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Encyclopedia > Colin Powell
Gen. Colin Luther Powell
Colin Powell

In office
January 20, 2001 – January 26, 2005
President George W. Bush
Preceded by Madeleine Albright
Succeeded by Condoleezza Rice

Born April 5, 1937 (1937-04-05) (age 70)
New York City, New York, USA
Political party Republican
Spouse Alma Vivian Johnson Powell
Profession Soldier
Statesman
Religion Episcopalian

General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret.) (born April 5, 1937) is a former American military leader and statesman. He became the first Jamaican-American to be confirmed as United States Secretary of State. As the 65th United States Secretary of State (2001-05) under President George W. Bush, Powell became the highest ranking Jamaican American government official in the history of the United States. Upon his appointment as Secretary of State, Powell became the highest-ranking person of Jamaican descent in the executive branch and the federal government, and prior to that, was the highest-ranking person of Jamaican descent in the military. Image File history File links Colin_powell_(official_portrait). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Colin Luther Powell (pronounced Coe-lin, born April 5, 1937) was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving from January 20, 2001 to January 26, 2005 under President George W. Bush. ... This article is about a military rank. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


As a General in the United States Army, Powell also served as National Security Advisor (1987–1989) and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989–1993), holding the latter position during the Gulf War. He was both the first, and only as of yet, Jamaican American and graduate of the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Program, to serve as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. U.S.Army shoulder insignia for a full General General is the most senior rank currently used in the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer of the United States military, and the principal military advisor to the President of the United States. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded in action, 30 taken prisoner Est. ... ROTC links here. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ...

Contents

Personal background

Colin Powell born in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem in 1937, and was raised in Hunts Point, South Bronx. He has always spoken warmly of his parents, Luther Theophilus Powell and Maud Ariel (née McKoy),[1] as loving and hard-working. They had emigrated from Jamaica to the United States and worked in Manhattan's Garment District. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Apollo Theater on 125th Street; the Hotel Theresa is visible in the background. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The French word née (feminine) or né (masculine) (or the English word nee) is still commonly used in some newspapers when mentioning the maiden name of a woman in engagement or wedding announcements. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ...


Powell was educated at Morris High School, a former public school in The Bronx, New York City, from which he graduated in 1954. He gained a bachelor's degree in geology from City College of New York attaining a 'C' average, according to his 2006 graduation address at Marymount University. He later obtained an MBA from The George Washington University after his second tour in Vietnam in 1971. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as City) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ... Marymount University is a coeducational, four-year Catholic university whose main campus is located in Arlington, Virginia. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ... The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ...


In 1962 C. Powell married his wife, Alma, who is now the co-chair of America's Promise. He is the father to Michael Powell, the former chair of the FCC. President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell hold a press conference about Americas Promise Americas Promise - The Alliance for Youth is a foundation started by Colin Powell in 1997 to help children and youth from all socioeconomic sectors in the United States. ... Michael Powell Michael Kevin Powell (born March 23, 1963) is an American Republican politician. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City...


Military career

Official Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff portrait photograph.
Official Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff portrait photograph.

While at City College Powell joined the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and later described it as one of the happiest experiences of his life: finding something he loved and could do well, he had "found himself." Cadet Powell joined the Pershing Rifles, the ROTC drill team started by John Pershing. Even after Powell became a General, he still kept on his desk a pen set he had won for a drill team competition. After graduating from City College in June 1958, he was granted a commission as an Army Second Lieutenant.[2]. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held a variety of command and staff positions and rose to the rank of General.[3] Powell obtained an MBA from George Washington University in 1971 and then served a White House fellowship under President Richard Nixon. In his autobiography My American Journey, Powell mentioned several officers he served under that inspired and mentored him. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2315x2979, 1925 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Colin Powell ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2315x2979, 1925 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Colin Powell ... The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as City) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ... A Pershing Rifles color guard competing at the 2004 NATCON drill competition held at Fort Monroe, VA. The Pershing Rifles, a military drill team organization for college-level students, was founded by then 1st Lt. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


As a Lieutenant Colonel serving in South Korea, for example, Powell was very close to General Henry "Gunfighter" Emerson. Powell said he regarded this man as one of the most caring officers he ever served under. Emerson reputedly had a somewhat eccentric personality. For example, he insisted his troops train only at night and made them repeatedly watch the television film Brian's Song to promote racial harmony. Powell always professed, however, that what set Emerson apart was his great love of his soldiers and concern for their welfare. Lieutenant Colonel of the United States Army and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel of the United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force and United States Marine Corps. ... Henry Gunfighter Emerson ... Dannys Song Two Scene 1, Dannys House* Dannys Mom (watching Dannys song):UMAHHHSHS Movie, WHERES MY JACK DANIELS Dannys Dad:Here it is Dannys Mom:Get outta here fanboy Me:Tell em steve dave Dannys Mom:Im gonna go see dannys o umaaaahhhhhhh...


