bomb on July 16 (the Trinity test) near Alamogordo, New Mexico; an enriched uranium bomb code-named "Little Boy" on August 6 over Hiroshima, Japan; and a second plutonium bomb, code-named "Fat Man" on August 9 over Nagasaki, Japan.

A modern Skunk Works project leverages an older: LASRE atop the SR-71 Blackbird. ... Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... Kelly Johnson is the popular name for Clarence Johnson, an aircraft engineer. ... Kelly Johnson is the popular name for Clarence Johnson, an aircraft engineer. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is a federal agency made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In June of 1940, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Alamogordo is a city in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ...

Project management

The 2,751 Liberty ships built in four years by the United States during World War II required new approaches in organization and manufacturing
The 2,751 Liberty ships built in four years by the United States during World War II required new approaches in organization and manufacturing

As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense. In the United States, the forefather of project management is Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famously known for his use of the "bar" chart as a project management tool, for being an associate of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management,[8] and for his study of the work and management of Navy ship building. His work is the forerunner to many modern project management tools including the work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation. SS on the Great Lakes in 2000. ... SS on the Great Lakes in 2000. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Henry Laurence Gantt, A.B.; M.E. (1861-1919) was a mechanical engineer and management consultant who is most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s. ... Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 to March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Scientific management, also called Taylorism or the Classical Perspective, is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... // One of the most important WBS design principles is called the 100% Rule. ...


The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt charts, and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed: (1) the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, developed as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program;[9] and (2) the "Critical Path Method" (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises. Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications. ... PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). ... USN redirects here. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or critical path analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... A Remington Rand branded typewriter Remington Rand was an early American computer manufacturer, best known as the original maker of the UNIVAC I, and now part of Unisys. ...


In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interest of the project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and techniques of project management are common even among the widespread application of projects from the software industry to the construction industry. In 1981, the PMI Board of Directors authorized the development of what has become A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), containing the standards and guidelines of practice that are widely used throughout the profession. The International Project Management Association (IPMA), founded in Europe in 1967, has undergone a similar development and instituted the IPMA Project Baseline. Both organizations are now participating in the development of a global project management standard. PMI logo. ... Starting in the 1980s, application software has been sold in mass-produced packages through retailers The software industry comprises of businesses involved in the development, maintenance and publication of computer software. ... Project Management Institute (PMI) published the first PMBOK® in an attempt to document and standardize generally accepted project management information and practices. ...


Art Groups

Fluxus
An international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. Fluxus encouraged a do it yourself aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. As Fluxus artist Robert Filliou wrote, however, Fluxus differed from Dada in its richer set of aspirations, and the positive social and communitarian aspirations of Fluxus far outweighed the anti-art tendency that also marked the group.
Situationist International
The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. Formed in 1957, the SI was active in Europe through the 1960s and aspired to major social and political transformations. In the 1960s it split into a number of different groups, including the Situationist Bauhaus, the Antinational and the Second Situationist International. The first SI disbanded in 1972. [10]

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Fluxus – a name taken from a Latin word meaning to flow – is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Anti art is a work that is exhibited or delivered in a conventional context but makes fun of serious art or challenges the nature of art. ... Robert Filliou (Born Jan 17, 1926, Sauve, France - Died 1987, Les Eyzies, France) is a French Fluxus artist, who produced works as a filmmaker, action poet, sculptor, and Happenings maestro. ... The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ... An agitator at a political demonstration in France. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Lettrism is a French avant-garde movement, established in Paris in the mid-1940s by Romanian immigrant Isidore Isou. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Jørgen Nash identifies the the first manifestation of the second Situationist International after it broke away from the Situationist International as a leaflet signed by himself along with Jacqueline de Jong and Ansgar Elde, shortly after the group Seven Rebels was formed at Bauhaus Situationiste Drakabygget, in 1960 in...

