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Encyclopedia > Colchester
Colchester


Colchester town centre. Colchester is the name of several places in the world: Colchester, England - The original location. ... Download high resolution version (800x890, 142 KB)Colchester town centre. ...


Colchester shown within Essex
Population 104,390 (2001 Census)
OS grid reference TL997254
District Colchester
Shire county Essex
Region East
Constituent country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town COLCHESTER
Postcode district CO1 - CO7
Dialling code 01206
Police Essex
Fire Essex
Ambulance East of England
European Parliament East of England
UK Parliament Colchester
List of places: UKEnglandEssex

Coordinates: 51°53′30″N 0°54′11″E / 51.8917, 0.903 Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the largest cities and towns of England ordered by population. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... Colchester is a local government district and borough in Essex, England, named for its main town, Colchester. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The CO postcode area, also known as the Colchester postcode area[2], is a group of postal districts around Bures, Clacton-on-Sea, Colchester, Frinton-on-Sea, Halstead, Harwich, Manningtree, Sudbury and Walton-on-the-Naze in England. ... +44 redirects here. ... There are a number of policing agencies in the United Kingdom. ... Essex Police is a Home Office (territorial) police force with responsibility for policing the county of Essex in south east England. ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... Essex County Fire and Rescue Service are the statutory fire fighting service for the county of Essex in the south-east of England. ... Badge of the East of England Ambulance Service The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing NHS ambulance services in Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Luton, Norfolk, Peterborough, Southend-on-Sea, Suffolk and Thurrock, in the East of England region. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... East of England is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Colchester is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places within counties List of places in Bedfordshire List of places in Berkshire List of places in Buckinghamshire List of places in Cambridgeshire List of places in Cheshire List of places in Cleveland List of places... This is a list of cities, towns and villages in the county of Essex, England. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Colchester (pronunciation  /ˈkoʊltʃɛstɚ/[1]) is a town, and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester, in Essex, England. Colchester is a local government district and borough in Essex, England, named for its main town, Colchester. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


It has a population of 104,390.[2] As the oldest recorded Roman town, Colchester claims to be the oldest town in Britain. It also claims to have the United Kingdom's oldest recorded market. This is a list of the largest cities and towns of England ordered by population. ... There are various towns which lay rival claims to be the oldest town in Britain: Abingdon in Oxfordshire Colchester in Essex Marazion in Cornwall Contents // (See talk. ... The market town is a medieval phenomenon. ...


Colchester is 56 miles (90 km) northeast of London. It is connected to the capital by the A12 road and the Great Eastern Main Line. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The A12 is a major road in England, a trunk road for most of its length, running from London to Great Yarmouth in Norfolk. ... The Great Eastern Main Line, or the GE, is a major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street station in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England, including Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Colchester

// History of Colchester Colchester is a historic town located in Essex, England. ...

Roman Colchester

A map of Colchester from 1940
A map of Colchester from 1940
Main article: Camulodunum

Colchester is claimed to be the oldest recorded town in Britain on the grounds that it was mentioned by Pliny the Elder in AD 77. Its Celtic name was Camulodunon, meaning 'the fortress of (the war god) Camulos'. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, a Roman legionary fortress was established and the name Camulodunon was modified to the Roman spelling of 'Camulodunum'. Camulodunum served as the first Roman capital of Britain, but was attacked and destroyed during Boudica's rebellion in AD 61. Sometime after the destruction, London became the capital of the province of Britannia but it would seem that the council of the provincial natives still met at Colchester, where the Temple to the Divine Claudius served as the seat of this council. Later, when the Roman frontier moved north (c. AD 49), Camulodunum became a colonia known as Colonia Claudia Victricensis. Image File history File links Colchestermap. ... Image File history File links Colchestermap. ... This article is about the town in England. ... There are various towns which lay rival claims to be the oldest town in Britain: Abingdon in Oxfordshire Colchester in Essex Marazion in Cornwall Contents // (See talk. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... This article is about the European people. ... In Celtic mythology, Camulus or Camulos was a god of war. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... This article is about the year 61. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... The Temples cella. ... Events Rome Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the younger (approximate date). ... A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ...


