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Encyclopedia > Coin
Numismatics
Terminology
Portal
Currency
Coins, Banknotes,
Forgery

Circulating currencies
Community currencies Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up coin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... This article is an attempt to combine and condense Numismatic and coin collecting terms into concise, informative explainations for the beginner or professional. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... This list of circulating currencies contains the 194 current official or de facto currencies of the 192 United Nations member states, one UN observer state, three partially recognized sovereign states, six unrecognized countries, and 33 dependencies. ... In economics, a local currency, in its common usage, is a currency not backed by a national government (and not legal tender), and intended to trade only in a small area. ...

Company scrip, LETS,
Time dollars

Fictional currencies Company scrip is currency issued in certain industries to pay workers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ithaca Hour is an example of time-based currency. ... Fictional currency is currency in works of fiction. ...

Ancient currencies
Greek, Roman,
Byzantine

Medieval currencies
Modern currencies

Africa, The Americas,
Europe, Asia, Oceania
Production
Mint, Designers
Exonumia

Notaphily A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... Coining is a form of precision stamping. ... The term milled coinage is used to describe coins which are produced by some form of machine, rather than by manually hammering coin blanks between two dies (hammered coinage) or casting coins from dies. ... Hammered coinage describes the commonest form of coins produced since the invention of coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca. ... Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. ... This article is about the payment system. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... A rare and historic Bechuanaland Border Police canteen token. ... Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes. ...

Scripophily A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Scripophily is the study and collection of stocks and Bonds. ...

A coin is usually a piece of hard material, usually metal or a metallic material, usually in the shape of a disc, and most often issued by a government. Coins are used as a form of money in transactions of various kinds, from the everyday circulation coins to the storage of vast amounts of bullion coins. In the present day, coins and banknotes make up the cash forms of all modern money systems. Coins made for circulation (general monetized use) are usually used for lower-valued units, and banknotes for the higher values; also, in most money systems, the highest value coin is worth less than the lowest-value note. The face value of circulation coins is usually higher than the gross value of the metal used in making them, but this is no longer generally the case with historical circulation coins made of precious metals. For example, the historical Eagle (U.S. coin) contained .48375 troy ounce of gold and has a face value of only ten U.S. dollars, but the market value of the coin, due to its metal content, is now many times the face amount. For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... In geometry, a disk is the region in a plane contained inside of a circle. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Monetization is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. ...


Exceptions to the rule of coin face-value being higher than content value, also occur for some non-monetized "bullion coins" made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. For examples of modern gold collector/investor coins, the United States mints the American Gold Eagle, Canada mints the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf, and South Africa mints the Krugerrand. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g., C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Monetization is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender. ... This is a list of bullion coins in circulation: Gold coin Silver coin Platinum coin Palladium coin This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... The American Gold Eagle is the official bullion gold coin of the United States. ... Obverse of a Gold Canadian Maple Leaf bullion coin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American Gold Eagle is the official bullion gold coin of the United States. ... Obverse of a Gold Canadian Maple Leaf bullion coin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historically, a great number of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials have been used practically, impractically (i.e., rarely), artistically, and experimentally in the production of coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment, where bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] The Group 11 Elements (IB) of the periodic table consist of the traditional coinage metals of copper, silver, and gold. ... A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce. ...


Coins have long been linked to the concept of money, as reflected by the fact that in other languages the words "coin" and "currency" are synonymous. Fictional currencies may also bear the name coin (as such, an item may be said to be worth 123 coin or 123 coins). For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Collecting coins

See Coin collecting and Numismatics for more information on the collecting of coins, bank notes, token coins and Exonumia. Also see mint mark. This article is about a hobby. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... A rare and historic Bechuanaland Border Police canteen token. ... Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. ... A mint mark is an inscription on a coin indicating the mint at which the coin was produced. ...