While serving with the Third Armored Division in Germany as a Lieutenant, he met Elvis Presley, then serving in that unit. During the Vietnam War, Powell served as an advisor from 1962 to 1963. He returned to Vietnam from 1968 to 1969 where he served as the executive officer and later as the assistant chief of staff of operations for the Americal Division (the 23rd Infantry Division) with the rank of Major, was charged with investigating a detailed letter by Tom Glen (a soldier from the 11th Light Infantry Brigade), which backed up rumored allegations of the My Lai Massacre. Powell wrote: "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between American soldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent." Later, Powell's assessment would be described as whitewashing the news of the massacre, and questions would continue to remain undisclosed to the public. On May 4, 2004, United States Secretary of State Colin L. Powell said to Larry King, "I mean, I was in a unit that was responsible for My Lai. I got there after My Lai happened. So, in war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but they are still to be deplored."[4] Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3rd Armored Division, Spearhead. ... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Americal Division Shoulder Patch The Americal Division of the United States Army was formed in May 1942 on the island of New Caledonia. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ... Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, or calsomine is a type of inexpensive paint made from slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and chalk (whiting). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Larry King (born Lawrence Harvey Zeiger on November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American writer, journalist and broadcaster. ...


In the early 1980s, Powell served at Fort Carson, Colorado. It was there that he had a major clash with General John Hudachek, his commander. Hudachek said in an efficiency evaluation that Powell was a poor leader who should not be promoted. Many of Powell's supporters have said this was pettiness and spite on Hudachek's part and Powell's rising military career was unhindered by Hudachek's evaluation report. After he left Fort Carson, Powell became senior military assistant to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, whom he assisted during the invasion of Grenada and the raid on Libya. In 1989, prior to being named Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Powell served as the Commander in Chief, Forces Command headquartered at Fort McPherson, Georgia. Fort Carson is a census-designated place and United States Army post located in El Paso County, Colorado, outside of Colorado Springs. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... Fort McPherson is a U.S. Army base located in southwest Atlanta, Georgia. ...


Dates of rank

Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines) and a rank in the United States Navy between... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Insignia of a Major in the United States Military Major is a rank used in the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, and is the equivalent of a Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant Colonel of the United States Army and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel of the United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force and United States Marine Corps. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... U.S.Army shoulder insignia for a full General General is the most senior rank currently used in the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

Awards and decorations

For other meanings see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... The Soldiers Medal is a medal of the United States. ...

Badges

The Combat Infantryman Badge (CIB) is an award of the United States Army which is presented to those officers, warrant officers and enlisted soldiers, in the grade of Colonel and below, who participate in active ground combat while assigned as a member of an infantry or special forces unit, brigade... Expert Infantryman Badge. ... Ranger Tab The Ranger Tab is a military decoration of the United States Army which signifies completion of the U.S. Army Ranger School, a three month course providing instruction in small-unit combat tactics in woodland, mountain, and swamp operations. ... The Parachutist Badge, also commonly referred to as Jump Wings or Snow Cone, is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which is awarded to members of the United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy. ... The Pathfinder Badge is a military badge of the United States Army which is awarded to those soldiers who have successfully completed the U.S. Army Infantry Schools Pathfinder Course at Fort Benning, Georgia. ... The Air Assault Badge is a military badge of the United States Army which was first created in 1974. ... Presidential Service Badge The Presidential Service Badge is a badge of the United States military issued to military members who serve as full-time military staff to the President of the United States. ... The Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge is a military badge issued to members of the United States armed forces who are permanently assigned as military aides to the Secretary of Defense. ... The Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge is a U.S. military badge presented to the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff upon appointment to position as either a Service Head, Vice Chairman, or Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. ... The Army Staff Identification Badge is a decoration of the United States Army and is awarded to those personnel who serve for one year as a member of the Army General Staff. ...