Feminism

California State University, Fresno (Feminist Art Movement)
In 1970, by Judy Chicago founded a feminist art education program
California Institute of the Arts (Feminist Art Movement)
In 1971, Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro founded a feminist art education program
Woman's Building (Feminist Art Movement)
The Woman's Building was a non-profit public art and educational center focused on showcasing women's art and culture. It existed in Los Angeles from 1973 to 1991. Womanhouse, an installation organized by this center in 1972, encouraged participants to work together.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The campus on a sunny day California State University, Fresno, commonly referred to as Fresno State, is one of the campuses of California State University, located at the northeast edge of Fresno, California, USA. The campus sits at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the San Joaquin... The feminist art movement refers to the efforts and accomplishments of feminists internationally to bring more visibility to women within art history and art practice. ... Judy Chicago (born Judy Cohen on July 20, 1939) is a feminist artist, author, and educator. ... Entrance to CalArts on McBean Parkway The California Institute of the Arts is commonly referred to as CalArts. ... The feminist art movement refers to the efforts and accomplishments of feminists internationally to bring more visibility to women within art history and art practice. ... Judy Chicago (born Judy Cohen on July 20, 1939) is a feminist artist, author, and educator. ... The Womans Building was a non-profit public art and educational center focused on showcasing womens art and culture. ... The feminist art movement refers to the efforts and accomplishments of feminists internationally to bring more visibility to women within art history and art practice. ... Womanhouse (30 January-28 February 1972) was a women-only art installation and performance organised by Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro, co-founders of the California Insitute of the Arts (CalArts) Feminist Art Program. ...

Back-to-the-land movement

Main article: Back-to-the-land movement Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Today, the phrase back-to-the-land movement usually refers to a North American social phenomenon of the 1960s and 1970s. ...

  • 1960s, 1970s—beginning in the USA, this is a movement generally known to be from 'hippies.'

Academia

Black Mountain College
Founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier and other former faculty of Rollins College, Black Mountain was experimental by nature and committed to an interdisciplinary approach, attracting a faculty which included many of America's leading visual artists, poets, and designers.
Operating in a relatively isolated rural location with little budget, Black Mountain College inculcated an informal and collaborative spirit, and over its lifetime attracted a venerable roster of instructors. Some of the innovations, relationships and unexpected connections formed at Black Mountain would prove to have a lasting influence on the postwar American art scene, high culture, and eventually pop culture. Buckminster Fuller met student Kenneth Snelson at Black Mountain, and the result was the first geodesic dome (improvised out of slats in the school's back yard); Merce Cunningham formed his dance company; and John Cage staged his first happening.
Not a haphazardly conceived venture, Black Mountain College was a consciously directed liberal arts school that grew out of the progressive education movement. In its day it was a unique educational experiment for the artists and writers who conducted it, and as such an important incubator for the American avant garde. Black Mountain proved to be an important precursor to and prototype for many of the alternative colleges of today ranging from the University of California, Santa Cruz to Hampshire College and Evergreen State College, among others.
Learning Community
The Evergreen signature clock tower
The Evergreen signature clock tower
Dr. Wolff-Michael Roth and Stuart Lee of the University of Victoria assert[11] that until the early 1990s the individual was the 'unit of instruction' and the focus of research. The two observed that researchers and practitioners switched[12][13] to the idea that knowing is 'better' thought of as a cultural practice.[14][15][16][17] Roth and Lee also claim[11] that this led to changes in learning and teaching design in which students were encouraged to share their ways of doing mathematics, history, science, with each other. In other words, that children take part in the construction of consensual domains, and 'participate in the negotiation and institutionalisation of … meaning'. In effect, they are participating in learning communities.
This analysis does not take account of the appearance of Learning communities in the United States in the early 1980s. For example, The Evergreen State College, which is widely considered a pioneer in this area, established an intercollegiate learning community in 1984. In 1985, this same college established the Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education, which focuses on collaborative education approaches, including learning communities as one of its centerpieces.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John A. Rice is the founder and first rector of Black Mountain College. ... Rollins College is an institution of higher learning located in Winter Park, Florida. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... Kenneth Snelson (born June 29, 1927) is a contemporary sculptor and photographer. ... Spaceship Earth in Epcot Center at Walt Disney World is perhaps one of the most famous examples of a large scale geodesic sphere. ... Merce Cunningham (born April 16, 1919 in Centralia, Washington, United States) is an American dancer and choreographer. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... A happening is a performance, event or situation meant to be considered as art. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... Educational progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. ... For other uses, see Avant-garde (disambiguation). ... “UCSC” redirects here. ... Hampshire College is an experimenting private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts. ... The Evergreen State College wordmark The Evergreen State College is an accredited public baccalaureate college, founded in 1967 in the state capital, Olympia, Washington. ... A learning community is a group of people who share common values and beliefs, are actively engaged in learning together from each other. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1152x864, 400 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Evergreen State College User:Goldom/gallery ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1152x864, 400 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Evergreen State College User:Goldom/gallery ... The University of Victoria (usually known as UVic, though originally as U of V) is located in Greater Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (northeast of Victoria). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The Evergreen signature clock tower The Evergreen State College is an accredited public liberal arts college and is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. ...