Sub-Roman and Saxon Colchester

There is evidence of hasty re-organisation of Colchester's defences around 400AD, including the blocking of the Balkerne Gate. Archaeological excavations have shown that public buildings were abandoned, although the 8th-century chronicler Nennius mentioned the town, which he called Caer Colun, in his list of the 30 most important cities in Britain. Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ...


Dr. John Morris (1913 - June 1977) the English historian who specialised in the study of the institutions of the Roman Empire and the history of Sub-Roman Britain, suggested in his book "The Age of Arthur" (1973) that as the descendents of Romanised Britons looked back to a golden age of peace and prosperity under Rome the name "Camelot" of Arturian legend was probably a reference to the capital of Britannia ( Camulodunum ) in Roman times. John Morris could refer to: // John Morris (historian), English historian John Morris (composer), film composer often employed by Mel Brooks James Reeves (1909–1978), pseudonym of John Morris, British poet and writer John Morris (actor), actor most famous for voice roles in the Toy Story films Johnny Morris (1916–1999... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the town in England. ...



The archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler was the first to propose that the lack of early Anglo-Saxon finds in a triangle between London, Colchester and St Albans could indicate a 'sub-Roman triangle' where British rule continued after the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons. Since then however, excavations have revealed some early Saxon occupation, including a 5th-century wooden hut built on the ruins of a Roman house in present-day Lion Walk. The Saxons called the town Colne ceaster, the Roman fortress of 'Colonia'. The tower of Holy Trinity Church is late Saxon work. Vikings from East Anglia overran Colchester and most of Essex in the late 9th century; the town remained in Viking hands until 920 when it was besieged and recaptured by the army of Edward the Elder. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ä’adweard se Ieldra) (c. ...


Medieval Colchester

Colchester Castle, constructed over the vaults of the ruined Temple of Claudius

Medieval Colchester's main landmark is Colchester Castle, which is an 11th century Norman keep, and built atop the vaults of the old Roman temple. There are notable medieval ruins in Colchester, including the surviving gateway of the Benedictine abbey of St. John the Baptist (know locally as "St. John's Abbey”), and the ruins of the Augustinian priory of St. Botolph (known locally as “St. Botolph's Priory"). Image File history File linksMetadata Colchester_Castle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Colchester_Castle. ... Colchester Castle Colchester castle is an almost unique example of a largely complete Norman castle, built in the same style as the White Tower of the Tower of London. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Colchester Abbey: A Benedictine monastery founded by Eudo, son of Hubert de Ria, seneschal of King William II (William Rufus) in 1096. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... A priory is an ecclesiastical circumscription run by a prior. ... Botolph or Botulph (died circa 680, pronounced with emphasis on the first syllable) was an English abbot and saint. ... St Botolphs Priory, located in Colchester, England, was the first English Augustinian priory church. ...


Royal charter

In 1189, Colchester was granted its first Royal Charter by King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart.) The charter was granted at Dover with the King about to embark on one of his many journeys away from England. The borough celebrated the 800th anniversary of its charter in 1989 [2]. Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ...


Tudor Colchester “The Dutch Quarter”

Between 1550 and 1600, a large number of weavers and clothmakers from Flanders emigrated to Colchester and the surrounding areas. They were famed for the production of Bays and Says cloth. An area in Colchester town centre is still known as the Dutch Quarter and many buildings there date from the Tudor period. During this period Colchester was one of the most prosperous wool towns in England. The old Roman wall runs along Northgate Street in the Dutch Quarter. Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ...


English Civil War “The Siege of Colchester”

Main article: Siege of Colchester

In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, a Royalist army led by Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle entered the town. A pursuing Parliamentary army led by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Henry Ireton besieged the town for eleven and a half weeks. The Royalists surrendered in the late summer and their leaders Lucas and Lisle were executed in the grounds of Colchester Castle. A small obelisk marks the spot where they fell. The siege of Colchester occurred in the summer on 1648 when the English Civil War reignited in several areas of Britain. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Belligerents Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... Sir Charles Lucas (1613-1648) was an English soldier, a Royalist commander in the English Civil War. ... Sir George Lisle (c. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... Colchester Castle Colchester castle is an almost unique example of a largely complete Norman castle, built in the same style as the White Tower of the Tower of London. ...


