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Encyclopedia > Cognitive neuropsychology

== ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! ==



Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. It places a particular emphasis on studying the cognitive effects of brain injury or neurological illness with a view to inferring models of normal cognitive functioning. Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = study of) is the study of behaviour, mind,[action] and thought. ... The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ...


then my mom told me that its ok if i went poop in her closet, she could always just get a new carpet put in. i decided i wanted to be a cognitive neuropsychologist when my mother decided to explain to me the importance of poop and typing on a computer, such as i am doing right now. i am typing this farely quickly and i haven't looked down at the keys ONCE the entire time. pretty impressive, huh?


i think your mom poops like my mom so it's a pretty difficuly assessment of whether our mothers equal the coolness of poop.



sometimes, i wonder about the outcome of a still, verticless life. am i living it right? (THATS THE SORT OF THING A PERSON WHO IS A PATIENT OF A COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST WOULD SAY. THEN THE COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST WOULD HAVE TO HELP THEM.)


ok. well this whole website is dedicated to me, isabel. i am so nice since i'm writing all of this yummy information about cognitive neuropsychology.

Contents


ISABEL IS COOLER THAN YOUR MOM

The modern science of cognitive neuropsychology emerged during the 1960s. However there have been a series of influential studies during the last two centuries which have been critical in laying the foundations for studying brain impairment with a view to understanding normal psychological function. The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ...


The case of Phineas Gage is one of the earliest examples where a specific brain injury gave clues to the function of a particular brain area. Gage obtained his injury after an accident during the construction of part of a railroad in 1848 in Vermont. Gage was setting an explosive charge when the charge accidentally detonated, firing a 4 foot iron rod through his cheek and out the top of his head. Remarkably Gage survived, but with extensive damage to the ventromedial areas of his frontal lobes. After the accident Gage changed from a responsible, hard working foreman into a brutish and capricious individual. This provided some of the earliest evidence that specific area of the frontal lobes may be involved in the psychology of emotion and personality. Phineas P. Gage (1823 - May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction worker who suffered an unusual kind of traumatic brain injury which inflicted severe damage to parts of his frontal brain during a work accident. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas Official languages None Area 24,923 km² (45th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ... In psychology and common use, emotion is an aspect of a persons mental state of being, normally based in or tied to the persons internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Similarly, Paul Broca's 1861 post mortem study of an aphasic patient, known as 'Tan' after the only word which he could speak, showed that an area of the left frontal lobe (now known as Broca's area) was damaged. As Tan was unable to produce speech but could still understand it, Broca argued that this area might be specialised for speech production and that language skills might be localised to this cortical area. Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ... Aphasia is a loss or impairment of the ability to produce or comprehend language, due to brain damage. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brains of vertebrates. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) which is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... The outermost layer of the brain, the cortex is rich in neurons and is the site of most sophisticated neural processing (See also: cerebral cortex). ...


Clues about the role of the occipital lobes in the visual system were provided by soldiers returning from World War I. The small bore amunition often used in this conflict occasionally caused focal brain injuries. Studies of soldiers with such wounds to the back of their head showed that areas of blindness in the visual field were dependent on which part of the occipital lobe had been damaged, suggesting that specific areas of the brain were responsible for sensation in specific visual areas. The occipital lobes are the visual processing center of mammalian brains. ... The visual system is what allows us to see. ... WWI redirects here. ... Your field of view is that part of the observable world that you are able to see at any given moment. ...


Studies on Patient HM are commonly cited as some of the precursors, if not the beginning of modern cognitive neuropsychology. HM had parts of his medial temporal lobes surgically removed to treat intractacable epilepsy in 1953. The treatment proved successful in reducing his dangerous seizures, but left him with a profound but selective amnesia. Because HM's impairment was caused by surgery, the damaged parts of his brain were precisely known, information which was usually not knowable in a time before accurate brain imaging became widespread. This allowed detailed connections to be made between theories of memory formation and the brain structures removed in HM. A memory impaired patient known as HM (an acronym used to keep his identity confidential) has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the development of cognitive neuropsychology, a... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Seizures (or convulsions) are temporary alterations in brain function expressing themselves into a changed mental state, tonic or clonic movements and various other symptoms. ... Amnesia is a condition in which memory is disturbed. ... Brain imaging is a fairly recent discipline within medicine and neuroscience. ...


These and similar studies had a number of important implications. The first is that certain cognitive processes (such as language) could be damaged separately from others, and so might be handled by distinct and independent cognitive and neural processes. The second is that such processes might be localised to specific areas of the brain. Whilst both of these claims are still controversial to some degree, the influence led to a focus on brian injury as a potentially fruitful way of understanding the relationship between psychology and neuroscience. The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = study of) is the study of behaviour, mind,[action] and thought. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ...