Military medals and ribbons

The Defense Distinguished Service Medal is a United States military award which is presented for exceptionally distinguished performance of duty contributing to national security or defense of the United States. ... Bronze and Silver oak leaf clusters An Oak leaf cluster is a common device which is placed on military awards and decorations to denote those who have received more than one bestowal of a particular decoration. ... The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army which is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. ... The Air Force Distinguished Service Medal was created by an act of the United States Congress on July 6, 1960. ... The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919. ... The Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal is a decoration of the United States Coast Guard which was created in August 1949 by order of the United States Congress. ... Defense Superior Service Medal The Defense Superior Service Medal of the United States is a senior decoration of the Department of Defense. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... My Lai Massacre (1968). ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... For other meanings see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States which was established by Executive Order 9158, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, on May 11, 1942. ... The Commendation Medal is a mid-level United States military award which is presented for sustained acts of heroism or meritorious service. ... The Commendation Medal is a mid-level United States military award which is presented for sustained acts of heroism or meritorious service. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The Presidential Citizens Medal is the second highest civilian award in the United States awarded by the President of the United States, second only to the Presidential Medal of Freedom. ... Ribbon for the National Defense Service Medal The National Defense Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States military originally commissioned by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Vietnam Service Medal Vietnam Service Medal ribbon The Vietnam Service Medal is a military award which was created in 1965 by order of President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Army Service Ribbon is a military decoration of the United States Army which was created in 1981. ... An Overseas Service Ribbon is a decoration of the United States of America. ... Award numerals are decorations of the United States military which are attachments to certain ribbons and awards. ...

Foreign decorations

Gallantry Cross Medal and Unit Citation The Vietnam Gallantry Cross is a military decoration of South Vietnam which was established in August 1950. ... The Vietnam Campaign Medal is a military award of South Vietnam which was established in 1966. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Meritorious Service Cross and the Meritorious Service Medal are awarded by the reigning monarch of Canada (presently Queen Elizabeth II). ...

Presidential appointments

National Security Advisor

President Ronald Reagan and National Security Advisor Powell in 1988

At the age of 49, Powell became Ronald Reagan's National Security Advisor, serving from 1987 to 1989. He retained his Army commission (he was a Lieutenant General at the time of his nomination) while serving as National Security Advisor. After his tenure with the NSC, Powell was promoted to 4-star General under President George H.W. Bush and served as Commander-in-Chief (CINC) of the U.S. Army's Forces Command (FORSCOM), overseeing all Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard units in the Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... -1... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) is the Armys largest major command. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, waves from his motorcade during the Persian Gulf War, Welcome Home Parade, held in New York City, New York.
General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, waves from his motorcade during the Persian Gulf War, Welcome Home Parade, held in New York City, New York.

His last military assignment, from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. At age 52, he became the youngest officer to serve in this position. In 1989, he joined Eisenhower and Alexander Haig as the third general since World War II to reach four-star rank without ever being a divisional commander. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including the invasion of Panama in 1989 to remove General Manuel Noriega from power in the United States invasion of Panama and Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. During these events, Powell earned his nickname, "the reluctant warrior". He rarely advocated military intervention as the first solution to an international dispute, and instead usually prescribed diplomacy and containment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (887x1350, 610 KB) US Army (USA) General (GEN) Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, waves from his motorcade during the Persian Gulf War, Welcome Home Parade, held in New York City, New York (NY). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (887x1350, 610 KB) US Army (USA) General (GEN) Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, waves from his motorcade during the Persian Gulf War, Welcome Home Parade, held in New York City, New York (NY). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born February 11, 1935) was a Panamanian general and the de facto military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989, despite never being the official President of Panama. ... Combatants United States Panama Commanders Carl W. Stiner Manuel Noriega Strength 27,684+ 16,000+ Casualties 24 Dead, 325 Wounded 450 Military, 514-4,000 Civilian Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City, December 1989. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded in action, 30 taken prisoner Est. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism. ...

Powell (left) sits alongside Paul Wolfowitz (right) and Norman Schwarzkopf (middle) listening as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney hosts a press conference regarding the War.
Powell (left) sits alongside Paul Wolfowitz (right) and Norman Schwarzkopf (middle) listening as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney hosts a press conference regarding the War.

Powell mentioned in his autobiography that he is haunted by the nightmare of the Vietnam War. He felt the leadership was very ineffective. Powell served a tour in Vietnam as a military advisor, and was badly injured when he stepped on a bamboo "punji stick." The massive infection nearly killed him and it shortened his first tour. It was also during his Vietnam service, his second tour, that Powell was decorated for bravery. He single-handedly rescued several men from a burning helicopter, one of them being Maj. Gen. Charles Gettys, the commander of the Americal Division. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2869x1910, 669 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colin Powell Paul Wolfowitz Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2869x1910, 669 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Colin Powell Paul Wolfowitz Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... Norman Schwarzkopf can refer to: Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... An American marine walks through a gully of punji sticks during the Vietnam War The Punji stick or Punji stake is a type of a non-explosive booby trap. ... Americal Division Shoulder Patch The Americal Division of the United States Army was formed in May 1942 on the island of New Caledonia. ...


Powell opposed to the majority of George H.W. Bush Administration officials who advocated the deployment of troops to the Middle East to force Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein to withdraw his armies from neighboring Kuwait, believing the dictator could instead be contained through sanctions and a buildup of forces around Kuwait. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ...


