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Encyclopedia > Coffee
Coffee
A cup of coffee.
Type Hot Beverage
Manufacturer Varied
Country of origin Ethiopia
Introduced (around) 800 CE
Color Dark Brown / Light Brown

Coffee is a widely-consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1] From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Armenia, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas.[2] Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.[3] Look up coffee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 392 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Sustained-Release 15mg Dexedrine Spansules. ... For the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth, see Drinking . ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. These are cultivated in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented by a variety of methods. This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Coffea canephora L. Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee; syn. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Brewing is an important technique in cookery and involves boiling or simmering. ...


Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout modern history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[4] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... Emperor Menelik II (Geez ምኒልክ) baptized as Sahle Maryam (August 17, 1844 – December 12, 1913), was of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Coffee is an important export commodity. In 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries,[5] and in 2005, it was the world's seventh largest legal agricultural export by value.[6]


Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.[7].

Contents

Etymology

The English word coffee first came to be used in the early- to mid-1600s, but early forms of the word date to the last decade of the 1500s.[8] It comes from the Italian caffè. The term was introduced to Europe via the Ottoman Turkish kahveh which is in turn derived from the Arabic: قهوة‎, qahweh.[9][10] The origin of the Arabic term is uncertain; it is either derived from the name of the Kaffa region in western Ethiopia, where coffee was cultivated, or by a truncation of qahwat al-būnn, meaning "wine of the bean" in Arabic. In Eritrea, "būnn" (also meaning "wine of the bean" in Tigrinya) is used.[11] The Amharic and Afan Oromo name for coffee is bunna. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Kingdom of Kaffa was an ancient state located in what is now Ethiopia, with its capital at Bonga. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... Oromo, also known as Afaan Oromoo, Oromiffa(a), and sometimes in other languages as variant spellings of these names (Oromigna, Afan Oromo, etc. ...


History

Main article: History of coffee
Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.
Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.

Coffee use can be traced at least to as early as the 9th century, when it appeared in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1] According to legend, Ethiopian shepherds were the first to observe the influence of the caffeine in coffee beans when the goats appeared to "dance" and to have an increased level of energy after consuming wild coffee berries.[12] The legend names the shepherd "Kaldi." From Ethiopia, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen.[13] It was in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed similarly as they are today. By the 15th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. It has been suggested that Origins of coffee be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (815x646, 112 KB) Relief über dem Eingang des Leipziger Kaffeehauses Zum Arabischen Coffee Baum (eröffnet 1686). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (815x646, 112 KB) Relief über dem Eingang des Leipziger Kaffeehauses Zum Arabischen Coffee Baum (eröffnet 1686). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Discussing the War in a Paris Café, Illustrated London News 17 September 1870 Coffee shop redirects here. ... It is generally agreed that people know and understand the world and reality through the act of naming it; thus, through language and representations (Oxford English Dictionary, cited in Vukcevich 2002). ... Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. ... A goatherd is a person who herds goats for a living. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten year trip to the Near East:[14] Leonhard Rauwolf (Augsburg, June 21, 1535 – September 15, 1596, Waitzen, Hungary) was a German physician, botanist and traveller. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...

A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu.

From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink". The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.[2] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale, and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broeck smuggled seedlings from Aden into Europe in 1616.[15] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon.[16] Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[17] Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Pope Clement VIII (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536 – March 3, 1605 in Rome), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... This article is about the Java island. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200...


When coffee reached North America during the colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe. During the Revolutionary War, however, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was partly due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[18] After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.[19] North American redirects here. ... This article is about military actions only. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Noted as one of the world’s largest, most valuable, legally traded commodities after oil, coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as the primary source of income (Ponte 1). Coffee has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia[20] as well as other Central American countries (1) In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ...


Biology

Main article: Coffea
Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds
Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds

The Coffea plant is native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia.[21] It belongs to a genus of 10 species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that may grow 5 meters (16 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 centimeters (3.9–5.9 in) long and 6.0 centimeters (2.4 in) wide. It produces clusters of fragrant, white flowers that bloom simultaneously. The fruit berry is oval, about 1.5 centimeters (0.6 in) long,[22] and green when immature, but ripens to yellow, then crimson, becoming black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but from 5 to 10 percent of the berries[23] have only one; these are called peaberries.[24] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... Image File history File links Koeh-189. ... Image File history File links Koeh-189. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Type Genus Rubia L. Genera See text For a full list, see: List of Rubiaceae genera Egyptian Starcluster Pentas lanceolata White luculia gratissima Rubiaceae Juss. ... This article is about plant types. ... Peaberry, also known as caracoli, is a type of coffee bean. ...


