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Encyclopedia > Colchis

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History of Georgia Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ...

Prehistoric Georgia
Colchis
Egrisi
Caucasian Iberia
Medieval History
Tao-Klarjeti
Kingdom of Abkhazeti-Egrisi
Russian Rule
Georgia Under Imperial Russia
Early Independence
Democratic Republic of Georgia
Soviet Georgia
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
March 9 Tragedy
April 9 Tragedy
Modern Georgia
Republic of Georgia
Georgian Civil War
Rose Revolution
Post-Shevardnadze
History By Autonomous Republics
History of Abkhazia
History of Adjara
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In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: Κολχίς, Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups.[7][8] The Kingdom of Colchis as an early Georgian state [9] contributed significantly in development of the medieval Georgian statehood after its unification with eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia-Kartli.[10][11] The prehistory of Georgia is the period between the first human habitation of the territory of modern-day nation of Georgia and the time when Assyrian and Urartian, and more firmly, the Classical accounts, brought the proto-Georgian tribes into the scope of recoded history. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Tao-Klarjeti is the term conventionally used in modern history writing to describe the historic south-western Georgian principalities, now forming part of north-eastern Turkey and divided among the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Ardahan and Kars. ... The Abkhazian Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Abkhazians refers to an early medieval feudal state in the Caucasus which lasted from the 780s until being united, through dynastic succession, with the Kingdom of the Georgians (see Tao-Klarjeti) in 1008. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... The article refers to a bloody crackdown of peaceful demonstration by the Soviet troops in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR on March 9, 1956. ... The April 9 tragedy refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgia on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet army, resulting in 20 deaths and hundreds of injuries. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1991-1992) and Abkhazia (1992-1993), as well as the overthrow of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1991-1993). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Georgia is divided into two autonomous republics (Georgian: ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა) and ten regions (Georgian: მხარე). The autonomous republics (Abkhazia and Ajaria) were established during the soviet regime and are recognized by the modern Georgian Constitution. ... The article refers to the history of Georgia’s autonomous republic of Abkhazia. ... The article refers to the history of Georgia’s autonomous province of Adjaria. ... The Laz language (lazuri, ლაზური or lazuri nena, ლაზური ნენა in Laz; ლაზური, lazuri, or ჭანური, chanuri, in Georgian) is spoken by the Laz people on the Southeast shore of the Black Sea. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Language(s) Georgian Religion(s) Georgian Orthodox Christianity, Georgian Catholicism, Islam[7] Related ethnic groups Laz Svan Mingrelians The Georgians (Georgian: , Kartveli Eri or Kartvelebi) are among one of the oldest nations and ethnic groups in the world, originating in the Caucasus. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ...


Now mostly the western part of Georgia, it was in Greek mythology the home of Aeëtes and Medea and the destination of the Argonauts, as well as being the possible homeland of the Amazons. The ancient area is represented roughly by the present day Georgian provinces of Mingrelia, Imereti, Guria, Adjara, Svaneti, Racha, Abkhazia and the modern Turkey’s Rize Province and parts of Trabzon and Artvin provinces.[12] One of the most important elements in the modern Georgian nation, the Colchians were probably established in the Caucasus by the Middle Bronze Age.[13] The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Aeetes (in Greek Αἰήτης, Georgian Ayeti) - King of Colchis (Georgian name Kolkheti, territory of modern West Georgia) in Greek mythology, Aeetes figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ... Racha (Ratcha is a more correct spelling) (Georgian: რაჭა, Rača) is a historic province in Georgia, in the mountainous northwestern part of the country. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Location of Rize Province Rize is a province of Turkey and is located along the eastern part of the Black Sea coast. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Artvin is a city in north-eastern Turkey. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...

Contents

Geography and toponyms

Ancient Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia, Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen
Ancient Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia, Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen

The kingdom of Colchis, which existed from the sixth to the first centuries BCE is regarded as the first Georgian state. [14][15] [16][17][18] [19] [20] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1312x894, 314 KB) Kingdom of Cholchis and Iberia Copyright© Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi Georgia (country) Colchis Caucasian Iberia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1312x894, 314 KB) Kingdom of Cholchis and Iberia Copyright© Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi Georgia (country) Colchis Caucasian Iberia... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ...