As an officer, Powell also valued loyalty very highly, and as a result, did not usually "undermine force" to achieve a military objective while minimizing U.S. casualties. These sentiments have become central tenets of what has since been dubbed the "Powell Doctrine". (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... General Colin Powell made famous the so-called Powell Doctrine as part of the run up to the 1990-1991 Gulf War. ...


Civilian career

Following his retirement from the armed services, Powell wrote a best-selling memoir, My American Journey. In addition, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad.


Colin Powell's experience in military matters made him a very popular figure with both American political parties. Many Democrats admired his moderate stance on military matters, while many Republicans saw him as a great asset associated with the successes of past Republican administrations. Powell eventually declared himself a Republican, and began to campaign for Republican candidates. He was touted as a possible opponent of Bill Clinton in the 1996 U.S. Presidential Election, but Powell declined. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... (Redirected from 1996 U.S. Presidential Election) Introduction This election took place on November 5, 1996. ...


In 1997 Powell founded America's Promise with the objective of helping children from all socioeconomic sectors. Powell often wears the logo of the organization in the form of a red wagon pin on his lapel. President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell hold a press conference about Americas Promise Americas Promise - The Alliance for Youth is a foundation started by Colin Powell in 1997 to help children and youth from all socioeconomic sectors in the United States. ... This article or section should include material from logo design, discuss it at Talk:Logo design A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface/font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. ...


In the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election Powell campaigned for Texas Governor George W. Bush, serving as a key foreign policy advisor to the campaign. At the same time, it was often hinted that Powell might be appointed to a position within a Democratic administration, should Al Gore win[citation needed]. Bush eventually won, and Colin Powell was appointed as the first Jamaican American Secretary of State. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ...


Secretary of State

Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listen to President George W. Bush speak.
Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listen to President George W. Bush speak.

As Secretary of State in the Bush administration, Powell was perceived as moderate. Powell's great asset was his tremendous popularity among the American people. Over the course of his tenure he travelled less than any other U.S. Secretary of State in 30 years. U.S. President George W. Bush (at podium) discusses his plan for peace in the Middle East as National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice (left), Secretary of State Colin Powell (center) and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (right) stand by his side in the White House Rose Garden on June 24... U.S. President George W. Bush (at podium) discusses his plan for peace in the Middle East as National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice (left), Secretary of State Colin Powell (center) and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (right) stand by his side in the White House Rose Garden on June 24... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. Republican politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ...


On September 11, 2001, Powell was in Lima, Peru, meeting with President Alejandro Toledo and US Ambassador to Peru John Hamilton, and attending the special session of the OAS General Assembly that subsequently adopted the Inter-American Democratic Charter is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est Lima Province and Lima within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled January 18, 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... Alejandro Toledo (Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique) (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician. ... The General Assembly is the supreme decision-making body of the Organization of American States (OAS). ... The Inter-American Democratic Charter was adopted on 11 September 2001 by a special session of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States, held in Lima, Peru. ...


After September 11, Powell's job became of critical importance in managing America's relationships with foreign countries in order to secure a stable coalition in the War on Terrorism. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Combatants Participants in operations  United States  United Kingdom  Israel  Canada  Australia  Poland  Iraq  Afghanistan  India  Pakistan  Philippines  Somalia  Ethiopia  Lebanon Fatah et al. ...


In April 2002, he visited the site of the alleged Battle of Jenin in the West Bank and later said while testifying to Congress, "I've seen no evidence that would suggest a massacre took place." At the time details of the events at Jenin were still unclear, and were initially overblown by anti-Israeli groups. Later investigations by human rights organizations and the United Nations confirmed the Israeli estimate for the number of Palestinians, including militants, dead in the fighting, placing the figure at 52. Combatants  Israel IDF Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Tanzim) Hamas Image:Flag of PIJ.gif Islamic Jihad Commanders Yedidia Yehuda [4] Mahmoud Tawallbe† Strength 1,000 200-250 Casualties 23 soldiers killed 52 killed (38 armed men, 14 civilians according to IDF; 30 militants, 22 civilians according to HRW) 685...


Powell came under fire for his role in building the case for the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. In a press statement on February 24, 2001 he had said that sanctions against Iraq had prevented the development of any weapons of mass destruction by Saddam Hussein. As was the case in the days leading up to the Persian Gulf War, Powell was initially opposed to a forcible overthrow of Hussein, preferring to continue a policy of containment. However, Powell eventually agreed to go along with the Bush administration's determination to remove Hussein. He had often clashed with others in the administration, who were reportedly planning an Iraq invasion even before the September 11 attacks—an insight supported by testimony by former terrorism czar Richard Clarke in front of the 9/11 Commission. The main concession Powell wanted before he would offer his full support for the Iraq War was the involvement of the international community in the invasion, as opposed to the unilateral approach some of the hawks were advocating. He was also successful in persuading Bush to take the case of Iraq to the United Nations, and in moderating other initiatives. Powell was placed at the forefront of this diplomatic campaign. The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Richard A. Clarke (born 1951) provided national security advice to four U.S. presidents: Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, consulting on issues of intelligence and terrorism, from 1973 to 2003. ... The Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response...