Victorian Colchester

Colchester is noted for its Victorian architecture. Significant landmarks include the Colchester Town Hall and the Jumbo Water Tower. Jumbo Jumbo Water Tower is a local name for the water tower at the Balkerne Gate in Colchester, Essex, England. ...


In 1884 the town was struck by the Colchester earthquake, estimated to have been 4.7 on the Richter Scale causing extensive regional damage. Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The earthquake known as the Colchester Earthquake occurred on April 22, 1884, and caused considerable damage in Colchester and the surrounding villages in Essex, England. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ...


Colchester Army Garrison

Main article: Colchester Garrison

Colchester has been an important military garrison since the Roman era. The Colchester Garrison is currently home to 16 Air Assault Brigade. The Colchester Garrison is a British Army base located in Colchester in the county of Essex. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Colchester Garrison is a British Army base located in Colchester in the county of Essex. ...


Colchester Town Watch

Colchester Town Watch [3] was founded in 2001 to provide a ceremonial guard for the Mayor of Colchester and for civic events such as the Oyster Feast. The historic re-enactors wear a livery based on late Elizabethan dress. Colchester Town Watch is accompanied by the musicians of the Colchester Town Waits [4] - a musical tradition dating back to the 14th century. The Mayor of Colchester sits as non-political chairman of Colchester Borough Council and serves as the civic representative of the borough. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ...


Paxman Diesels

The Paxman diesels business has been associated with Colchester since 1865 when James Noah Paxman founded a partnership with the brothers Henry and Charles Davey ('Davey, Paxman, and Davey') and opened the Standard Ironworks. In 1925 Paxman produced its first spring injection oil engine and joined the English Electric Diesel Group in 1966 - later becoming part of the GEC Group. Since the 1930s the Paxman company's main business has been the production of diesel engines. Paxman is a major brand of diesel engines. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Recent history

The £22.7m eight-mile A120 Colchester Eastern Bypass opened in June 1982. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Governance

The Member of Parliament for the Colchester is Bob Russell (LibDem). The Mayor of Colchester is Councillor Ray Gamble (Liberal Democrat). Colchester Politics: Colchester is a historic town located in Essex, England. ... The Mayor of Colchester sits as non-political chairman of Colchester Borough Council and serves as the civic representative of the borough. ... Colchester is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Bob Russell MP Robert Edward Russell (born 31 March 1946, London) is a British politician known to his constituents as Bob. He has been Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Colchester since 1997 (re-elected 2001 and 2005). ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... The Mayor of Colchester sits as non-political chairman of Colchester Borough Council and serves as the civic representative of the borough. ... Lib Dem logo The Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


Colchester Borough Council is the local authority. Control of the borough council has passed between Tories and LibDems in recent years. The political composition of the council is (2007 election results): For other places with the same name, see Colchester (disambiguation). ... The Conservative and Unionist Party, more commonly known as the Conservative Party, is currently the largest majortiy opposition party in the United Knigdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

The town is also represented on Essex County Council. Individual villages within the borough boundaries are also represented by parish councils. The Conservative and Unionist Party, more commonly known as the Conservative Party, is currently the largest majortiy opposition party in the United Knigdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... Main articles: Local government in the United Kingdom, Parish and Civil parish In England parish councils were formed in 1894 to take over local oversight of social welfare and civic duties in towns and villages. ...


Culture

Main article: History of Colchester

Colchester has a vibrant culture and attracts many visitors because of its history and its architecture. // History of Colchester Colchester is a historic town located in Essex, England. ... // History of Colchester Colchester is a historic town located in Essex, England. ...


Museums

  • Colchester Castle Museum: located in the Colchester Castle, features an extensive exhibit on Roman Colchester.
  • Hollytrees Museum: located close to the castle, formerly the home of Charles Gray, currently a social history museum with children's exhibits.
  • Natural History Museum: located across from the Castle Park gates and Hollytrees, the museum is located in the former All Saints Church.
  • Tymperleys Clock Museum: located in the historic town centre, in a 15th century timber-framed house, once home to William Gilbert, now houses the Bernard Mason clock collection.
  • East Anglian Railway Museum: located roughly 4 miles to the north east of Colchester, located at Chappel and Wakes Colne railway station.