The value of a coin

In terms of its value as a collector's item, a coin is generally made more or less valuable by its condition, specific historical significance, rarity, quality/beauty of the design and general popularity with collectors. If a coin is greatly lacking in any of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. Bullion coins are also valued based on these factors, but are largely valued based on the value of the gold or silver in them. Sometimes non-monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, thse value numbers are not market nor fiat values, and are never more than symbolic numbers. This is a list of bullion coins in circulation: Gold coin Silver coin Platinum coin Palladium coin This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Canadian Maple Leaf coins are bullion coins of gold, silver, platinum, or palladium. ... The American Gold Eagle is the official bullion gold coin of the United States. ...


Most coins presently are made of a base metal, and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only as national currencies are subjected to arbitrage in international trade. This causes such coins to be monetary tokens in the same sense that paper currency is, when the paper currency is not backed directly by metal, but rather by a government guarantee of international exchange of goods or services. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be "true coins" (see below). However, because fiat money is backed by government guarantee of a certain amount of goods and services, where the value of this is in turn determined by free market currency exchange rates, similar to the case for the international market exchange values which determines the value of metals which back commodity money, in practice there is very little practical economic difference between the two types of money (types of currencies). In chemistry, the term base metal is used informally to refer to a metal that oxidizes or corrodes relatively easily, and reacts variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen. ... Fiat money or fiat currency, is money that is current or legal tender as satisfaction for money debts by government fiat, that is by law. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price differential between two or more markets: a combination of matching deals are struck that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Token coins. ... Fiat money or fiat currency, is money that is current or legal tender as satisfaction for money debts by government fiat, that is by law. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity out of which it is made. ...


Coins may be minted that have fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but this is never done intentionally and initially for circulation coins, and happens only in due course later in the history of coin production due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples of this phenomenon include the pre-1964 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar, US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid-1982, United States pennies are made of 97.5% zinc coated with 2.5% copper. Extreme difference between fiat values and metal values of coins causes coins to be removed from the market by illicit smelters interested in the value of their metal content. In fact, the United States Mint, in anticipation of this practice, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalize the melting and export of pennies and nickels.[1] Violators can be punished with a fine of up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for a maximum of five years. For other uses, see Dime. ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


To distinguish between these two types of coins, as well as from other forms of tokens which have been used as money, some monetary scholars have attempted to define by three criteria that an object must meet to be a "true coin".[citation needed] These criteria are:

  1. It must be made of a valuable material, and trade for close to the market value of that material.
  2. It must be of a standardized weight and purity.
  3. It must be marked to identify the authority that guarantees the content.

First coins

A 640 BC one-third stater coin from Lydia.
A 640 BC one-third stater coin from Lydia.
Coin showing Karttikeya and Lakshmi (Avanti, Ujjain, circa 150–75 BC)
Coin showing Karttikeya and Lakshmi (Avanti, Ujjain, circa 150–75 BC)

The question of the world's first coin has long been and still is debated. Among numismatists, it is debated whether the world's first coins originated in Lydia, China, or India (where coins were known as karshapana).[2][3] One early coin from Caria, Asia Minor, includes a legend "I am the badge of Phanes," though most of the early Lydian pieces have no writing on them, just symbolic animals. Therefore the dating of these coins relies primarily on archeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world). Many early Lydian coins were undoubtedly struck (manufactured) under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens than true coins, though because of their numbers it's evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being the most frequently mentioned originator of coinage. Image File history File links BMC_06. ... Image File history File links BMC_06. ... Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License. ... Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License. ... In Hinduism, Kartikeya (also Murugan, Subrahmanya, Skanda, Kumaran, Swaminanda) is a deity born out of a magical spark created by Shiva. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Avanti Kingdom. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


The first Indian coins were minted around the 6th century BC by the Mahajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were punch marked coins called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana. The Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara[4], Kuntala[5], Kuru[6], Panchala[7], Shakya[8], Surasena[9], and Surashtra[10]. Some argue that Indian coins were developed from Western prototypes, which the Indians came in contact with through Babylonian traders.[11] A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Schematic map of the Indo-Gangetic Plain The Indo-Gangetic Plain also known as The Kathwiarschi plains is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kuntala is a village and a Mandal in Adilabad district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... Śākya (Sanskrit) or Sakya (Pāli) is the name (derived from Sanskrit śakya, capable, able) of an Indo-Aryan-speaking nation or janapada of the (the so-called warrior caste). The Śākyas formed independent tribes or kingdoms near the foothills of the Himālayas. ... Surasena (or Shourasena) was the kingdom around the modern Brajabhumi. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


The first European coin to use Arabic numerals to date the year minted was the Swiss 1424 St. Gallen silver Plappart. For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ...