Computer-generated image of an alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons, presented by Colin Powell at the UN Security Council. Absence of more substantial proofs undermined the credibility of the speech on the international scene. Russian experts have always questioned the existence of such mobile facilities, which would be extremely dangerous and difficult to manage.
Computer-generated image of an alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons, presented by Colin Powell at the UN Security Council. Absence of more substantial proofs undermined the credibility of the speech on the international scene. Russian experts have always questioned the existence of such mobile facilities, which would be extremely dangerous and difficult to manage.

Powell's chief role was to garner international support for a multi-national coalition to mount the invasion. To this end, Powell addressed a plenary session of the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003 to argue in favor of military action. Citing "numerous" anonymous Iraqi defectors, Powell asserted that "there can be no doubt that Saddam Hussein has biological weapons and the capability to rapidly produce more, many more."[5] Powell also stated that there was "no doubt in my mind" that Saddam was working to obtain key components to produce nuclear weapons. Image File history File links Colin Powells UN presentation slide showing alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons. ... Image File history File links Colin Powells UN presentation slide showing alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons. ... This article is about the Anglo-American 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about the Anglo-American 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While Powell's oratorical skills and personal conviction were acknowledged, there was an overall rejection of the evidence Powell offered that the regime of Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). A Senate report on intelligence failures would later detail the intense debate that went on behind the scenes on what to include in Powell's speech. State Department analysts had found dozens of factual problems in drafts of the speech. Some of the claims were taken out, but others were left in, such as claims based on the yellowcake forgery.[6] The administration is currently under fire for having acted on faulty intelligence. Reports have indicated that Powell himself was skeptical of the evidence presented to him. Powell later recounted how Vice President Cheney had joked with him before he gave the speech, telling him, "You've got high poll ratings; you can afford to lose a few points." Larry Wilkerson later characterized Cheney's view of Powell's mission as to "go up there and sell it, and we'll have moved forward a peg or two. Fall on your damn sword and kill yourself, and I'll be happy, too."[7] For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ...


In September 2005, Powell was asked about the speech during an interview with Barbara Walters and responded that it was a "blot" on his record. He went on to say, "It will always be a part of my record. It was painful. It's painful now."[8] This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ...


Mr. Powell's longtime aide-de-camp Colonel Lawrence B. Wilkerson said that he participated in a hoax on the American people in preparing Mr. Powell's erroneous testimony before the United Nations General Assembly.[9] An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Colonel Lawrence B. Wilkerson (US Army, retired) was the chief of staff to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ...


Because Powell is seen as more moderate than most figures in the administration, he has been spared many of the attacks that have been leveled at more controversial advocates of the invasion, such as Donald Rumsfeld and Paul Wolfowitz. At times, infighting between the Powell-led State Department, the Rumsfeld-led Defense Department, and Vice President Dick Cheney's office had the effect of paralyzing the administration on crucial issues, such as what actions to take regarding Iran and North Korea. Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. Republican politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...

Secretary Powell with NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer.
Secretary Powell with NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer.

After Saddam Hussein had been deposed, Powell's new role was to once again establish a working international coalition, this time to assist in the rebuilding of post-war Iraq. On September 13, 2004, Powell testified before the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee,[10] acknowledging that the sources who provided much of the information in his February 2003 UN presentation were "wrong" and that it was "unlikely" that any stockpiles of WMDs would be found. Claiming that he was unaware that some intelligence officials questioned the information prior to his presentation, Powell pushed for reform in the intelligence community, including the creation of a national intelligence director who would assure that "what one person knew, everyone else knew". Download high resolution version (600x826, 187 KB)Secretary Powell with NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer following their Bilateral. ... Download high resolution version (600x826, 187 KB)Secretary Powell with NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer following their Bilateral. ... Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (right) and Jan Peter Balkenende Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (left) and Colin Powell Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (legally Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer) (born April 3, 1948) is a Dutch politician who is the 11th NATO Secretary General. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council