Colchester Castle Colchester castle is an almost unique example of a largely complete Norman castle, built in the same style as the White Tower of the Tower of London. ... Charles Gray (August 29, 1928 - March 7, 2000) was a British actor, born in Bournemouth, Dorset. ... For other persons named William Gilbert, see William Gilbert (disambiguation). ... Bernard Mason (b. ... The museum and station The East Anglian Railway Museum is located at Chappel and Wakes Colne railway station in Essex, which is situated on the former Great Eastern Railway branch line from Marks Tey to Sudbury. ... Chappel and Wakes Colne railway station is a railway station serving the villages of Wakes Colne and Chappel in Essex. ...

Arts

Connor Barrett's Crucifixion of Mankind, located in the Colchester Public Library
Connor Barrett's Crucifixion of Mankind, located in the Colchester Public Library
  • Mercury Theatre: opened in 1972, the Mercury Theatre is one the region's leading repertory theatres. [5]
  • Headgate Theatre - Colchester's most central theatre
  • Colchester Arts Centre: multi-function arts venue located in the former St Mary-at-the-Walls church, home of the Colchester Beer Festival. [6]
  • firstsite is a contemporary art organisation, currently housed in the Minories, near the Castle. A new gallery, designed by Rafael Viñoly, is currently under construction nearby.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (624x845, 555 KB) photo of Connor Barretts mahogany wood carving, The Crucifixion of Mankind, located in the Colchester Public Library, England . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (624x845, 555 KB) photo of Connor Barretts mahogany wood carving, The Crucifixion of Mankind, located in the Colchester Public Library, England . ... Oliver OConnor Barrett (born January 17, 1908 in Eltham, London, England; died July 1989 in Cwm Prysor, Trawsfynydd, Wales) was a British sculptor, painter, graphic artist, educator, poet and composer. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rafael Viñoly, a world-famous architect, was born in 1944 in Uruguay. ...

Music

  • Colchester Arts Centre - The largest music and performing arts centre in Colchester
  • The Twist - A live music venue
  • Charter Hall - larger music venue next to Colchester Leisure World

Sports

  • Colchester United: a football team currently playing in the Football League Championship, based at the Layer Road ground, but shortly to move to Cuckoo Farm.
  • Colchester Rugby Football Club: the largest rugby club in the borough providing community rugby for adults, women and children from age 6 up.
  • Colchester Leisure World: swimming & fitness facilities, exhibition hall.
  • Athletics Stadium: the Colchester Garrison Athletics Stadium is a co-operative facility jointly used by the Army and the Town.
  • Colchester Cricket: the Colchester & East Essex Cricket Club has its grounds near the Castle Park. The Essex County Cricket Club plays a series of games at Colchester during the summer.
  • Colchester Skatepark Facilities for extreme sports.
  • Colchester Gladiators American Football Club play at Broad Lane Stadium, home of Wivenhoe Town FC.
  • Colchester Weight Lifting Club organise Olympic Weight Lifting, Powerlifting and Bench Press competitions at Hamiltons Fitness Centre in The Severalls Business Park.

Colchester United Football Club is an English football team who play in the Championship. ... The Football League Championship (often referred to as The Championship for short, or the Coca-Cola Football League Championship for sponsorship reasons) is the highest division of The Football League and second-highest division overall in the English football league system after the Premier League. ... Layer Road is a historic Football league stadium in Colchester, England. ... Cuckoo Farm is the project name for a 35-acre site in Colchester, Essex that is to be the home of a new stadium called The Colchester Community Stadium, and the home ground of Colchester United F.C.. Building work began in July 2007 and is scheduled to be completed... The Colchester Garrison is a British Army base located in Colchester in the county of Essex. ... Essex County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Essex. ... Broad Lane Sports Ground Wivenhoe Town is a football club from Wivenhoe, Essex, England. ...

