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Encyclopedia > Coincidence

Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection. The word is derived from the Latin co- ("in," "with," "together") and incidere ("to fall on"). In physics, spacetime is a mathematical model that combines three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time into a single construct called the space-time continuum, in which time plays the role of the 4th dimension. ...

The index of coincidence can be used to analyze whether two events are related. A coincidence does not prove a relationship, but related events may be expected to have a higher index of coincidence. From a statistical perspective, coincidences are inevitable and often less remarkable than they may appear intuitively. The odds that two people share a birthday, for example, reaches 50% with a group of just 22[1] (see the Birthday paradox). In cryptography, coincidence counting is the technique (invented by William F. Friedman) of putting two texts side-by-side and counting the number of times that a letter appears next to itself in both copies. ... The birthday paradox states that if there are 23 or more people in a room then there is a chance of more than 50% that at least two of them will have the same birthday. ...

Remarkable coincidences sometimes lead to claims of psychic phenomena or conspiracy theories. Some researchers (see Charles Fort and Carl Jung) have compiled thousands of accounts of coincidences and other supposedly anomalous phenomena. Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually political, social, or historical events) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful or influential people or organizations. ... Charles Fort, 1920 Charles Hoy Fort (6 August 1874 - 3 May 1932) was an American writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena. ... Carl Jungs autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875, Kesswil, â€“ June 6, 1961, KÃ¼snacht) (IPA: ) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. ... Anomalous phenomena are phenomena which are observed and for which there are no suitable explanations in the context of a specific body of scientific knowledge, e. ...

In optics, coincidence is also used to refer to two or more incident beams of light that strike the same point at the same time. Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Hahahahahahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahhahaahahhhahhhahaahhhahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahhahahahahahaahhaaahahahahahahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahhahahahahahhahahahhahahahhahahahahahhahahahhahahahhahahahhahahahahahahahahahhahahaahhaahahhaahhahaahahahahhahaahahsahahahahahshhsshshshagagaggagagagagagaggagagahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahyhahahahahhahaahahahahahahahahahahhahahahaah! your moma is a hoe. ...

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bible codes, also known as Torah codes, are words, phrases and clusters of words and phrases that some people believe are meaningful and exist intentionally in coded form in the text of the Bible. ... Littlewoods Law states that individuals can expect a miracle to happen to them at the rate of about one per month. ... Post hoc ergo propter hoc is Latin for after this, therefore because of this. ... An anomalous phenomenon is an observed event (phenomenon) which deviates from the standard or expected (anomaly). ... Charles Fort, 1920 Charles Hoy Fort (August 6, 1874 - May 3, 1932), writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena, was the son of an Albany grocer of Dutch ancestry. ... The term dÃ©jÃ  vu (French for already seen, also called paramnesia) describes the experience of feeling that one has witnessed or experienced a new situation previously. ... Extra-sensory perception, or ESP, is the ability to acquire information by means other than the five main senses of taste, sight, touch, smell, and hearing. ... The word, random is used to express lack of purpose, cause, order, or predictability in non-scientific parlance. ... Reality shift refers to sudden and enigmatic changes in ones physical, spatial, or temporal environment. ... The Roots of Coincidence, written by Arthur Koestler, is an accessible introduction to theories of parapsychology, including extra-sensory perception and psychokinesis. ... Synchronicity is a word coined by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung to describe the temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events. ...

## References

• Jung, Carl G.: Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP, 1973.
• Arthur Koestler: The Roots of Coincidence

Carl Jungs autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875, Kesswil, â€“ June 6, 1961, KÃ¼snacht) (IPA: ) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. ... Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest â€“ March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Coincidence (1715 words) I repeat that a useful distinction in discussing these and other coincidences is that between generic sorts of events and particular events. Since the natural world of rocks, plants, and rivers does not seem to offer much evidence for superfluous coincidences, primitive man had to be very sensitive to every conceivable anomaly and improbability as he slowly developed science and its progenitor, 66common sense." Coincidences, after all, are sometimes quite significant. By the time 23rd person walks through the door, their chances would be 22 in 365, but added to all the previous chances, the total chance of coincidence in the group would be better than 50%.
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