Colin Powell announced his resignation as Secretary of State on Monday, November 15, 2004. According to the Washington Post, he had been asked to resign by the president's chief of staff, Andrew Card.[7] Powell announced that he would stay on until the end of Bush's first term or until his replacement's confirmation by Congress. The following day, George W. Bush nominated National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, as Powell's successor. News of Powell's leaving the Administration spurred mixed reactions from politicians around the world—some upset at the loss of a statesman seen as a moderating factor within the Bush administration, but others hoping for Powell's successor to wield more influence within the cabinet, and thus be a more credible negotiator. Image File history File links Powell-anthrax-vial. ... Image File history File links Powell-anthrax-vial. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Andrew Hill Andy Card Jr. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


In mid-November, Colin Powell stated that he had seen new evidence suggesting that Iran was adapting missiles for a nuclear delivery system.[11] The accusation came at the same time as the settlement of an agreement between the IAEA, the European Union and Iran. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


On December 31, 2004, Powell rang in the New Year by throwing the ball in Times Square with New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, ushering in the year 2005. He appeared on the networks that were broadcasting New Year's Eve specials and talked about this honor, as well as being a native of New York City.[12] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Times Square. ... Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born 14 February 1942) is an American businessman, philanthropist, and the founder of Bloomberg L.P., currently serving as the Mayor of New York City. ...


Life after politics

After retiring from the role of Secretary of State, Powell returned to private life, but in April 2005 he telephoned Republican senators Lincoln Chafee and Chuck Hagel to express his opposition to the nomination of John R. Bolton as ambassador to the United Nations (Powell had clashed with him during Bush's first term).[13] The decision was viewed as potentially dealing significant damage to Bolton's chances of confirmation. Bolton was put into the position via a recess appointment because of the strong opposition in the Senate. Lincoln Davenport Chafee (IPA pronunciation: , [CHAY-fee]) (born March 26, 1953) is a former United States Senator from Rhode Island. ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ... John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), an attorney and an American diplomat in several Republican administrations, served as the interim[1] U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations with the title of ambassador, from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A recess appointment occurs when the President of the United States fills a vacant Federal position during a recess of the United States Senate. ...


On 28 April The Guardian reported that Powell was in fact "conducting a campaign" against Bolton because of the acrimonious battles they had had while working together, which among other things had resulted in Powell cutting Bolton out of talks with Iran and Libya after complaints about Bolton's involvement from the British. It added that "The foreign relations committee has discovered that Bolton made a highly unusual request and gained access to 10 intercepts by the National Security Agency. Staff members on the committee believe that Bolton was probably spying on Powell, his senior advisers and other officials reporting to him on diplomatic initiatives that Bolton opposed."[14] is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Lieutenant General Keith B. Alexander, 16th and current director of the NSA (2005–). The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is the United States governments cryptologic organization that was officially established on November 4, 1952. ...


In July 2005, Powell joined Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers, a well-known Silicon Valley venture capital firm, with the title of "strategic limited partner." Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers is a major Sand Hill Road venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. ... A view of downtown San Jose, the self-proclaimed Capital of Silicon Valley. ... Venture capital is a general term to describe financing for startup and early stage businesses as well as businesses in turn around situations. ...


In September 2005, Powell criticized the response to Hurricane Katrina.[15] Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ...


On January 5, 2006, he participated in a meeting at the White House of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials. In September 2006, Powell sided with more moderate Senate Republicans in supporting more rights for detainees and opposing President Bush's terrorism bill. He backed the senators John Warner, John McCain and Lindsey Graham in their statement that U.S. military and intelligence personnel in future wars will suffer for abuses committed in 2006 by the US in the name of fighting terrorism. Powell stated that "[t]he world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of America's fight against terrorism."[16] January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... John William Warner (born February 18, 1927) is an American statesman and politician, who served as Secretary of the Navy from 1972-1974 and has served as the Republican senior U.S. Senator from Virginia since 1979. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Lindsey Olin Graham (born July 9, 1955) is an American politician from South Carolina. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Also in 2006, Powell began appearing as a speaker at a series of motivational events called Get Motivated, along with former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In his speeches on the tour, he openly criticized the Bush Administration on a number of issues. Most recently he joined the Board of Directors of Steve Case's new company Revolution Health. Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ...


Political views

A moderate Republican, Powell is well known for his willingness to support liberal or centrist causes. He is pro-choice regarding abortion,[17] in support of affirmative action, and in favor of "reasonable" gun control. Powell was also instrumental in the implementation of the military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Affirmative action refers to policies intended to discriminate against white males and promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      Dont ask, dont tell is the common term for the U.S. military policy which implements Pub. ...


