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Encyclopedia > Cognitive linguistics
Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Semantics
Lexical semantics
Structural semantics
Prototype semantics
Stylistics
Prescription
Pragmatics
Applied linguistics
Psycholinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Generative linguistics
Cognitive linguistics
Computational linguistics
Descriptive linguistics
Historical linguistics
Etymology
List of linguists

In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist or linguistician. ... Theoretical linguistics studies diverse questions: how certain languages managed to communicate, what properties all languages have in common, what knowledge a person must have to be able to use a language, and language acquisition. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Phonology (Greek phone = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics closely associated with phonetics. ... Morphology is a subdiscipline of linguistics that studies word structure. ... Syntax, originating from the Greek words συν (syn, meaning co- or together) and τάξις (táxis, meaning sequence, order, arrangement), can in linguistics be described as the study of the rules, or patterned relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. ... In the main, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... The Prototype is what a Stereotype is called in cognitive linguitics. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for a language. ... Pragmatics is generally the study of natural language understanding, and specifically the study of how context influences the interpretation of meanings. ... Applied linguistics is concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used. ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... Descriptive linguistics is the work of analyzing and describing how language is actually spoken now (or how it was actually spoken in the past), by any group of people. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist or linguistician. ... Rendering of human brain based on MRI data Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... A speculatively rooted phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectivel // holaMedia:Example. ...


The guiding principle behind this area of linguistics is that language creation, learning, and usage must be explained by reference to concepts in regard to human cognition in general —the basic underlying mental processes that apply not only to language, but to all other areas of human intelligence. Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term cognition (Latin, cogito: to think) is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Intelligence has several different meanings: Intelligence (trait) is the ability to solve problems Animal intelligence Artificial intelligence Intelligence (journal), a scientific journal dealing with intelligence and psychometrics Intelligence (information gathering), often including espionage Business intelligence Criminal intelligence Military intelligence This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise...

Contents


Areas of study

Cognitive linguistics is divided into two main areas of study, which are currently being reunified, as linguists have grown to understand their mutual interdependence:

Aspects of cognition that are of interest to cognitive linguists include: Cognitive semantics is part of the cognitive linguistics movement. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Cognitive approaches to grammar are theories of grammar that relate grammar to mental processes and structures in human cognition. ...

Related work that interfaces with many of the above themes: The term construction grammar (CxG) covers a family of theories, or models, of grammar that are based on the idea that the primary unit of grammar is the grammatical construction rather than the atomic syntactic unit and the rule that combines atomic units, and that the grammar of a language... Cognitive Grammar and construction grammar are aspects of cognition that is of interest to cognitive linguists, c. ... Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain, e. ... Conceptual Blending is a theory of cognition[1]. According to the Theory of Conceptual Blending, elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios are blended in a subconscious process. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (IPA: mÉ™-tŏnÉ™-mÄ“) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... Image schema is a reccurring structure of, or within our cognitive processes, which establishes patterns of understanding and reasoning. ... Frame semantics can refer to: Kripke semantics - semantics for modal logics Frame semantics (linguistics) - linguistic theory developed by Charles Fillmore (linguist) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In cognitive linguistics, iconicity is the conceived similarity between a form of language and its meaning. ... Force Dynamics is a semantic category that describes the way in which entities interact with reference to force. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers. ... A sign language (also signed language) is a language which uses manual communication instead of sound to convey meaning - simultaneously combining handshapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speakers thoughts. ... Linguistic relativism is the principle that language is tied to the perceptions of the language user. ... The field of Cognitive neuroscience concerns the study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of biological psychology which, in turn, is part of the wider field of neuroscience, the most comprehensive interdisciplinary discipline studying the brain . ...

  • Computational models of metaphor and language acquisition.
  • Psycholinguistics research.
  • Conceptual semantics, pursued by generative linguist Ray Jackendoff is related because of its active psychological realism and the incorporation of prototype structure and images.

Cognitive linguistics, more than generative linguistics, seek to mesh together these findings into a coherent whole. A further complication arises because the terminology of cognitive linguistics is not entirely stable, both because it is a relatively new field and because it interfaces with a number of other disciplines. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Conceptual Semantics is a framework for semantic analysis developed mainly by Ray Jackendoff. ... Ray Jackendoff (born 1945) is an influential contemporary linguist who has always straddled the boundary between generative linguistics and cognitive linguistics, committed as he is both to the existence of an innate Universal Grammar (an all-important thesis of generative linguistics) and to giving an account of language that meshes...


See also

Rendering of human brain based on MRI data Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Below are some notable researchers in cognitive science. ...

References

  • The Center for the Cognitive Science of Metaphor Online is a collection of numerous formative articles in the fields of conceptual metaphor and conceptual integration.
  • Gilles Fauconnier has written a brief, manifesto-like introduction to Cognitive linguistics, which compares it to mainstream, Chomsky-inspired linguistics. See Introduction to Methods and Generalizations. In T. Janssen and G. Redeker (Eds). Scope and Foundations of Cognitive Linguistics. The Hague: Mouton De Gruyter. Cognitive Linguistics Research Series. (on-line version)
  • Grady, Oakley, and Coulson (1999). "Blending and Metaphor". In Metaphor in cognitive linguistics, Steen and Gibbs (eds.). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. (online version)
  • Schmid, H. J. et. al. (1996). An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics. New York, Longman.
  • Fauconnier, G. (1997). Mappings in Thought and Language.
  • Taylor, J. R. (2002). Cognitive Grammar. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Croft, W. & D.A. Cruse (2004) Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a Language. A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. Harvard University Press.

Gilles Fauconnier (born August 19, 1944) is a linguist, researcher in cognitive science, and author. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cognitive linguistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (343 words)
In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind.
A further complication arises because the terminology of cognitive linguistics is not entirely stable, both because it is a relatively new field and because it interfaces with a number of other disciplines.
In Metaphor in cognitive linguistics, Steen and Gibbs (eds.).
Linguistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1907 words)
Applications of computational linguistics in machine translation, computer-assisted translation, and natural language processing are extremely fruitful areas of applied linguistics which have come to the forefront in recent years with increasing computing power.
Sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology are social sciences that consider the interactions between linguistics and society as a whole.
A number of cognitive scientists argue that the brain has an innate "language module", knowledge of which is thought to come more from studying speech than writing, particularly since language as speech is held to be an evolutionary adaptation, whereas writing is a comparatively recent invention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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