Contemporary examples

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Arts

Collaboration—or joint production by two or more artists—is a common style among musicians and performance artists. It has not been so popular, on the other hand, in the world of art, and especially in modern art. But the strong sense of individualism long possessed by artists of fine art began to wane around the 1960s, and some artists working in units have emerged and become widely known along with the development of new media based on the advances in information technology. They have changed the concept of art into something that can be engaged in by more than individual artists alone.


Business

Collaboration in business can be found both inter- and intra-organization and ranges from the simplicity of a partnership to the complexity of a multinational corporation. A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ...


See also : Management cybernetics Management cybernetics has evolved as one of the many subdivisions of cybernetic theory. ...


Education

Generally defined, an Educational Collaborative Partnership is ongoing involvement between schools and business/industry, unions, governments and community organizations. Educational Collaborative Partnerships are established by mutual agreement between two or more parties to work together on projects and activities that will enhance the quality of education for students while improving skills critical to success in the workplace. Students in Rome, Italy. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Organisation (band). ...


See also : Collaborative Partnerships: Business/Industry-Education


Music

Musical collaboration occurs when musicians in different places or groups work on the same album or song. Collaboration between musicians, especially with regards to jazz, is often heralded as the epitome of complex collaborative practice. Special software has been written to facilitate musical collaboration over the internet, such as VSTunnel. Websites have also been created to enable creative music collaboration over the internet, such as www.myblogband.com. [1]


Several awards exist specifically for collaboration in music:

The Grammy Award for Best Country Collaboration with Vocals was first awarded in 1988. ... The Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals has been awarded since 1995. ... The Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration has been awarded since 2002. ...

Publishing

Collaboration in publishing can be as simple as dual-authorship or as complex as commons-based peer production. Technological examples include Usenet, e-mail lists, blogs and Wikis while 'brick and mortar' examples include monographs (books) and periodicals such as newspapers, journals and magazines. Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Yales Law professor Yochai Benkler to describe a new model of economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the internet) into large, meaningful projects, mostly without traditional hierarchical... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... An electronic mailing list, a type of Internet forum, is a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wiki wiki redirects here. ... Brick and mortar can simply refer to any company that possesses a building for operations. ... A monograph is a scholarly book or a treatise on a single subject or a group of related subjects. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Science

Though there is no political institution organizing the sciences on an international level, a self-organized, global network had formed in the late 20th century.[5] Observed by the rise in co-authorships in published papers, Wagner and Leydesdorff found international collaborations to have doubled from 1990 to 2005.[5] While collaborative authorships within nations has also risen, this has done so at a slower rate and is not cited as frequently.[5] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Loet Leydesdorff (21 August 1948 Djakarta (Dutch Indies)) is a Dutch sociologist, cyberneticist and Senior Lecturer at the University of Amsterdam. ...


