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Encyclopedia > Cognitive psychology
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Social Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Biological psychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organisational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, or personnel psychology) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is the scientific study of human happiness. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ...

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Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. It had its foundations in the Gestalt psychology of Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka, and in the work of Jean Piaget, who studied intellectual development in children. Cognitive psychologists are interested in how people understand, diagnose, and solve problems, concerning themselves with the mental processes which mediate between stimulus and response. Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithms—rules that are not necessarily understood but promise a solution, or heuristics—rules that are understood but that do not always guarantee solutions. In other instances, solutions may be found through insight, a sudden awareness of relationships. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Max Wertheimer (Prague, April 15, 1880 - New York, October 12, 1943) was one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. ... Wolfgang Köhler (Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia, January 21, 1887 - New Hampshire, June 11, 1967) was a German gestalt psychologist. ... Kurt Koffka (Berlin, March 18, 1886 - 1941) was a Gestalt psychologist. ... Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task which, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... For heuristics in computer science, see heuristic (computer science) Heuristic is the art and science of discovery and invention. ...

Contents

History

Ulric Neisser coined the term 'cognitive psychology' in his book published in 1967, wherein Neisser provides a definition of cognitive psychology, emphasising that it is a point of view which postulates the mind as having a certain conceptual structure. Neisser's point of view endows the discipline a scope which expands beyond high-level concepts such as "reasoning", often espoused in other works as a definition of cognitive psychology. Neisser's definition of cognition illustrates this well: Ulric Neisser (born 8 December 1928) is an American psychologist. ...

...the term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon. But although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view. Other viewpoints are equally legitimate and necessary. Dynamic psychology, which begins with motives rather than with sensory input, is a case in point. Instead of asking how a man's actions and experiences result from what he saw, remembered, or believed, the dynamic psychologist asks how they follow from the subject's goals, needs, or instincts.

Cognitive psychology is radically different from previous psychological approaches in two key ways.

The school of thought arising from this approach is known as cognitivism. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Look up belief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ... It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors, and as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ...


Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research, having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s (though there are examples of cognitive thinking from earlier researchers). The cognitive approach was brought to prominence by Donald Broadbent's book Perception and Communication in 1958. Since that time, the dominant paradigm in the area has been the information processing model of cognition that Broadbent put forward. This is a way of thinking and reasoning about mental processes, envisaging them as software running on the computer that is the brain. Theories refer to forms of input, representation, computation or processing, and outputs. Applied to language as the primary mental knowledge representation system, cognitive psychology has exploited tree and network mental models. Its singular contribution to AI and psychology in general is the notion of a semantic network. One of the first cognitive psychologists, George Miller is well-known for dedicating his career to the development of WordNet, a semantic network for the English language. Development began in 1985 and is now the foundation for many machine ontologies. This does not cite its references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Donald E. Broadbent (Birmingham, 1926-1993) was an influential fucktard British experimental psychologist. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Since the late 1960s, the word paradigm (IPA: ) has referred to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... A semantic network is often used as a form of knowledge representation. ... George A. Miller (born February 3 1920) is a famous professor of psychology at Princeton University, whose most famous work was The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, which was published in 1956 in In the linguistics community, Miller is well... WordNet is a semantic lexicon for the English language. ...


This way of conceiving mental processes has pervaded psychology more generally over the past few decades, and it is not uncommon to find cognitive theories within social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, and developmental psychology; the application of cognitive theories to comparative psychology has driven many recent studies in animal cognition. The scope of social psychological research. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad sense, refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The information processing approach to cognitive functioning is currently being questioned by new approaches in psychology, such as dynamical systems, and the embodiment perspective. In engineering and mathematics, a dynamical system is a deterministic process in which a functions value changes over time according to a rule that is defined in terms of the functions current value. ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ...


Because of the use of computational metaphors and terminology, cognitive psychology was able to benefit greatly from the flourishing of research in artificial intelligence and other related areas in the 1960s and 1970s. In fact, it developed as one of the significant aspects of the inter-disciplinary subject of cognitive science, which attempts to integrate a range of approaches in research on the mind and mental processes. Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Major research areas in cognitive psychology

Perception In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...

  • Attention and Filter theories (the ability to focus mental effort on specific stimuli whilst excluding other stimuli from consideration)
  • Pattern recognition (the ability to correctly interpret ambiguous sensory information)
  • Object recognition
  • Time sensation (awareness and estimation of the passage of time)

Categorization Look up Attention in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that our brains do have a system governing the perception of time. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ...

Memory Concept learning refers to a learning task in which a human or machine learner is trained to to classify objects by being shown a set of example objects along with their class labels. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ...

Knowledge representation One of the key concerns of older adults is experiencing memory loss, especially as it is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimers Disease. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Emotion can have a powerful impact on memory. ... Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events. ... A false memory is a memory of an event that did not happen or is a distortion of an event, as determined by externally corroborated facts of the event. ... A flashbulb memory is a memory laid down in great detail during a highly personally significant event. ... Memory biases may either enhance or inhibit the recall of memory, or they may alter the content of what we report remembering. ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ... Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ... Spaced repetition is a learning technique in which increasing intervals of time are used between subsequent reviews. ... Working Memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ...

Numerical cognition A mental image is the representation of an idea in a persons mind. ... Dual-coding theories are general theories of cognition that provide a unifying framework for literacy, for reading. ... A mental model is an explanation in someones thought process for how something works in the real world. ... Numerical cognition is a subdisipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics. ...