Coin debasement

Main article: Debasement

Throughout history, governments have been known to create more coinage than their supply of precious metals would allow. By replacing some fraction of a coin's precious metal content with a base metal (often copper or nickel), the intrinsic value of each individual coin was reduced (thereby "debasing" their money), allowing the coining authority to produce more coins than would otherwise be possible. Debasement sometimes occurs in order to make the coin harder and therefore less likely to be worn down as quickly. Debasement of money almost always leads to price inflation unless price controls are also instituted by the governing authority, in which case a black market will often arise. Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


The United States is unusual in that it has only slightly modified its coinage system (except for the images and symbols on the coins, which have changed a number of times) to accommodate two centuries of inflation. The one-cent coin has changed little since 1864 (though its composition was changed in 1982 to remove virtually all copper from the coin) and still remains in circulation, despite a greatly reduced purchasing power. On the other end of the spectrum, the largest coin in common circulation is 25 cents, a low value for the largest denomination coin compared to other countries. Recent increases in the prices of copper, nickel, and zinc, mean that both the US one- and five-cent coins are now worth more for their raw metal content than their face (fiat) value. In particular, copper one-cent pieces (those dated prior to 1982 and some 1982-dated coins) now contain about two cents' worth of copper. Some denominations of circulating coins that were formerly minted in the United States are no longer made. These include coins with a face value of half a cent, two cents, three cents, twenty cents, two dollars and fifty cents, three dollars, five dollars, ten dollars, and twenty dollars. In addition, cents were originally slightly larger than the modern quarter and weighed nearly half an ounce, while five cent coins were smaller than a dime and made of a silver alloy. Dollars were also much larger and weighed approximately an ounce. Half dollar and one dollar coins are still produced but rarely used. The U.S. also has bullion and commemorative coins with the following denominations: 50¢, $1, $5, $10, $25, $50, and $100.


Features of modern coinage

A bronze coin of the Chinese Han Dynasty—circa 1st century BC. Some modern Japanese coins still have the characteristic hole in the coin.
A bronze coin of the Chinese Han Dynasty—circa 1st century BC. Some modern Japanese coins still have the characteristic hole in the coin.
An ancient Greek coin, struck under Roman rule, circa 268 AD.
An ancient Greek coin, struck under Roman rule, circa 268 AD.
British fifty pence coin
British fifty pence coin
Gold sovereigns and a Krugerrand
Gold sovereigns and a Krugerrand
Republic of China Ten Cash
Republic of China Ten Cash
A set of US coins.

The milled, or reeded, edges still found on many coins (always those that were once made of gold or silver, even if not so now) were originally designed to show that none of the valuable metal had been shaved off the coin. Prior to the use of milled edges, circulating coins commonly suffered from "shaving", by which unscrupulous persons would shave a small amount of precious metal from the edge. Unmilled British sterling silver coins were known to be shaved to almost half of their minted weight. This form of debasement in Tudor England led to the formulation of Gresham's Law. The monarch would have to periodically recall circulating coins, paying only bullion value of the silver, and re-mint them. ImageMetadata File history File links Hancoin1large. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Hancoin1large. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Image File history File links ClaudiusII(CNG). ... Image File history File links ClaudiusII(CNG). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links 3sovriegns. ... Image File history File links 3sovriegns. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Greshams law is commonly stated as: When there is a legal tender currency, bad money drives good money out of circulation. or more accurately Money overvalued by the State will drive money undervalued by the State out of circulation. ...