During the 1960s, information processing became the dominant model in psychology for understanding mental processes. This provided an important theoretical basis for cognitive neuropsychology, as it allowed an explanation of what areas of the brain might be doing (i.e. processing information in specific and specialised ways) and also allowed brain injury to be understood in abstract terms as impairment in the information processing abilities of larger cognitive system. The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... In general, information processing is the changing [(processing)] of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = study of) is the study of behaviour, mind,[action] and thought. ...


Methods

The 'lesion method' (using brain injury or lesions to infer cognitive function) was probably best described unwittingly by singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell when she wrote "You don't know what you've got 'till it's gone". By understanding what a person can no longer do, and correlating this with a knowledge of exactly which parts of the nervous system are damaged, it is possible to infer previously undiscovered functional relationships. A lesion is a non-specific term referring to abnormal tissue in the body. ... Self portrait by Joni Mitchell, on the cover of her album Both Sides Now Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943, in Fort Macleod, Alberta), is a Canadian musician and painter. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ...


By using this method, it should also be possible to discover whether a skill is handled by a single cognitive process or a combination of several working together. For example, if a theory states that reading and writing are simply different skills stemming from a single cognitive process, it should not be possible to find a person who, after brain injury, can write but not read or read but not write. This selective breakdown in skills suggests that different parts of the brain are specialised for the different processes and so the cognitive systems are separable.


The philosopher Jerry Fodor has been particularly influential in cognitive neuropsychology, particularly with the idea that the mind, or at least certain parts of it, may be organised into independent modules. Evidence that cognitive skills may be damaged independently seem to support this theory to some degree, although it is clear that some aspects of mind (such as belief for example) are unlikely to be modular. Ironically, Fodor (a strict functionalist) rejects the idea that the neurological properties of the brain have any bearing on its cognitive properties and doubts the whole discipline of cognitive neuropsychology. A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Jerry Allan Fodor (b. ... Belief is assent to a proposition. ... Functionalism is the dominant theory of mental states in modern philosophy. ...


Cognitive neuropsychology also uses many of the same techniques and technologies from the wider science of neuropsychology and fields such as cognitive neuroscience. These may include brain imaging, electrophysiology and neuropsychological tests to measure either brain function or psychological performance. Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience and biological psychology involving the study of the neural mechanisms of cognition, but sometimes is seen as part of a wider interdisciplinary study of cognition, cognitive science. ... Brain imaging is a fairly recent discipline within medicine and neuroscience. ... Electrophysiology is the science and branch of physiology that pertains to the flow of ions in biological tissues and, in particular, to the electrical recording techniques that enable the measurement of this flow and the potential changes related to them. ... Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ...


The principles of cognitive neuropsychology have recently been applied to mental illness, with a view to understanding, for example, what the study of delusions may tell us about the function of normal belief. This relatively young field is known as cognitive neuropsychiatry. The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a false belief, and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a sub-discipline of psychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function. ...


Related topics

In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a sub-discipline of psychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function. ... Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience and biological psychology involving the study of the neural mechanisms of cognition, but sometimes is seen as part of a wider interdisciplinary study of cognition, cognitive science. ... The executive system is a theorised cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. ... Face perception is the process by which the brain and mind understand and interpret the face, particularly the human face. ... A memory impaired patient known as HM (an acronym used to keep his identity confidential) has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the development of cognitive neuropsychology, a... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ... The primary sensory areas are the main cerebral areas that receive sensory information from thalamic nerve projections. ... Prosopagnosia (sometimes known as face blindness) is a rare disorder of face perception where the ability to perceive and understand faces is impaired, although other basic perceptual skills (such as recognising and discriminating objects) may be relatively intact. ...

Further reading

  • Shallice, T. (1988) From Neuropsychology to Mental Structure. ISBN 0521313600

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cognitive neuropsychology (1185 words)
Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.
Evidence that cognitive skills may be damaged independently seem to support this theory to some degree, although it is clear that some aspects of mind (such as belief for example) are unlikely to be modular.
Cognitive neuropsychology also uses many of the same techniques and technologies from the wider science of neuropsychology and fields such as cognitive neuroscience.
Neuropsychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (776 words)
Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.
Clinical neuropsychology is the application of neuropsychological knowledge to the assessment (see neuropsychological test and neuropsychological assessment), management and rehabilitation of people who have suffered illness or injury (particularly to the brain) which has caused neurocognitive problems.
Cognitive neuropsychology is a relatively new development and has emerged as a distillation of the complimentary approaches of both experimental and clinical neuropsychology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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