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Encyclopedia > Cognitive neuroscience

The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience overlaps with cognitive psychology, and focuses on the neural substrates of mental processes and their behavioral manifestations. The boundaries between psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience have become quite blurred. Cognitive neuroscientists tend to have a background in experimental psychology, neurobiology, neurology, physics, and mathematics. Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a scientific discipline that studies the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the human mind, brain, and behavior. ... Psychiatry is a medical specialty dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of mental illness – both in itself and in bodily illness (psychiatry in medicine) – such as clinical depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a scientific discipline that studies the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Neurobiology is a branch of biology that is involved in the study of nervous systems of all animals from a biological and evolutionary perspective. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Physics (from the Greek, (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space and time. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ...


Methods employed in cognitive neuroscience include psychophysical experiments, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological studies of neural systems and, increasingly, cognitive genomics and behavioral genetics. Clinical studies in psychopathology in patients with cognitive deficits constitute an important aspect of cognitive neuroscience. The main theoretical approaches are computational neuroscience and the more traditional, descriptive cognitive psychology theories such as psychometrics. Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions. ... Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. ... Behavioural genetics (behavioral genetics) is the field of biology that studies the role of genetics in animal behaviour. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Computational Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, computer science, physics and applied mathematics together. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. ...

Contents

Scientific roots

A page from the American Phrenological Journal
Enlarge
A page from the American Phrenological Journal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1366, 1017 KB) Summary I scanned the cover of this journal myself, which was located in my University library. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1366, 1017 KB) Summary I scanned the cover of this journal myself, which was located in my University library. ...

Phrenology

Main article: Phrenology

The first roots of cognitive neuroscience lie in phrenology, which was a pseudoscientific theory that claimed that behavior could be determined by the shape of the scalp. In the early 19th century, Franz Joseph Gall and J. G. Spurzheim believed that the human brain was localized into approximately 35 different sections. In his book, The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular, Gall claimed that a larger bump in one of these areas meant that that area of the brain was used more frequently by that person. This theory gained significant public attention, leading to the publication of phrenology journals and the creation of phrenometers, which measured the bumps on a human subject's head. A 19th century Phrenology chart Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrÄ“n, mind; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits, and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (reading bumps). Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall around 1800, and... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a German neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. ... Johann G. Spurzheim Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a German physician who became one of the chief proponents of phrenology, a branch of the neurosciences created approximately in 1800 by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). ... A sketch of the human brain by artist Priyan Weerappuli, imposed upon the profile of Michaelangelos David. ...


Aggregate field

Pierre Flourens, a French experimental psychologist, was one of many scientist that challenged the views of the phrenologists. Through his study of birds, he discovered that lesions to particular areas of the brain produced no discernable change in behavior. He proposed the theory that the brain is an aggregate field, meaning that multiple areas of the brain participated in behavior. Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (April 15, 1794 - December 6, 1867) was a French physiologist, the founder of experimental brain science and a pioneer in anesthesia. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... A lesion is a non-specific term referring to abnormal tissue in the body. ...


Later localizationsists

Studies performed in Europe by scientists such as John Hughlings Jackson caused the localizationist view to re-emerge as the primary view of behavior. Jackson studied patients with brain damage, particularly those with epilepsy. He discovered that the epileptic patients often made the same clonic and tonic movements of muscle during their seizures, leading Jackson o believe that they must be occurring in the same place every time. Jackson proposed a topographic map of the brain, which was critical to future understanding of the brain lobes. John Hughlings Jackson (1835–1911), was an English neurologist; born at Providence, Green Hammerton, Yorkshire. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Clonus (from the Greek for violent, confused motion) is a series of involuntary muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle. ... There are five main lobes of the brain. ...

Broca's area and Wernicke's area.
Broca's area and Wernicke's area.

In 1861, French neurologist Paul Broca came across a man who was able to understand language but unable to speak. The man could only produce the sound "tan". It was later discovered that the man had damage in his left frontal-parietal area, now known as Broca's area. Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist, found a similar patient, except that this patent could speak fluently but non-sensibly. The patient has been a victim of a stroke, and could not understand spoken or written language. This patient had a lesion in the area where the parietal and temporal lobes meet, now known as Wernicke's area. These cases strongly supported the localizationists views, because a lesion caused a specific behavioral change in both of these patients, humback whales. Drawing of human brain with Brocas and Wernicke area highlighted. ... Drawing of human brain with Brocas and Wernicke area highlighted. ... Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Carl Wernicke (born 1848 in Tarnowitz, Silesia, Germany, died 1905 in Gräfenroda) was a German physician, anatomist, psyciatrist and neuropathologist. ... For other articles with similar names, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Approximate location of Wernickes area highlighted in gray Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the central sulcus (part of the brain where...