Language

Thinking For the surname, see Grammer. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

Choice consists of that mental process of thinking involved with the process of judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one for action. ... The term choice theory is closely associated with the work of Dr. William Glasser, MD, author of the book so named, and is the culmination of some 50 years of theory and practice in psychology and counseling. ... Concept formation is the process of integrating a series of features that group together to form a class of ideas or objects. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Reasoning is the act of using reason to derive a conclusion from certain premises. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ...

Influential cognitive psychologists

John Robert Anderson (born 1947 in Vancouver, British Columbia) is a professor of psychology and computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. ... Alan Baddeley is professor of psychology at the University of York. ... Sir Frederic Bartlett (1886-1969) was Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge from the 1931 until his retirement in 1951. ... Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921) is an American psychiatrist and a professor emeritus at the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Donald E. Broadbent (Birmingham, 1926-1993) was an influential fucktard British experimental psychologist. ... Jerome S. Bruner (b. ... Kenneth Craik ( 1914- 1945) was a philosopher and psychologist who received his doctorate from Cambridge University in 1940. ... Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered experimental study of memory, and discovered the forgetting curve and the learning curve. ... Albert Ellis Albert Ellis (born September 27, 1913) is an American cognitive-behavioral therapist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. ... William Kaye Estes is an American scientist. ... Keith J. Holyoak is a leading researcher in cognitive psychology and cognitive science, working on human thinking and reasoning. ... Marcia K. Johnson is Dilley Professor of Psychology at Yale University. ... Philip Johnson-Laird (1936 - ) is a psychologist and author of several notable books on human cognition and reasoning, including Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content (1972, co-author Peter C. Wason), Mental Models: Toward a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference and Consciousness (1983), Deduction (1991, co-author Ruth M. J... Daniel Kahneman Daniel Kahneman (born March 5, 1934 in Tel Aviv, in the then British Mandate of Palestine, now in Israel), is a key pioneer and theorist of behavioral finance, which integrates economics and cognitive science to explain seemingly irrational risk management behavior in human beings. ... Elizabeth F. Loftus (born October 16, 1944 in Los Angeles, CA) is a psychologist who works on human memory and how it can be changed by facts, ideas, suggestions and other forms of post-event information. ... James L. (Jay) McClelland (born December 1, 1948) is a Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience at Carnegie Mellon University. ... George A. Miller (born February 3 1920) is a famous professor of psychology at Princeton University, whose most famous work was The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, which was published in 1956 in In the linguistics community, Miller is well... This article needs to be wikified. ... Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science. ... Allan Paivio is an emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario. ... Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Michael I. Posner is the editor of numerous cognitive and neuroscience compilations and is an eminent researcher in the field. ... Eleanor Rosch is a professor of psychology at The University of California, Berkeley. ... David E. Rumelhart (born 1942, Wessington Springs) has made many contributions to the formal analysis of human cognition, working primarily within the frameworks of mathematical psychology, symbolic artificial intelligence, and parallel distributed processing. ... Daniel Schacter is Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. ... Roger N. Shepard cognitive scientist and aurthor of Toward a Univeral Law of Greneralization for Psychological Science. ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... Elizabeth Spelke (b. ... George Sperling has studied cognitive psychology. ... Endel Tulving (born May 26, 1927) is a Canadian neuroscientist, born in Estonia, whose speciality is episodic memory. ... Anne Treisman is a psychologist, working currently at Princeton University, Department of Psychology. ... Amos Tversky (March 16, 1937 - June 2, 1996) was a pioneer of cognitive science, a longtime collaborator of Daniel Kahneman, and a key figure in the discovery of systematic human cognitive bias and handling of risk. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ...

See also

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cognitive Interventions are a set of techniques and therapies practiced in counseling. ... == ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! == Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... Cognitive poetics is a relatively new school of literary criticism that applies the principles of cognitive science, particularly cognitive psychology, to the interpretation of literary texts. ... Cognitive robotics (CR) is concerned with endowing robots (which have to operate in complex, fast-changing environments) with high-level cognitive capabilities, such as anticipation, planning, reasoning about other agents, and reasoning about their own mental states. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... Discursive psychology is a school of psychology developed in the 1990s by Jonathan Potter and Derek Edwards at Loughborough University. ... Ecological psychology (EP) is term claimed by a number of schools of psychology. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Neurocognitive is a term used to describe cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. ... Situated cognition is a new movement in cognitive psychology which derives from pragmatism, Gibsonian ecological psychology, ethnomethodology, the theories of Vygotsky and the writings of Heidegger. ... Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to the study of the psychology behind political behavior by voters, lawmakers, local and national governments and administrations, international organizations, political parties and associations. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... A psychological adaptation, also called an evolved psychological mechanism or EPM, is an aspect of a human or other animals psychology that serves a specific purpose, and was created and selected by evolutionary pressures. ...

Related list

  • Important publications in cognitive psychology

This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ...

External links

  • Cognitive psychology at The Psychology Wiki
  • Cognitive Approach in Psychology
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  Results from FactBites:
 
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Wilhelm Wundt, in his founding of the "new psychology" of the laboratory held that higher cognitive states--such as thought, memory, judgment and reason--could not be studied experimentally.
Whatever the origin, by 1967 cognitive psychology as a subject matter and movement was underway.
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Cognitive psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (712 words)
Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language.
Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research, having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s (though there are examples of cognitive thinking from earlier researchers).
Because of the use of computational metaphors and terminology, cognitive psychology was able to benefit greatly from the flourishing of research in artificial intelligence and other related areas in the 1960s and 1970s.
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