According to the renown scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff: "Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer, Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian (West Georgian) kingdom." [21] Prince Cyril Toumanoff (1913 – 1997) was a Russian-born historian and genealogist of Armeno-Georgian descent specialized in the history of Armenia and Georgia. ...


A second Georgian tribal union emerged in the 13th century BC on the Black Sea coast under creating the Kingdom of Colchis in the western Georgia. This kingdom was a first state formation of the early Georgians.[22] [23]According to most classic authors, a district which was bounded on the southwest by Pontus, on the west by the Black Sea as far as the river Corax (probably the present day Bzybi River, Abkhazia, Georgia), on the north by the chain of the Greater Caucasus, which lay between it and Asiatic Sarmatia, on the east by Iberia and Montes Moschici (now the Lesser Caucasus), and on the south by Armenia. There is some little difference in authors as to the extent of the country westward: thus Strabo makes Colchis begin at Trabzon, while Ptolemy, on the other hand, extends Pontus to the Rioni River. Pitsunda was the last town to the north in Colchis. This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... The Rioni River (Georgian რიონი) is the principal river of western Georgia. ... The view of Caucasus mountains from Pitsunda cape. ...


The name of Colchis first appears in Aeschylus and Pindar. The earlier writers only speak of it under the name of Aea (Aia), the residence of the mythical king Aeëtes. The main river was the Phasis (now Rioni), which was according to some writers the south boundary of Colchis, but more probably flowed through the middle of that country from the Caucasus west by south to the Euxine, and the Anticites or Atticitus (now Kuban). Arrian mentions many others by name, but they would seem to have been little more than mountain torrents: the most important of them were Charieis, Chobus or Cobus, Singames, Tarsuras, Hippus, Astelephus, Chrysorrhoas, several of which are also noticed by Ptolemy and Pliny. The chief towns were Dioscurias or Dioscuris (under the Romans called Sebastopolis, now Sukhumi) on the sea-board of the Euxine, Sarapana (now Shorapani), Phasis (now Poti), Pityus (now Pitsunda), Apsaros (now Gonio), Surium (now Surami), Archaeopolis (now Nokalakevi), Macheiresis, and Cyta or Cutatisium (now Kutaisi), the traditional birthplace of Medea. Scylax mentions also Mala or Male, which he, in contradiction to other writers, makes the birthplace of Medea. This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... Aeetes (in Greek Αἰήτης, Georgian Ayeti) - King of Colchis (Georgian name Kolkheti, territory of modern West Georgia) in Greek mythology, Aeetes figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. ... The Rioni River is the principal river of western Georgia. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Shorapani Coat of Arms Shorapani is a small Georgian town, situated in Zestaponi Ditrict, the region of Imereti. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... The view of Caucasus mountains from Pitsunda cape. ... Remains of a bath house in the fortress. ... Nokalakevi (Georgian: ნოქალაქევი, literally meaning place where a town was) is a village and archaeological site in Georgia; particularly, in Senaki district (raioni) of Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti region. ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... Scylax Of Caryanda, Carian explorer. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ...


History

Earliest times

Georgian Statehood
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Golden braceletes, 5th–4th century BC.
Golden braceletes, 5th4th century BC.