Traditionally, the side of a coin carrying a bust of a monarch or other authority, or a national emblem, is called the obverse, or colloquially, heads. The other side is called the reverse, or colloquially, tails. However, the rule is violated in some cases. [2] Another rule is that the side carrying the year of minting is the obverse, although some Chinese coins, most Canadian coins, the British 20p coin, and all Japanese coins, are an exception. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In logic (and usually without being paired with reverse), obverse has a meaning close to contrapositive. ... The term obverse, and its opposite, reverse, describe the two sides of units of currency and many other kinds of two-sided objects, most often in reference to coins, but also to medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 25¢ Coin (Quarter) - Obverse This article concerns Canadian coinage, the coinage of Canada. ... The British decimal Twenty Pence (20p) coin was issued in June 1982 to fill in the obvious gap between the Ten Pence and Fifty Pence coins; it rapidly gained acceptance and very large numbers now circulate [1]. The coin is minted from an alloy of 84% copper and 16% nickel...


The orientation of the obverse with respect to the reverse differs between countries. Some coins have coin orientation, where the coin must be flipped vertically to see the other side; other coins, such as British coins, have medallic orientation, where the coin must be flipped horizontally to see the other side. A feature of coins. ... A feature of coins. ...


The exergue is the space on a coin beneath the main design, often used to show the coin's date, although it is sometimes left blank or containing a mint mark, privy mark, or some other decorative or informative design feature. Many coins do not have an exergue at all, and they are most common on coins with little or no legends such as the Victorian bun penny. A mint mark is an inscription on a coin indicating the mint at which the coin was produced. ... Privy mark (left) of drs. ...


Coins that are not round (British 50 pence for example) usually have an odd number of sides , with the edges rounded off. This is so that the coin has a constant diameter, and will therefore be recognised by vending machines whichever way it is inserted[12]. The triangular coin (produced to commemorate the 2007/2008 Tutankhamun exhibition at the The O2 Arena) was commissioned by the Isle of Man, became legal tender on 6 December 2007[13] and has a value of 25p (a crown). The triangular coin issued to commemorate the return of Tutankhamun treasures to London was not the first coin with a triangular shape. Some triangular coins produced earlier include : Cabinda coin, Bermuda coin, 2 Dollar Cook Islands 1992 triangular coin, Uganda Millennium Coin and Polish Sterling-Silver 10-Zloty Coin. [14] The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – was issued on October 14, 1969 in the run-up to decimalisation to replace the ten shilling note. ... For closed convex planar bodies whose boundary is a smooth curve, one notes that there are exactly two parallel tangent lines to the boundary curve in any given direction. ... A typical U.S. snack vending machine A vending machine is a machine that provides various snacks, beverages and other products to consumers. ... King Tut redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Millennium Dome. ... Crown reverse, 1953 and 1960. ... Map of Angola, highlighting Cabinda Cabinda is a small territory, currently administered as an exclave of Angola, resulting from the fusion of three kingdoms: Ngoyo, Loango and Cacongo. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Coins are popularly used as a sort of two-sided die; in order to choose between two options with a random possibility, one choice will be labeled "heads" and the other "tails," and a coin will be flipped or "tossed" to see whether the heads or tails side comes up on top. See Bernoulli trial; a fair coin is defined to have the probability of heads (in the parlance of Bernoulli trials, a "success") of exactly 0.5. A widely publicized example of an asymmetrical coin which will not produce "fair" results in a flip is the Belgian one euro coin [3]. See also coin flipping. Coins are sometimes falsified to make one side weigh more, in order to simulate a fair type of coin which is actually not fair. Such a coin is said to be "weighted." Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners. ... In the theory of probability and statistics, a Bernoulli trial is an experiment whose outcome is random and can be either of two possible outcomes, called success and failure. ... Belgian euro coins feature only a single design for all eight coins: the portrait or effigy of King Albert II of Belgium and his royal monogram. ... Coin flipping or coin tossing is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to resolve a dispute between two parties or otherwise choose between two alternatives. ...


Some coins, called bracteates, are so thin they can only be struck on one side. A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold coin produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age, but the name is also used for later produced coins of silver produced in Central Europe during...


