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Encyclopedia > Cognate
Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common origin. They may occur within a language, such as shirt and skirt as two English words descended from the Proto-Indo-European word *sker-, meaning "to cut". They may also occur across languages, e.g. night and German Nacht as descendants of Proto-Indo-European *nokt-, "night". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


The word cognate derives from Latin cognatus, from co (with) +gnatus, natus, past participle of nascor "to be born".[1] Literally it means "related by blood, having a common ancestor, or related by an analogous nature, character, or function".[2]

Contents

Characteristics of cognate words

Cognates need not have the same meaning: dish (English) and Tisch ("table", German), or starve (English) and sterben ("die", German), or head (English) and chef ("chief, head", French), serve as examples as to how cognate terms may diverge in meaning as languages develop separately, eventually becoming false friends. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Semantic drift, in historical linguistics, is a phenomenon whereby words change in meaning over a period of time, resulting in semantic differences between cognates. ... False friends are pairs of words in two languages or letters in two alphabets that look or sound similar but differ in meaning. ...


In addition to having separate meanings, cognates through processes of linguistic change may no longer resemble each other phonetically: cow and beef both derive from the same Indo-European root *gʷou-, cow having developed through the Germanic language family while beef has arrived in English from the Italo-Romance family descent. (ModE cow < ME cou < OE < PIE *gʷou > Latin bos > Latin bovis (genitive) > OFr boef > ME beef) The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...


Cognates may thus also arise through borrowings into languages. So the resemblance between English to pay and French payer originates through English borrowing to pay from Norman which, like French, had derived its word from Gallo-Romance. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ...


Cognates across languages

Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night (English), nuit (French), Nacht (German, Dutch), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish), nat (Danish) noc (Czech, Polish), ночь, noch (Russian), nich (Ukrainian), noć (Serbian), νύξ, nyx (Greek), nox (Latin), nakt- (Sanskrit), natë (Albanian), noche (Spanish), nos (Welsh), noite (Portuguese and Galician), notte (Italian), nit (Catalan), noapte (Romanian), nótt (Icelandic), natt (Norwegian), and naktis (Lithuanian), all meaning "night" and derived from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *nokt-, "night." The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


Another Indo-European example is star (English), str (Sanskrit)[3], astre or étoile (French), taru (Sinhala), αστήρ (astēr) (Greek), stella (Latin, Italian), stea (Romanian and Venetian), stairno (Gothic), astl (Armenian), Stern (German), ster (Dutch and Afrikaans), starn (Scots), stjerne (Norwegian), stjarna (Icelandic), stjärna (Swedish), setare (Persian), sitarah (Hindi), seren (Welsh), steren (Cornish), estel (Catalan), estrella (Spanish), estrela (Portuguese and Galician) and estêre (Kurdish), from the PIE *hstēr-, "star". Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...


The Hebrew shalom and the Arabic salaam ("peace") are also cognates, derived from a common Semitic root, having the triliteral slm. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral (Arabic: جذر ثلاثي, ǧaḏr thalathi) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ...


Cognates within the same language

Cognates can exist within the same language. For example, English ward and guard (<PIE *wer-, "to perceive, watch out for") are cognate as are shirt and skirt (<PIE *sker-, "to cut"). In some cases, such as "shirt" and "skirt", one of the cognate pairs has an ultimate source in another language related to English, while the other one is native, as happened with many loanwords from Old Norse (which was mutually intelligible with Old English) borrowed when the Vikings conquered part of England. Sometimes, both cognates come from other languages, often the same one but at different times. For example, the word chief comes from the Middle French chef, and its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound. The word chef was borrowed from the same source centuries later, by which time the consonant had changed to a "sh"-sound in French. Such words are said to be etymological twins. Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Viking also called Norseman or Northman, a member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, (referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and by the Russian Primary Chronicle. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Doublet (linguistics). ...


Cognates may often be less easily recognised than the above examples and authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence. The English word milk is clearly a cognate of German Milch and of Russian moloko (<PIE *melg-, "to milk"). On the other hand, French lait and Spanish leche (both meaning "milk") are less obviously cognates of Greek galaktos (genitive form of gala, milk) (<*g(a)lag-, galakt-), as is the English word lactic.


False cognates

Main article: False cognate

False cognates are words that are commonly thought to be related (have a common origin) whereas linguistic examination reveals they are unrelated. Thus, for example, on the basis of superficial similarities one might suppose that the Latin verb habere and German haben, both meaning 'to have', are cognates. However, an understanding of the way words in the two languages evolve from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots shows that they cannot be cognate (see for example Grimm's law). German haben (like English have) in fact comes from PIE *kap, 'to grasp', and its real cognate in Latin is capere, 'to seize, grasp, capture'. Latin habere, on the other hand, is from PIE *ghabh, 'to give, to receive', and hence cognate with English give and German geben. False cognates are a pair of words in the same or different languages that are similar in form and meaning but have different roots. ... False cognates are a pair of words in the same or different languages that are similar in form and meaning but have different roots. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC. It...


The similarity of words between languages is not enough to demonstrate that the words are related to each other, in much the same way that facial resemblance does not determine whether two people are genetically related. Over the course of hundreds and thousands of years, words may change their sound completely. Thus, for example, English five and Sanskrit pança are cognates, while English over and Hebrew a'var are not, and neither are English dog and Mbabaram dog. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Mbabaram is an Australian Aboriginal language, now extinct. ...


Contrast this with false friends, which frequently are cognate. Look up False friend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Parliamentary term

In a parliamentary sense, a cognate debate means that two or more bills can be debated together, if the House does not object to the matter. Bills are only debated cognately if they are closely related.


Mechanical systems

In Mechanical Systems, the term "cognate" has been used by Hartenburg and Denavit to describe a linkage, of different geometry, which generates the same coupler curve. Robot control is the theory of how to model and control robots. ...


Molecular Biology term

In molecular biology a ligand may have a cognate receptor. This is a receptor that specifically binds to that ligand.


References

  1. ^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary
  2. ^ [1] Dictionary definition of cognate on Answers.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
  3. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cognate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (758 words)
Cognates need not have the same meaning: dish (English) and Tisch ("table", German), or starve (English) and sterben ("die", German), or head (English) and chef ("chief, head", French), serve as examples as to how cognate terms may diverge in meaning as languages develop separately, eventually becoming false friends.
In some cases, one of the cognate pairs has an ultimate source in another language related to English, while the other one is native, as happened with many loanwords from Old Norse (which was mutually intelligible with Old English) borrowed when the Vikings conquered part of England.
False cognates are words that are commonly thought to be related (have a common origin) whereas linguistic examination reveals they are unrelated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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