The area was home to the well-developed bronze culture known as the Colchian culture, related to the neighbouring Koban culture, that emerged towards the Middle Bronze Age. In at least some parts of Colchis the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the second millennium BC, centuries before Greek settlement. Their Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th Century BC) saw the development of an expertise in the smelting and casting of metals that began long before this skill was mastered in Europe. Sophisticated farming implements were made and fertile, well-watered lowlands blessed with a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques. Image File history File links Bagrationgerbial75674. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Tao-Klarjeti is the term conventionally used in modern history writing to describe the historic south-western Georgian principalities, now forming part of north-eastern Turkey and divided among the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Ardahan and Kars. ... Hereti was a historic province in eastern Georgia. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Motto ძალა ერთობაშია(Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem Tavisupleba Freedom Capital (and largest city) Tbilisi Official languages Georgian1 Demonym Georgian Government Semi-presidential unitary republic  -  President Mikheil Saakashvili  -  Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation  -  Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Image File history File links Colchis-bracelet. ... Image File history File links Colchis-bracelet. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Colchian culture (circa 1200 to 600 BC) is a late Bronze Age and Iron Age culture of the western Caucasus, mostly in western Georgia. ... The Koban culture (ca. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Colchis was inhabited by a number of related but distinct tribes whose settlements lay chiefly along the shore of the Black Sea. The chief of those were the Machelones, Heniochi, Zydretae, Lazi, Tibareni, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschi, Marres, Apsilae, Abasci (possibly modern-day Abaza)[citation needed], Sanigae, Coraxi, Coli, Melanchlaeni, Geloni and Soani (Suani). These tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding nations that the ancients originated various theories to account for the phenomenon. The Machelones (Machelônes, Machelonoi) were a Colchian tribe located to the far south of the Phasis (modern-day Rioni River, western Georgia). ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... Tabal (Bib. ... Mossynoikoi, latinised Mossynoeci, is a Greek compound noun meaning dwellers in wooden towers. The Greeks of the Euxine Sea applied it to the peoples of the northern Anatolian coast just west of Trebizond. ... Meskheti is a mountainous area and a province in the South-West of Georgia. ... The Abazins (self-designation: Abaza) are a people who live mostly in Karachay-Cherkessia and Adygeya of Russia. ... The Melanchlaeni (meaning black-cloaks), one of two ancient tribes. ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ...

Bronze axes typical to the Colchian culture.

Herodotus, who states that they, with the Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practice circumcision, believed them to have sprung from remnants the army of Pharaoh Senusret III (1878-1841 BC), and thus regarded them as Egyptians. Apollonius of Rhodes states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden tablets showing seas and highways with considerable accuracy. Though this theory was not generally adopted by the ancients, it has been defended – but not with complete success, by some modern writers. There seems to have been a Negroid component (which predates the Arab slave trade) along the Black Sea region, whose origins could very well be traced to an Ancient Extra-African expedition, although this cannot be verified by archaeological evidence. [1] ImageMetadata File history File links Colchis-axes. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Colchis-axes. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Nomen Senusret (The son of Ra, man of the strong one) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has... EGGS! ... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ...

Kingdom of Colchis during the rise of Pontus and Armenia in 189–63 BC.
Kingdom of Colchis during the rise of Pontus and Armenia in 18963 BC.

Modern theories suggest that the main Colchian tribes are direct ancestors of the Laz-Mingrelians, and played a significant role in ethnogenesis of the Georgians. [24][25] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC - 189 BC - 188 BC 187 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ...


Qulha (Kolkha)

Colchian coins.

In the 13th century BC, the Kingdom of Colchis was formed as a result of the increasing consolidation of the tribes inhabiting the region. This power, celebrated in Greek mythology as the destination of the Argonauts, the home of Medea and the special domain of sorcery, was known to Urartians as Qulha (aka Kolkha, or Kilkhi). Being in permanent wars with the neighbouring nations, the Colchians managed to absorb part of Diauehi in the 750s BC, but lost several provinces (including the “royal city” of Ildemusa) to the Sarduris II of Urartu following the wars of 750-748 and 744-742 BC. Overrun by the Cimmerians and Scythians in the 730s-720s BC, the kingdom disintegrated and came under the Achaemenid Persian Empire towards the mid-6th century BC. The tribes living in the southern Colchis (Tibareni, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschi, and Marres) were incorporated in the 19th Satrapy of the Persia, while the northern tribes submitted “voluntarily” and had to send to the Persian court 100 girls and 100 boys in every 5 years. The influence exerted on Colchis by the vast Achaemenid Empire with its thriving commerce and wide economic and commercial ties with other regions accelerated the socio-economic development of the Colchian land. Subsequently the Colchis people appear to have overthrown the Persian Authority, and to have formed an independent state[citation needed]. Image File history File links Colchis-coins. ... Image File history File links Colchis-coins. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Conquest of Diauehi by King Menua of Urartu Diauehi (Diauhi or Diaokhi; “the Land of the Sons of Diau”) was an ancient country in northeastern Anatolia, mentioned in the Urartian inscriptions. ... 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. ... 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Persia redirects here. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Tabal (Bib. ... Mossynoikoi, latinised Mossynoeci, is a Greek compound noun meaning dwellers in wooden towers. The Greeks of the Euxine Sea applied it to the peoples of the northern Anatolian coast just west of Trebizond. ... Meskheti is a mountainous area and a province in the South-West of Georgia. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Persia redirects here. ...