Nearby attractions

Dedham Vale is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty on the Suffolk-Essex border. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Lovejoy (disambiguation). ... John Grant is a British author who writes under the pen name Jonathan Gash. He is the author of the Lovejoy series of novels. ... , West Mersea is a small town in the Colchester borough of Essex in the East of England. ... The church of the Holy Trinity Long Melford (or Melford, as it is more generally known) is a large, ancient village in the county of Suffolk, England, on the border with Essex, which is marked by the River Stour, approximately 20 miles from Colchester and 20 miles from Bury St. ... Setting off: Huntsman and Hounds, 1914. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For architectural piers, see Pier (architecture). ... Wool in a shearing shed Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Wool sheep, Royal Melbourne Show Wool is the fibre derived from the hair of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep and goats, but the hair of other mammals... , Coggeshall is a small market town of 3,919 residents (in 2001) in Essex, England. ... Map sources for Lavenham at grid reference TL9149 The church of St. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ...

Twin towns

Colchester competes in the Twin Town Games against Wetzlar, Avignon, Orleans, Tarragona, and Siena. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... This article is about Orléans, France; for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation). ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ...


Colchester's twin towns are: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Imola (Iômla in the local dialect) is a town, comune in the province of Bologna, located on the Santerno river, in the Emilia-Romagna region of north-central Italy. ...

Education

Colchester is home to many secondary schools including two grammar schools, the Colchester Royal Grammar School for boys and Colchester County High School for girls. Both produce excellent GCSE and A-Level examination results, often in the country's top ten. Colchester Royal Grammar School (CRGS) is a grammar school in Colchester, Essex, founded in AD 1206 and granted two Royal Charters by Henry VIII (in 1539) and by Elizabeth I (in 1584). ... Colchester County High School is a secondary school in Colchester for girls. ...


Colchester Sixth Form College offers a wide range of subjects at A-level, AS level, and GCSE or equivalent level, as well as the International Baccalaureate. This is complemented by the Colchester Institute which covers many practical and day release courses as well as some of the more academic ones. The Sixth Form College, Colchester was established in 1987 and provides further education in the north Essex area. ... The Colchester Institute is a large provider of further and higher education based in the city of Colchester. ...


The University of Essex is located in a parkland setting on the edge of Colchester, close to the town of Wivenhoe. The University of Essex rules is a British plate glass university. ... Wivenhoe is a small town in the Colchester borough of Essex in the East of England. ...


Higher education

Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...

Secondary schools

Since their opening on 12th July 1912 the buildings on North Hill, Colchester, have seen many changes, although the exterior structure is almost unaltered. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Independent (private) schools

Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Transport

Colchester has a bus system (run by First Essex, Network Colchester, Hedingham Omnibuses and other smaller operators) which mainly centres around Colchester Temporary Bus Station in the town centre. The temporary bus station will be replaced by a permanent one further down the street by 2010. First Group-owned First Essex is one of many operators of London Buses. ... Network Colchester is a Tellings-Golden Miller company. ... Hedingham Omnibuses is an Essex bus company founded shortly after WWI by Aubrey Ernest Letch. ...


Colchester North station is served by National Express East Anglia services on the London - Norwich mainline and the Colchester - Clacton line. Colchester railway station is the main railway station for the town of Colchester in Essex, England. ... One Railway (or simply One) is the brand name of London Eastern Railway Ltd, a British company which operates local, suburban and express services from London Liverpool Street in the City of London to East and North London, Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire and East Anglia, otherwise known as the Greater Anglia... The Great Eastern Main Line, or the GE, is a major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street station in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England, including Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts. ... The Colchester to Clacton Line is a railway line linking Colchester to Clacton-on-Sea. ...


Colchester Town railway station, still referred to by some as St Botolphs, is on a spur from the Colchester - Clacton line, and Hythe station is also on the Clacton line. Colchester Town railway station serves the town centre of Colchester in Essex, England. ... The Colchester to Clacton Line is a railway line linking Colchester to Clacton-on-Sea. ... Hythe railway station serves the eastern areas of Colchester in Essex, England. ...


References in literature

The Roman historian Tacitus mentions Colchester (Camulodunum) in The Annals of Imperial Rome. In the Chapter Nero and his helpers he describes how '...the Roman ex-soldiers...had recently established a settlement at Camulodunum', later burned down in the Iceni rebellion. It is the only town in Britain to have been explicitly mentioned in George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four as being the target of a nuclear attack. The Atomic Wars took place during the 1950s. Colchester, England is the only city that was specifically mentioned as being bombed, but the book does say that many cities were destroyed in North America, Europe, and Russia. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ...