In 1870, German physicians Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch published their findings about the behavior of animals. Hitzig and Fritsch ran an electrical current through the cerebral cortex of a dog, causing the dog to produce characteristic movements based on where the current was applied. Since different areas produced different movements, the physicians concluded that behavior was rooted at the cellular level. German neuroanatomist Korbinian Brodmann used tissue staining techniques developed by Franz Nissl to see the different types of cells in the brain. Though this study, Brodmann concluded in 1909 that the human brain consisted of fifty-two distinct areas, now named Brodmann areas. Many of Brodmann's distinctions were very accurate, such as differentiating Brodmann area 17 from Brodmann area 18. Eduard Hitzig (1839-1907) was a German physician who is best known for his work concerning the interaction between electrical current and the brain. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... Korbinian Brodmann (November 17, 1868 - August 22, 1918) was a German neurologist who became famous for his definition of the cerebral cortex into 52 distinct regions from their cytoarchitectonic (histological) characteristics. ... Franz Nissl Franz Nissl (1860-1919) was born in Frankenthal in the Bavarian Palatinate, the son of Theodor Nissl and Maria Haas. ... A Brodmann area is a region in the brain cortex defined in many different species based on its cytoarchitecture. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


The neuron doctrine

Main article: Neuron doctrine

In the early 20th century, Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Camillo Golgi began working on the structure of the neuron. Golgi developed a silver staining method that could entirely stain several cells in a particular area, leading him to believe that neurons were directly connected with each other in one cytoplasm. Cajal challenged this view after staining areas of the brain that had less myelin and discovering that neurons were discrete cells. Cajal also discovered that cells transmit electrical signals down the neuron in one direction only. Both Golgi and Cajal won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for this work on the neuron doctrine. Ramón y Cajals drawing of the cells of the chick cerebellum, from Estructura de los centros nerviosos de las aves, Madrid, 1905. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Camillo Golgi, 1906. ... Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ... Organelles. ... In neuroscience, myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ...


Foundation of the science

On September 11, 1956, a large-scale meeting of cognitivists took place at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. George A. Miller presented his The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two paper while Noam Chomsky and Newell & Simon presented their findings on computer science. Ulric Neisser commented on many of the findings at this meeting in his 1967 book Cognitive Psychology. The term "psychology" had been waning in the 1950s and 1960s, causing the field to be referred to as "cognitive science". Behavioralists such as Miller began to focus on the representation of language rather than general behavior. David Marr's proposal of the hierarchical representation of memory caused many psychologists to embrace the idea that mental skills required significant processing in the brain, including algorithms. September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is organized into five schools and one college, containing 34 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and programs. ... George A. Miller (born February 3 1920) is a famous professor of psychology at Princeton University, whose most famous work was The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, which was published in 1956 in In the linguistics community, Miller is well... The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information is a 1956 paper by the cognitive psychologist George A. Miller. ... Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is the Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science. ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was a researcher in the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics and philosophy (sometimes described as a polymath). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Ulric Neisser (born 8 December 1928) is an American psychologist. ... There is also an Australian journalist and biographer named David Marr. ... Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ...


Cognitive neuroscience topics

Look up Attention in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Change Blindness (also known as Change Detection) is a phenomenon in visual perception where large changes in a visual scene are not noticed by the viewer. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among alternatives. ... In psychology, memory is the ability of an organism to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... Mirror neurons are active when a primate performs an action, but also when it observes that action. ... The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a change-related brain response described in the field of cognitive neuroscience. ...

Related WikiBooks

References

  • Ward, Jamie, The Student's Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience, (2006), Psychology Press, ISBN 1-84169-535-1
  • Gazzaniga, M. S., The Cognitive Neurosciences III, (2004), The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-07254-8
  • Gazzaniga, M. S., Ed. (1999). Conversations in the Cognitive Neurosciences, The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-57117-X.
  • Code, C. (1996). Classic Cases: Ancient & Modern Milestones in the Development of Neuropsychological Science. In: Code, C. et al “Classic Cases in Neuropsychology”.
  • Parkin, A.J. (1996). “Explorations in Cognitive Neuropsychology”, pp. 1-23.
  • Churchland, P.S. & Sejnowski, T.J. (1992). “The Computational Brain, The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-03188-4”.
  • Sternberg, Eliezer J. Are You a Machine? The Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Michael Gazzaniga is the David T. McLaughlin Distinguished University Professor at Dartmouth, where he is also Director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Michael Gazzaniga is the David T. McLaughlin Distinguished University Professor at Dartmouth, where he is also Director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943) is a Canadian-American philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego since 1984. ... Terrence J. Sejnowski is an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and is the Francis Crick Professor at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where he directs the Computational Neurobiology Laboratory. ... The Computational Brain is a book written by Patricia S. Churchland and Terrence J. Sejnowski and published in 1992 by The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ISBN 0-262-03188-4. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion. ... Social neuroscience is a field of research that spans social psychology, neuroscience, and physiology. ... Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience (ECN) is a newly emerging discipline that applies methodologies from evolutionary psychologyand cognitive neuroscience. ...

External links

Neuroscience subfields: Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a scientific discipline that studies the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. ...

Neurobiology | Cognitive Neuroscience | Computational Neuroscience | Neural Engineering | Neuroanatomy | Neurochemistry | Neuroimaging | Neurolinguistics | Neurology | Neuropharmacology | Neurophysiology | Neuropsychology | Psychopharmacology | Systems Neuroscience

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cognitive neuroscience - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (989 words)
The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience.
Cognitive neuroscientists tend to have a background in experimental psychology, neurobiology, neurology, physics, and mathematics.
The first roots of cognitive neuroscience lie in phrenology, which was a pseudoscientific theory that claimed that behavior could be determined by the shape of the scalp.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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