Greek colonization

Statuette of goddess Nike found in Vani, Georgia.
Statuette of goddess Nike found in Vani, Georgia.

The advanced economy and favorable geographic and natural conditions of the area attracted the Milesian Greeks who colonized the Colchian coast establishing here their trading posts at Phasis, Gyenos, and Sukhumi in the 6th-5th centuries BC. It was considered "the farthest voyage" according to an ancient Greek proverbial expression, the easternmost location in that society's known world, where the sun rose. It was situated just outside the lands conquered by Alexander the Great. Phasis and Sukhumi were the splendid Greek cities dominated by the mercantile oligarchies, sometimes being troubled by the Colchians from hinterland before seemingly assimilating totally. After the fall of the Persian Empire, significant part of Colchis locally known as Egrisi was annexed to the recently created Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli) in ca. 302 BC. However, soon Colchis seceded and broke up into several small princedoms ruled by sceptuchi. They retained a degree of independence until conquered (circa 101 BC) by Mithridates VI of Pontus. Image File history File links Colchis-Nike. ... Image File history File links Colchis-Nike. ... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... Vani is one of the most ancient cities of the Republic of Georgia and the administrative center of Vani district in the Imereti region of Georgia. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC Cassander becomes King of... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 106 BC 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC - 101 BC - 100 BC 99 BC... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ...


Under Pontus

Golden statuette found at Gonio, Adjara.

Mithradates VI quelled an uprising in the region in 83 BC and gave Colchis to his son Mithradates Chrestus, who was soon executed being suspected in having plotted against his father. During the Third Mithridatic War, Mithridates VI made another his son Machares king of Colchis, who held his power but for a short period. On the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus in 65 BC, Colchis was occupied by Pompey, who captured one of the local chiefs (sceptuchus) Olthaces, and installed Aristarchus as a dynast (65-47 BC). On the fall of Pompey, Pharnaces II, son of Mithridates, took advantage of Julius Caesar being occupied in Egypt, and reduced Colchis, Armenia, and some part of Cappadocia, defeating Domitius Calvinus, whom Caesar subsequently sent against him. His triumph was, however, short-lived. Under Polemon I, the son and successor of Pharnaces II, Colchis was part of the Pontus and the Bosporan Kingdom. After the death of Polemon (after 2 BC), his second wife Pythodoris retained possession of Colchis as well as of Pontus itself, though the kingdom of Bosporus was wrested from her power. Her son and successor Polemon II of Pontus was induced by Emperor Nero to abdicate the throne, and both Pontus and Colchis were incorporated in the Province of Galatia (63) and later in Cappadocia (81). Image File history File links Colchis-statuette. ... Image File history File links Colchis-statuette. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC... Pharnaces II of Pontus (63 BC - 47 BC), was the king of Pontus and son of the great Mithridates VI. Pompey had defeated Mithridates VI in 64 BC and gained control of much of Asia Minor, but Pharnaces II attempted to take advantage of the Roman civil war to retake... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Domitius Calvinus was a Roman general under the command of Julius Caesar during the Roman Republican Civil Wars. ... Polemon I, King of Pontus. ... Pharnaces II of Pontus (63 BC - 47 BC), was the king of Pontus and son of the great Mithridates VI. Pompey had defeated Mithridates VI in 64 BC and gained control of much of Asia Minor, but Pharnaces II attempted to take advantage of the Roman civil war to retake... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... Pythodorida (Pythodoris) was Queen of Pontus in modern Turkey from 8 BCE to 23 CE. She was succeeded by her husband Polemon. ... Polemon of Cilicia was king, first of the Pontus and the Bosporan kingdom, then of the Pontus and Cilicia, and lastly of Cilicia alone; he died in 74 C.E. Together with other neighboring kings and princes, Polemon once visited Herod Agrippa I in Tiberias (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities xix. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Events Domitian succeeds his brother Titus Flavius as emperor of the Roman Empire. ...