Technology

Both as entertainment and as a problem-solving tool, collaboration in technology encompasses video games, distributed computing, knowledge sharing and communication tools. Many large companies are developing enterprise collaboration strategies and standardizing on a collaboration platform. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Collaboration in the technology sector refers to a wide variety of tools that enable groups of people to work together. Collaboration encompasses both asynchronous and synchronous methods of communication and serves as an umbrella-term for a wide variety of software packages. Perhaps the most commonly associated form of synchronous collaboration is web conferencing using tools such as Microsoft Live Meeting but the term can easily be applied to Instant Messaging as well. Examples of asynchronous collaboration software include Microsoft Sharepoint. The term SharePoint can refer to any of three pairs of Microsoft software products which were released in the same timeframe: In 2001: SharePoint Team Services (STS) which ran on Windows 2000 Server and was in effect Windows SharePoint Services version 1. ...

The Internet
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and test, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place, even among niche interests. An example of this is the free software movement in software development which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and OpenOffice.org (formerly known as Netscape Communicator and StarOffice).
Commons-based peer production
Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Yale's Law professor Yochai Benkler to describe a new model of economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the internet) into large, meaningful projects, mostly without traditional hierarchical organization or financial compensation. He compares this to firm production (where a centralized decision process decides what has to be done and by whom) and market-based production (when tagging different prices to different jobs serves as an attractor to anyone interested in doing the job).
Examples of products created by means of commons-based peer production include Linux, a computer operating system; Slashdot, a news and announcements website; Kuro5hin, a discussion site for technology and culture; Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia; and Clickworkers, a collaborative scientific work. Another example is Socialtext which is a software that uses tools such as wikis and weblogs and helps companys to create a collaborative work environment.
Massively distributed collaboration
The term massively distributed collaboration was coined by Mitchell Kapor, in a presentation at UC Berkeley on 2005-11-09, to describe an emerging activity of wikis and electronic mailing lists and blogs and other content-creating virtual communities online.

The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... OpenOffice. ... Netscape Communicator was a proprietary Internet suite produced by Netscape Communications Corporation. ... StarOffice is Sun Microsystems proprietary office suite software package. ... Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Yales Law professor Yochai Benkler to describe a new model of economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the internet) into large, meaningful projects, mostly without traditional hierarchical... YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment) is an environment for machine learning experiments and data mining. ... Yochai Benkler speaking at UC Berkeley Boalt Hall School of law on 27 April 2006. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... This article is about the machine. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Slashdot, often abbreviated as /.[1], is a science, science fiction, and technology-related news website owned by SourceForge, Inc. ... Kuro5hin (K5) (pronounced corrosion) is a community discussion website (sometimes known as an example of Commons-based peer production) focused on technology and culture. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... ClickWorkers was a small, experimental NASA project (run from November 2000 to September 2001) that showed that public volunteers (clickworkers), many working for a few minutes here and there and others choosing to work longer, can do some routine science analysis that would normally be done by a scientist or... The term massively distributed collaboration was coined by Mitchell Kapor, in a presentation at UC Berkeley on 2005-11-09, to describe an emerging activity of wikis and electronic mailing lists and blogs and other content-creating virtual communities online. ... Mitch Kapor Mitchell David Kapor (born 1950) is the founder of Lotus Development Corporation and the designer of Lotus 1-2-3, the killer application often credited with making the personal computer ubiquitous in the business world in the 1980s. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wiki wiki redirects here. ... An electronic mailing list, a type of Internet forum, is a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ...

Counter Strike

Alexander Saito and Philip Aoun were noted to be called the "colab." They held B site in dust2 like nobody's business.