The Vietnam War had a profound effect on Powell's views of the proper use of military force. These views are described in detail in the auto-biography "My American Journey". The Powell Doctrine, as the views became known, were a central component of US policy in the Gulf War (the first US war with Iraq) and U.S. invasion of Afghanistan (the overthrow of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan following the events of "9/11"). The hallmark of both operations was strong international cooperation, and the use of overwhelming military force. US policy in the Iraq War (the second US war with Iraq) often conflicted with the Powell Doctrine which most likely was a primary driver behind Powell's eventual departure from the Bush Cabinet. General Colin Powell made famous the so-called Powell Doctrine as part of the run up to the 1990-1991 Gulf War. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded in action, 30 taken prisoner Est. ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations NATO ISAF Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum William J. Fallon Bantz J. Craddock Egon Ramms Dan... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... General Colin Powell made famous the so-called Powell Doctrine as part of the run up to the 1990-1991 Gulf War. ...


Powell was the subject of controversy in 2004 when, in a conversation with British Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, he reportedly referred to neocons within the Bush administration as "fucking crazies."[18] In addition to being reported in the press (though generally, the expletive was censored in the US press), the quote was used by James Naughtie in his book, "The Accidental American: Tony Blair and the Presidency", and by Chris Patten in his book, "Cousins and Strangers: America, Britain, and Europe in a new century". The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Neocons is a shortened version for neoconservatives in current American politics. ... James Naughtie, normally known as Jim, (born August 9, 1952 in Milltown of Rothiemay, near Huntly, Aberdeenshire, Scotland) is a BBC journalist and radio news presenter, especially of Radio 4s Today programme. ... Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, CH, PC (born 12 May 1944 in Bath, Somerset) is a prominent British Conservative politician and a Patron of the Tory Reform Group. ...


In a letter to Sen. John McCain, General Powell expressed opposition to President Bush's push for military tribunals of those formerly and currently classified as enemy combatants. Specifically, he expressed concern of Bush's plan to "amend the interpretation of Article III of the Geneva Conventions." He also pointed out that perception of the War on Terror may be losing moral support saying, "The world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of our fight against terrorism."[19] Alternative meanings: John S. McCain, Sr. ... A military tribunal is a military court designed to trial enemy forces members during war time it, operates outside the scope of conventional criminal and civil matters; the judges are military officers; and the judges fulfill the role of jurors. ... An enemy combatant has historically referred to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. ... Original document. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda...


View of the U.S. war in Iraq

In July 2007 Powell revealed that he spent two-and-half hours trying to persuade George W. Bush not to invade Iraq but that he did not prevail upon the U.S. President. At the Aspen Ideas Festival in Colorado[20] Powell stated, "I tried to avoid this war. I took him [Bush] through the consequences of going into an Arab country and becoming the occupiers."


Powell went on to say that he believed Iraq was in a state of civil war. "The civil war will ultimately be resolved by a test of arms. It's not going to be pretty to watch, but I don't know any way to avoid it. It is happening now." He further noted, "It is not a civil war that can be put down or solved by the armed forces of the United States," and suggested that all the U.S. military could do was put "a heavier lid on this pot of boiling sectarian stew".[21]


Civilian awards

Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medals of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal, and the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country. The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The Presidential Citizens Medal is the second highest civilian award in the United States awarded by the President of the United States, second only to the Presidential Medal of Freedom. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ...


In 1991, Powell was inducted into the Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans,[22] which "honors the achievements of outstanding individuals in U.S. society who have succeeded in spite of adversity and of encouraging young people to pursue their dreams through higher education."


On November 9, 1993, Powell was awarded the second Ronald Reagan Freedom Award, by President Ronald Reagan. The award is only given to "those who have made monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom worldwide," and who "embody President Reagan's lifelong belief that one man or woman truly can make a difference." Powell served as Reagan's National Security Advisor from 1987-1989. [23] is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... -1... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


On December 15, 1993, Colin Powell was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


In 1998, he was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy for his commitment to the ideals of "Duty, Honor, Country." The Sylvanus Thayer Award is a military award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point. ... Category: ...


The Coat of Arms of Colin Powell was granted by the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh on February 4, 2004. Technically the grant was to Powell's father (a British subject) to be passed on by descent. Scotland's King of Arms is traditionally responsible for granting arms to Commonwealth citizens. Blazoned as: Arms of the Office of the Lord Lyon The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the head of Lyon Court, is the Scottish official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in that kingdom, issuing new grants of arms, and serving as the judge of the oldest Heraldic court in the world that... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country. ... Banners of the arms of office of the three current English Kings of Arms. ...


Azure, two swords in saltire points downwards between four mullets Argent, on a chief of the Second a lion passant Gules. On a wreath of the Liveries is set for Crest the head of an American bald-headed eagle erased Proper. And in an escrol over the same this motto, "DEVOTED TO PUBLIC SERVICE."


The swords and stars refer to the former general's career, as does the crest, which is the badge of the 101st Airborne (which he served as a brigade commander in the mid-1970s). The lion may be an allusion to Scotland. The shield can be shown surrounded by the insignia of an honorary Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (KCB), an award the General received after the first Gulf War. Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ...