Under the Roman rule

Golden earrings from Colchis.
Golden earrings from Colchis.

Despite the fact that all major fortresses along the seacoast were occupied by the Romans, their rule was pretty loose. In 69, the people of Pontus and Colchis under Anicetus staged a major uprising against the Romans which ended unsuccessfully. The lowlands and coastal area were frequently raided by the fierce mountainous tribes with the Soanes and Heniochi being the most powerful of them. Paying a nominal homage to Rome, they created their own kingdoms and enjoyed significant independence. Christianity began to spread in the early 1st century. Traditional accounts relate the event with Saint Andrew, Saint Simon the Zealot, and Saint Matata. However, the Hellenistic, local pagan and Mithraic religious beliefs would be widespread until the 4th century. By the 130s, the kingdoms of Machelons, Heniochi, Egrisi, Apsilia, Abasgia, and Sanigia had occupied the district form south to north. Goths, dwelling in the Crimea and looking for their new homes, raided Colchis in 253, but they were repulsed with the help of the Roman garrison of Pitsunda. By the 3rd-4th centuries, most of the local kingdoms and principalities had been subjugated by the Lazic kings, and thereafter the country was generally referred to as Lazica (Egrisi). Image File history File links Colchis-earrrings. ... Image File history File links Colchis-earrrings. ... For other uses, see 69 (disambiguation). ... Anicetus was a leader of an unsuccessfull anti-Roman uprising in Pontus in A.D. 69. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The apostle... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Double-faced Mithraic relief. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 Events and trends Significant people Hadrian, Roman Emperor Categories: 130s ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... For the book see 253 (book). ... The view of Caucasus mountains from Pitsunda cape. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory...


Rulers

Stater issued by King Akes, 4th century BC.

Little is known of the rulers of Colchis; Image File history File links Ake_of_Colchis_strater. ... Image File history File links Ake_of_Colchis_strater. ...

  • Aeëtes, celebrated in Greek legends as a powerful king of Colchis, is thought by some historians to be a historic person, though there is no evidence to support the idea.
  • Akes (Basileus Aku) (end of the 4th century BC), king of Colchis; his name is found on a coin issued by him.
  • Saulaces, "king" in the 2nd century BC (according to some ancient sources).
  • Mithradates Chrestus (fl 83 BC), under the authority of Pontus.

Note: During his reign, the local chiefs, sceptuchi, continued to exercise some power. One of them, Olthaces, is mentioned by the Roman sources as a captive of Pompey in 65 BC. Aeetes (in Greek Αἰήτης, Georgian Ayeti) - King of Colchis (Georgian name Kolkheti, territory of modern West Georgia) in Greek mythology, Aeetes figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... Pharnavaz I (also written Parnavaz, P’arnawaz, or Farnavaz) (Georgian: ფარნავაზი) (ca 335-237 BC) was the first king of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Iberia (Kartli) in ca 302-237 BC. Founder of the royal dynasty of Pharnavazians, he is also said to have established a new official religion, a... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC Cassander becomes King of... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC 239 BC 238 BC - 237 BC - 236 BC 235 BC... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62...

  • Aristarchus (65-47 BC), a dynasty under the authority of Pompey

Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ...