See also

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Collaborative software is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their goals. ... A conference call is a telephone call in which the calling party wishes to have more than one called party listen in to the audio portion of the call. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // General theories By explaining more phenomenon, with increased economy, a general theory provides more scientific power. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Unorganisation is an approach to organisational structure that consciously removes or avoids layers of management and bureaucracy, eschews job titles, and instead attempts to operate with the minimum of formal structure so as to become as flexible and efficient as possible. ... Book cover of Wikinomics Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a December 2006 book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams. ...

References

Look up collaboration in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ Collaborate, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 2007
  2. ^ Collaboration, Encyclopedia Brittanica Online, 2007
  3. ^ Collaboration, Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, (1989). (Eds.) J. A. Simpson & E. S. C. Weiner. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ a b Spence, Muneera U. "Graphic Design: Collaborative Processes = Understanding Self and Others." (lecture) Art 325: Collaborative Processes. Fairbanks Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 13 April 2006. See also.
  5. ^ a b c d Wagner, Caroline S. and Loet Leydesdorff. Globalisation in the network of science in 2005: The diffusion of international collaboration and the formation of a core group.
  6. ^ Watson, Peter (2005). Ideas : A History of Thought and Invention from Fire to Freud. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-621064-X.  Introduction.
  7. ^ a b c d Bennis, Warren and Patricia :Ward Biederman. Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration. Perseus Books, 1997.
  8. ^ The Principles of Scientific Management
  9. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton - History of Booz Allen 1950s
  10. ^ Barbelith: Head Shop: Situationism in a nutshell
  11. ^ a b Roth, W-M. and Lee, Y-J. (2006) Contradictions in theorising and implementing communities in education. Educational Research Review, 1, (1), pp27–40.
  12. ^ Lave, J. (1988) Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. ^ Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  14. ^ Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), pp32–42.
  15. ^ Roth, W.-M., & Bowen, G. M. (1995) Knowing and interacting: A study of culture, practices, and resources in a grade 8 open-inquiry science classroom guided by a cognitive apprenticeship metaphor. Cognition and Instruction, 13, 73–128.
  16. ^ Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3, pp265–283.
  17. ^ The Cognition and Technology Group (1994). From visual word problems to learning communities: Changing conceptions of cognitive research. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 157–200). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a coeducational, public research university located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. ... Corvallis (IPA: ) is a city located in central western Oregon, USA. It is the county seat of Benton CountyGR6 and the principal city of the Corvallis, Oregon Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Benton County. ... Loet Leydesdorff (21 August 1948 Djakarta (Dutch Indies)) is a Dutch sociologist, cyberneticist and Senior Lecturer at the University of Amsterdam. ...

Further reading

  • Sandor Schuman (Editor). Creating a Culture of Collaboration. Jossey-Bass, 2006. ISBN 0-7879-8116-8
  • Schneider, Florian: Collaboration: Some Thoughts Concerning New Ways of Learning and Working Together., in: Academy, edited by Angelika Nollert and Irit Rogoff, 280 pages, Revolver Verlag, ISBN 3-86588-303-6.
  • Marcum, James W. After the Information Age: A Dynamic Learning Manifesto. Vol. 231. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2006.
  • Spence, Muneera U. "Graphic Design Collaborative Processes: a Course in Collaboration." Oregon State University. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: AIGA, 2005. http://revolutionphiladelphia.aiga.org/resources/content/2/5/7/0/documents/MSpence.pdf

  Results from FactBites:
 
Welcome to the Campbell Collaboration (161 words)
The Campbell Collaboration (C2) is an independent, international, non-profit organization that strives to provide decision-makers with evidence-based information to empower them to make well-informed decisions about the effects of interventions in the social, behavioral and educational arenas.
The Campbell Collaboration’s substantive priorities include, though are not confined to, education, social welfare, and crime and justice.
The Collaboration is largely a voluntary organization that welcomes newcomers from around the world, irrespective of professional or disciplinary background.
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