In 2005 Powell received the Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award for his contributions to Africa. The Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award (BWD or Bishop Walker Dinner) is an award presented annually by Africare to recognize those whose work has made a significant impact on raising the standard of living in Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


AARP honored Powell with the 2006 AARP Andrus Award, the Association’s highest honor. This award, named in honor of AARP’s founder, Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus, is presented biennially to distinguished individuals who have generated positive social change in the world, and whose work and achievements reflect AARP’s vision of bringing lifetimes of experience and leadership to serve all generations. Current logo for AARP, in use since January 2007 For the AppleTalk protocol developed by Apple Computer, see AppleTalk address resolution protocol (AARP). ... Ethel Percy Andrus was the founder of the National Retired Teachers Association (NRTA) in 1947 and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in 1958. ...


Powell is a recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award, the highest adult award given by the Boy Scouts of America. The Silver Buffalo Award is the highest service award of the Boy Scouts of America. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.wargs.com/political/powell.html
  2. ^ Secretary of State Colin L. Powell (biography). The White House (undated). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  3. ^ Colin Powell. Biography. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  4. ^ Interview on CNN's Larry King Live. U.S. Department of State (2004-05-04). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  5. ^ Remarks to the United Nations Security Council. U.S. Department of State (2003-02-05). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  6. ^ Miller, Greg. "Flaws Cited in Powell's U.N. Speech on Iraq", CommonDreams.org, 2004-07-15. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  7. ^ a b DeYoung, Karen. "Falling on His Sword: Colin Powell's most significant moment turned out to be his lowest", Washington Post, 2006-10-01. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  8. ^ "Colin Powell on Iraq, Race, and Hurricane Relief", ABC News, 2005-09-08. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  9. ^ Brancaccio, David. "Iraq Pre-War Intelligence", PBS, 2006-02-03. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  10. ^ Pincus, Walter. "Support for Intelligence Plan", Washington Post, 2004-09-14. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  11. ^ Sciolino, Elaine. "Exiles Add to Claims on Iran Nuclear Arms", New York Times, 2004-11-18. Retrieved on 2007-02-08. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Cooper. "Transcripts: New Year's Eve Special", CNN, 2004-12-31. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  13. ^ Borger, Julian. "Powell's remarks harm Bolton's chances of UN job", Guardian Unlimited, 2005-04-23. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  14. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney. "The good soldier's revenge", Guardian Unlimited, 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  15. ^ "Powell criticises storm response", BBC News, 2005-09-09. 
  16. ^ "Senators defy Bush on tribunals", BBC News, 2006-09-15. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  17. ^ Frankel, Barbara (2000-08-01). Colin Powell Lauds Bush, Rebukes GOP on Affirmative Action. AAD Project. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  18. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney. "Colin and the crazies", Guardian Unlimited, 2004-11-18. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  19. ^ Barrett, Ted, Koppel, Andrea. "GOP split as Senate panel bucks Bush on terror tribunals", CNN, 2006-09-15. Retrieved on 2007-02-03. 
  20. ^ See http://www.aifestival.org/
  21. ^ "Powell tried to talk Bush out of war". The Times (UK), July 8, 2007. Available online, archived at [1].
  22. ^ Colin L. Powell. The Horatio Alger Association (undated). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  23. ^ http://www.reaganfoundation.org/programs/cpa/awards.asp

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Preceded by
Frank Carlucci
United States National Security Advisor
1987–1989
Succeeded by
Brent Scowcroft
Preceded by
William J. Crowe
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
1989–1993
Succeeded by
David E. Jeremiah
Preceded by
Mikhail Gorbachev
Recipient of The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
1993
Succeeded by
Yitzhak Rabin
Preceded by
Madeleine Albright
United States Secretary of State
Served Under: George W. Bush

January 20, 2001 - January 26, 2005
Succeeded by
Condoleezza Rice

  Results from FactBites:
 
CNN.com - Powell resigns with three other Cabinet secretaries - Nov 15, 2004 (921 words)
Colin Powell talks about the challenges facing the State Depratment.
Powell was scheduled to travel to Egypt next week for a conference on Iraq.
Powell is the most prominent of four Cabinet officials whose resignations were announced Monday by the White House.
Colin Powell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3679 words)
Colin Powell was born in New York City in 1937, and was raised in the South Bronx, in the once-infamous Hunts Point neighborhood.
Powell was educated in the New York City public schools, and gained a bachelor's degree in geology from City College of New York attaining a 'C' average, according to his 2006 graduation address at Marymount University.
Powell wrote: "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between American soldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent." Later, Powell's assessment would be described as whitewashing the news of the massacre, and questions would continue to remain undisclosed to the public.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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