Bi-metallic coins are sometimes used for higher values and for commemorative purposes. In the 1990s, France used a tri-metallic coin. Common circulating examples include the €1, €2, British £2 and Canadian $2. The 1 euro coin is bi-metallic, it is made of two different alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of more than one metal or alloy, generally arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center. ... 1 euro coins are made of two alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass. ... // 2 euro coins are made of an inner coin and an outer ring. ... This article discusses the British Two Pounds coins, both the commemorative issues issued between 1986 and 1996, and the regular bimetallic circulation coin first issued in 1998, dated 1997, only. ...


Guitar-shaped coins were once issued in Somalia, Poland once issued a fan-shaped 10 złoty coin, but perhaps the oddest coin ever was the 2002 $10 coin from Nauru, a Europe-shaped coin.[4]


The Royal Canadian Mint is now able to produce holographic-effect gold and silver coinage. Mint flag The Royal Canadian Mint (RCM, french Monnaie royale canadienne) produces all of Canadas circulation coins, and manufactures circulation coins on behalf of other nations. ...


For a list of many pure metallic elements and their alloys which have used in actual circulation coins and for trial experiments, see coinage metals. [5] The Group 11 Elements (IB) of the periodic table consist of the traditional coinage metals of copper, silver, and gold. ...


See also

Numismatics Portal 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold coin produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age, but the name is also used for later produced coins of silver produced in Central Europe during... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... This is a list of bullion coins in circulation: Gold coin Silver coin Platinum coin Palladium coin This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article is about a hobby. ... Coin counterfeiting is something that occurs regularly in the antique coin market, but also there are various modern forgeries are made to into general circulation. ... The Group 11 Elements (IB) of the periodic table consist of the traditional coinage metals of copper, silver, and gold. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... A bronze coin (5 Zhu, 五銖) of the Chinese Han Dynasty—circa 1st century BC. An ancient Greek coin, struck under Roman rule, circa 268 AD. The history of coins extends from ancient times to the present. ... The main Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). ... Tetradrachm of Athens, fifth century B.C. The ancient coins of Greece represent the highest form of the coiners art. ... The history of Indian coinage stretches back at least 2600 years. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Comprehensive list of metals and their alloys which have been used at various times, in coins for all types of purposes.
  2. ^ N. Mahajan argues that Indian coins were the world's first coins in a book published by S. Hirano: 'New varieties of the Narhan hoard type punchmarked coins' or 'Two forgeries of punchmarked coins in India'.
  3. ^ Government of Kerala Official website refers to Karshapanam as one of the oldest coins to be circulated in India
  4. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-gandhara.html Accessed 05/03/2007
  5. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-kuntala.html Accessed 05/03/2007
  6. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-kuru.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  7. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-panchala.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  8. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-shakya.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  9. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-shurasena.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  10. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/galleries-surashtra.html Accessed 06/03/2007
  11. ^ M. Mitchiner, pp. 741-742
  12. ^ If a coin had an even number of sides this would not be possible but some such older designs, however, remain- for example, the 12-sided Australian 50 cent coin.
  13. ^ It is unlikely to be spent as it costs 15GBP to buy - article Pyramid coin a nightmare for pockets, article by Gary Cleland p13 of the Daily Telegraph issue number 47,434 dated 6 December 2007
  14. ^ Triangular Coins

A regular dodecagon. ... The twelve-sided Australian 50 cent piece is the largest Australian coin currently issued and second largest after the Crown of 1937-38. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ...

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1140 words)
A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money.
Some coins have coin orientation, where the coin must be flipped vertically to see the other side; other coins, such as British coins, have medallic orientation, where the coin must be flipped horizontally to see the other side.
Coins are popularly used as a sort of two-sided die; in order to choose between two options with a random possibility, one choice will be labeled "heads" and the other "tails," and a coin will be flipped or "tossed" to see whether the heads or tails side comes up on top.
Coin Costa del Sol Spain by Coin-Andalucia.to (312 words)
Coin is situated in the fertile valley of the rio Grande approx 21 Km inland from Marbella and there is little doubt that a community of some kind existed on the spot long before the Roman conquest.
Coin is located in an area acknowledeged as an excellent golfing area, and boasts more Coin activities than you could imagine.
Coin's main Coin attractions include its title as the Town of the Fountains, due to the large number of public fountains around the streets and squares, used until relatively recently as the only source of drinking water in the town.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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