Colchester in popular culture

Colchester is reputed to be the home of three of the best known English nursery rhymes: 'Old King Cole', 'Humpty Dumpty' and 'Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star'. This article is about the nursery rhyme. ...


Local legend places Colchester as the seat of King Cole (or Coel) of the rhyme Old King Cole, a legendary ancient king of Britain. The name Colchester is from Old English: the place-name suffixes chester, cester, and caster derive from the Latin word castrum (fortified place). In folk etymology the name Colchester was thought of as meaning Cole's Castle, though it actually means the Roman fort 'Colonia'. In the legend Helena, the daughter of Cole, married the Roman senator Constantius Chlorus, who had been sent by Rome as an ambassador and was named as Cole's successor. Helena's son became Emperor Constantine I. Helena was canonised as Saint Helena of Constantinople and is credited with finding the true cross and the remains of the Magi. She is now the patron saint of Colchester. This is recognised in the emblem of Colchester: a cross and three crowns. A local secondary school – St Helena's – is named after her, and her statue is atop the town hall, although local legend is that it was originally a statue of Blessed Virgin Mary which was later fitted with a cross. Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... In the Roman Empire, a castra (the plural form of castrum, castri, a fortification) was a Roman military camp. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Saints redirects here. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ...


Colchester is also the most widely credited source of the rhyme Humpty Dumpty. During the siege of Colchester in the Civil War, a Royalist sniper known as One-Eyed Thompson sat in the belfry of the church of St Mary-at-the-Walls (Humpty Dumpty sat on the wall) and was given the nickname Humpty Dumpty, most likely because of his size, Humpty Dumpty being a common insult for the overweight. Thompson was shot down (Humpty Dumpty had a great fall) and, shortly after, the town was lost to the Parliamentarians (all the king's horses and all the king's men / couldn't put Humpty together again.) Another version says that Humpty Dumpty was a cannon on the top of the church. The church of St Mary-at-the-Walls still retains its Norman tower until the top few feet, which are a Georgian repair. This article is about the nursery rhyme. ...


The third rhyme to come from Colchester is Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, which was written by Jane Taylor in the town's Dutch Quarter, and published in 1806 with the title "The Star". Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star is one of the popular English nursery rhymes. ...


Colchester has also been suggested as one of the potential sites of Camelot, on account of having been the capital of Roman England and its ancient name of Camulodunum. This article is about the mythical castle. ...


In George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, the main character, Winston Smith, thinks back to his childhood and his first memories of war, recalling: "Perhaps it was the time when the atomic bomb had fallen on Colchester." (Part 1, Chapter 3). George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ...


Notable Colcestrians

People of note that were born or have lived in Colchester include:

