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Encyclopedia > Cohort (military unit)

A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit, generally consisting of one type of soldier.

Military cohort

Originally, the cohort was a sub-unit of a Roman legion, consisting of 600 infantrymen. The cohort itself was divided into six centuries of 100 men commanded each by a centurion. Various terms described precise types of military cohorts: The Roman legion (from the Latin legio, meaning levy) was the basic military unit of ancient Rome. ... Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ... Centurion Cornelius A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: hekatontarchos) was a professional officer of the Roman army. ...

  • In the Imperial Roman auxiliary forces, there were individual cohorts with an establishment strength of 500 (cohors quingenaria) or of 1000 (cohors milliaria), as well as mixed infantry and cavalry units (cohors equitata) that existed in parallel.

Various terms describe precise types of auxiliary cohorts:

  • Cohors alaria: allied or auxiliary unit.
  • Cohors classica: auxiliary unit originally formed of sailors and marines.
  • Cohors equitata (LA): unit of auxiliary infantry with attached mounted squadrons.
  • Cohors peditata (LA): infantry unit.
  • Cohors speculatorum (LA): guard unit of Mark Antony composed of scouts.
  • Cohors torquata (LA): auxiliary unit granted a torques (military decoration).
  • Cohors tumultuaria (from tumultus, "chaos"): irregular auxiliary unit.

Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (ca. ...

Other Roman cohorts

Some paramilitary corps in Rome consisted of one or more cohorts, though neither were part of a legion:

  • The nine cohortes praetoria, never grouped to a legion, the famous and infamous Praetorians. Bodyguard of a general during the Republic; later, a unit of Imperial guards (temporarily restyled cohors palatina, "palace unit", circa 300 AD, under Diocletian's tetrarchy).
    • Cohors togata was a unit of the Praetorian guard in civilian dress tasked with duties within the pomerium (sacred center of the Capital, where all armed forces were forbidden).
  • Cohortes urbanae, "urban cohort": military police unit patrolling in the capital.
  • Cohortes vigilum, "watchmen"; unit of the police force annex fire brigade in the capital.
  • Cohors Germanorum (LA): the unit of Germani custodes corporis (imperial body guards recruited in Germania).

Furthermore, the Latin word cohors was used in a looser way to describe a rather large "company" of people (see, for instance, cohors amicorum). The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century A.D. Depicted in a marble bas-relief. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century) The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) was the republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar... For other uses, see number 300. ... Emperor Diocletian Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245?-312? AD), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... The pomerium (or pomoerium) was the sacred boundary of the city of Rome. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani (watchmen of the City) or Cohortes Vigilum (cohorts of the watchmen) were the firefighters and police of Ancient Rome. ... Germania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Originally, since the Roman republic proper (i. ...

  Results from FactBites:
In a second-century census of the Roman military, the alae quingenariae outnumbered the alae millariae by ninety units to ten.
cohort commander These were lower ranking prefects, in charge of the least prestigious auxiliary units the cohors quingenaria peditata ('cohort of five-hundred foot [soldiers]'), or the cohors quingenaria equitata ('cohort of five-hundred [soldiers] with horse') were both commanded by a praefectus.
It housed the images of the emperor, the signa of the unit and the vexilla of its constituent companies, and the garrison's altars, which were often dedicated 'to the genius of the unit'.
Ancient Roman Military - Crystalinks (5659 words)
The core of the military history of the Roman Empire is the account of its great land battles, from the conquest of Italy to its final battles against the Huns.
As enduring units, they were able to become more effective fighting forces; more importantly, they could now form lasting loyalties to their commanders, as the typical 1-year consul system began to break down and generals served for greater durations.
The weakest cohorts were the 2nd, 4th, 7th and the 9th cohorts.
  More results at FactBites »



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