Colchis in mythology

According to the Greek mythology, Colchis was a fabulously wealthy land situated on the mysterious periphery of the heroic world. Here in the sacred grove of the war god Ares, King Aeëtes hung the Golden Fleece until it was seized by Jason and the Argonauts. Colchis was also the land where the mythological Prometheus was punished by being chained to a mountain while an eagle ate at his liver for revealing to humanity the secret of fire. Amazons also were said to be of Scythian origin from Colchis. The main mythical characters from Colchis are Aeëtes, Medea, Absyrtus, Chalciope, Circe, Eidyia, Pasiphaë. This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... Aeetes (in Greek Αἰήτης, Georgian Ayeti) - King of Colchis (Georgian name Kolkheti, territory of modern West Georgia) in Greek mythology, Aeetes figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind, by Heinrich Füger, (1817). ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Aeetes (in Greek Αἰήτης, Georgian Ayeti) - King of Colchis (Georgian name Kolkheti, territory of modern West Georgia) in Greek mythology, Aeetes figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... Absyrtus (also Apsyrtus) was the son of Aeëtes and a brother of Medea. ... Chalciope was a princess in Greek mythology, daughter of King Aeetes of Colchis, sister of Medea and wife of Phrixus. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... In Greek mythology, Eidyia was a nymph, who was queen to Aeetes, king of Colchis. ... In Greek mythology, Pasiphaë (Eng. ...


See also

Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... It has been suggested that Successor state be merged into this article or section. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by...

Notes

  1. ^ Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, David Braund Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. Pp. 359
  2. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation, Ronald Grigor Suny, p. 13
  3. ^ Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, p. 91
  4. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69
  5. ^ One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, James Minahan, p. 282
  6. ^ Marc Van de Mieroop, A History of the Ancient near East, C. 3000323 BC, p 265
  7. ^ Charles Burney and David Marshal Lang, The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus, p. 38
  8. ^ Oliver Wardrop, The Kingdom Of Georgia: Travel In A Land Of Women, Wine And Song (Kegan Paul Library of History and Archaeology)
  9. ^ Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, p. 91
  10. ^ David Braund, Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, Oxford University Press, USA (September 8, 1994)
  11. ^ W.E.D. Allen, A history of the Georgian people (1932), p. 123
  12. ^ Andrew Andersen, History of Ancient Caucasus, p. 91
  13. ^ David Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59
  14. ^ Modern Hatreds, Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman p. 91.
  15. ^ Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, p. 91
  16. ^ Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, David Braund Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. Pp. 359
  17. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation, Ronald Grigor Suny, p. 13
  18. ^ Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, p. 91
  19. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69
  20. ^ One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, James Minahan, p. 282
  21. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69
  22. ^ BRAUND, D., Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC–562 AD, Oxford University Press, 1996
  23. ^ An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, James Stuart Olson, p. 242
  24. ^ Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, James Minahan, p. 116
  25. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 80

// Ceremonial temple butcher knife made of flint, with the Horus name of the pharaoh Djer inscribed on its gold handle. ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ...

External links

  • Kolkhoba: Laz language
  • Colchis (German)
  • History of Laz-Mingrelians
  • Colchis
  • Colchis (German)
  • LoveToKnow Article on Colchis
  • Colchis in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
  • Kingdom of Colchis (Egrisi) (Georgian)
  • Colchian coins
  • Strabo on Colchis
  • Herodotus on Colchis
  • Plinius on Colchis
  • "Colchis Gives Birth to a Nation," From the Cradle of Wine

Further reading

  • Braund, David. 1994. Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC-AD 562. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814473-3
  • Gocha R. Tsetskhladze. Pichvnari and Its Environs, 6th c BC-4th c AD. Annales Littéraires de l'Université de Franche-Comté, 659, Editeurs: M. Clavel-Lévêque, E. Geny, P. Lévêque. Paris: Presses Universitaires Franc-Comtoises, 1999. ISBN 2-913322-42-5
  • Otar Lordkipanidze. Phasis: The River and City of Colchis. Geographica Historica 15, Franz Steiner 2000. ISBN 3-515-07271-3
  • Alexander Melamid. Colchis today. (northeastern Turkey): An article from: The Geographical Review. American Geographical Society, 1993. ISBN B000925IWE
  • Akaki Urushadze. The Country of the Enchantress Media, Tbilisi, 1984 (in Russian and English)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Colchis - definition of Colchis in Encyclopedia (700 words)
Colchis (Georgian Kolkheti), or Aea-Colchis, was, in ancient times, a district of Asia Minor, at the eastern extremity of the Black Sea, bounded on the north by the Caucasus.
Colchis (Kolkha, Kolkheti) is believed to have encompassed Abkhazia and most of western Georgia.
Colchis was celebrated in Greek mythology as the destination of Jason and the Argonauts, the home of Medea and the special domain of sorcery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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