George Biddell Airy Sir George Biddell Airy (July 27, 1801 – January 2, 1892) was British Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. ... Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ... Colchester Royal Grammar School (CRGS) is a grammar school in Colchester, Essex, founded in AD 1206 and granted two Royal Charters by Henry VIII (in 1539) and by Elizabeth I (in 1584). ... Damon Albarn, (born March 23, 1968 in Leytonstone, London), is an English singer-songwriter who gained fame as the lead singer and keyboard player of rock band Blur. ... Blur were an English rock band that formed in Colchester in 1989. ... For the Gorillazs self-titled debut album, see Gorillaz (album). ... Paul Damien Allender is the guitarist of the British heavy metal band Cradle of Filth. ... Cradle of Filth are a heavy metal band formed in Suffolk, England in 1991. ... Cuthbert James McCall Alport, Baron Alport (22 March 1912 – 28 October 1998) was a Conservative Party politician, Cabinet Minister, and life peer. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... John Ball (d. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a... Year 1381 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Allister Carter, was born in England in 1979 and became a professional snooker player in 1996. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... Piers Courage - born 27 May 1942 - was a Formula One driver from Britain. ... F1 redirects here. ... Graham Coxon singing in the video to Blurs Tender Graham Coxon (born Graham Leslie Coxon on 12 March 1969, in Rinteln, West Germany) is an English singer-songwriter, best known as the former guitarist in the rock band Blur. ... This is a list of passengers on the Mayflower . ... Cunobelinus (also written Kynobellinus, Cunobelin) was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe of pre-Roman Britain. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Darren Day (born July 17, 1968) is an English actor, singer and television presenter. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... The Mighty Boosh is a British comedy television series and live show about two friends who go on a series of magical adventures. ... Robots in Disguise is an English electro punk band who formed in 2000. ... IAMX is a side project of Sneaker Pimps singer/instrumentalist Chris Corner. ... Sibling is Chris Corner (of-Sneaker Pimps and current I AM X mainman) and Sue Denim from Robots in Disguise. ... Neil Alan Foster (born May 6, 1962, Colchester, Essex) is a former English cricketer who played in 29 Tests and 48 ODIs from 1983 to 1993. ... For other persons named William Gilbert, see William Gilbert (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... John Grant is a British author who writes under the pen name Jonathan Gash. He is the author of the Lovejoy series of novels. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Lovejoy (disambiguation). ... Dr. William Withey Gull Sir William Withey Gull, 1st Baronet (December 31, 1816 – January 29, 1890) was an English physician. ... Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... Joan Hickson played Miss Marple in the popular BBC TV series Joan Hickson OBE (August 5, 1906 – October 17, 1998) was an English actress of theatre, film and television, who achieved fame in her old age playing Agatha Christies Miss Marple. ... Witches disclose their familiar spirits to Matthew Hopkins. ... Matthew Hopkins, 17th Century English witchfinder. ... Jason Jay Kay (born December 30, 1969, Stretford - Manchester) is a British funk musician. ... Jamiroquai is a Grammy Award-winning English funk / soul / disco band. ... Klaus Kinski (October 18, 1926 – November 23, 1991) was a German actor, famous for his ability to project onscreen intensity, and for his explosive temperament. ... Bernard Mason (b. ... Philip Morant was a famous book-writing historian who lived in the 18th century. ... Dr Ralph Morse is an English actor, singer, teacher and writer of historically based dramas. ... Johnny Cashbox is the alias of Ralph Morse, actor. ... Martin Newell in 2006 Martin Newell (born 1953), also known as the Wild Man of Wivenhoe, is an English rock musician, poet and author. ... Sheila Nicholls is a British singer/songwriter born in Colchester, England. ... Seán Dermot Fintan OLeary, Jr. ... BBC Radio 2 is one of the BBCs national radio stations and the most popular station in the UK. As well as having most listeners nationally, it ranks first in all regions above local radio stations. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... Steven Pimlott OBE (1955 – 14 February 2007) was an English opera and theatre director. ... Dave Rowntree (born David Rowntree on 8 May 1964, in Colchester, Essex, England) is best known as the drummer in the band Blur. ... Jeremy Spake (born in Clacton-on-Sea, 1968) is a British television presenter. ... Charles Haddon Spurgeon (June 19, 1834 – January 31, 1892) was Englands best-known and most-loved preacher for most of the second half of the nineteenth century. ... Metropolitan Tabernacle in 2004 The Metropolitan Tabernacle is a large Reformed Baptist church in the Elephant and Castle in London. ... Jane Taylor (September 23, 1783−April 13, 1824), was an English poet and novelist. ... Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star is one of the popular English nursery rhymes. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sir Laming Worthington-Evans, 1st Baronet GBE (23 August 1868 – 14 February 1931) was a British Conservative politician. ... Richard Allan Bartle (born January 10, 1960, in England) is a British writer and game researcher, best known for being the co-author of MUD, the first multi-user dungeon. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ...

See also

The United Kingdom, along with France, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939 as part of the United Kingdoms pledge to defend Poland to the invasion of Poland. ... Geological map of Great Britain. ... This is a list of natural disasters in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the town in England. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.[1] (accessed: February 28, 2008)
  2. ^ Key Statistics for urban areas in the South East. 2001 Census, National Statistics. Retrieved on February 11, 2007.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Colchester Borough Council
  • Colchester - Britain's first Roman city
  • Hanseatic port see Hanse - Gresham College
  • Visitors' guide to Colchester
  • Essex Photos

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