Cultivation

Main article: Coffee varieties

Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation.[22] Map of coffee bean producton: r for , a for , and m for both species Coffee varietals refer to the genetic subspecies of coffee. ...

Map showing areas of coffee cultivation r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. a:Coffea arabica.
Map showing areas of coffee cultivation
r:Coffea canephora
m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica.
a:Coffea arabica.

The two main cultivated species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor than arabica. For this reason, about three-fourths of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.[21] However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50 percent more caffeine than arabica.[1] For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost.[25] Other cultivated species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 57 KB) Map of production r: culture Coffea robusta m: culture Coffea robusta et Coffea arabica a: culture Coffea arabica. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 57 KB) Map of production r: culture Coffea robusta m: culture Coffea robusta et Coffea arabica a: culture Coffea arabica. ... Binomial name Coffea canephora L. Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee; syn. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ...


Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.[21] Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.[26] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[27] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java, or Kona. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ... In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ... Java coffee is a coffee produced on the island of Java. ... Kona coffee is the market name for a variety of coffee (Coffea arabica) cultivated on the slopes of Mount Hualalai and Mauna Loa in the North and South Kona Districts of the Big Island of Hawaii. ...


Production

Brazil is world leader in production of green coffee followed by Vietnam, Indonesia, Colombia and Mexico.

Top Ten Green Coffee Producers — 2005
Country Production (Int $1000) Footnote Production (MT) Footnote
Flag of Brazil Brazil 1,781,684 C 2,179,270
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 809,384 C 990,000 *
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 622,986 C 762,006
Flag of Colombia Colombia 558,050 C 682,580
Flag of Mexico Mexico 254,148 C 310,861 F
Flag of India India 224,829 C 275,000
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia 212,566 C 260,000 F
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala 177,084 C 216,600 F
Flag of Honduras Honduras 155,860 C 190,640
Flag of Uganda Uganda 152,066 C 186,000 F
No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;

Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ...



Ecological effects

Main article: Coffee and the environment
A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation
A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation

Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitat for many animals and insects.[28] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. Many farmers (but not all) have decided to modernize their production methods and switch to a method where farmers would now use sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.[29] Traditional coffee production, in the other hand, caused berries to ripen more slowly and it produced lower yields compared to the modernized method but the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. In addition, the traditional shaded method is environmentally friendly and serves as a habitat for many species. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[28] The American Birding Association has led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which it says are sustainably harvested.[30] However, while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value.[31] Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 773 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 773 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ... A dozen different species of plants growing in the shade Shade is the blocking of sunlight (in particular direct sunshine) by any object, and also the shadow created by that object. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... The American Birding Association (ABA) is a non_profit organization of people interested in birding. ...


Economics

Main article: Economics of coffee

Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans.[32] Colombia is the third exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers, because of the lower cost. Four single roaster companies buy more than 50 percent of all of the annual production: Kraft, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee.[33] The preference of the "Big Four" coffee companies for cheap robusta is believed by many to have been a major contributing factor to the crash in coffee prices,[34] and the demand for high-quality arabica beans is only slowly recovering. Many experts believe the giant influx of cheap green coffee after the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement of 1975–1989 led to the prolonged price crisis from 1989 to 2004.[35] In 1997 the price of coffee in New York broke US$3.00/lb, but by late 2001 it had fallen to US$0.43/lb.[36] In 2007, wholesale coffee was about US$1/lb (e.g. 69 cents in London in March to 134 cents in New York in October), with robusta being about 70% of the price of arabica. Retail prices varied from an average of $3 in Poland to $3.50 in the US to $17 in the UK.[37] Main article: Coffee Coffee is one of the worlds most important primary commodities; it ranks second only to petroleum in terms of dollars traded worldwide, ($70 billion pa)[1]. With over 400 billion cups consumed every year, coffee is one of the worlds most popular beverages. ... Kraft Foods Inc. ... This article is about the company. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Sara Lee Corporation (NYSE: SLE) is a global consumer-goods company based in Downers Grove, Illinois, USA. It has operations in more than 40 countries and sells its products in over 180 nations worldwide. ... USD redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated pre-harvest price, began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labelling program in the Netherlands. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons out of 7,050,000 produced worldwide were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34 percent to 0.51 percent.[38][39] A number of studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. A study in 2002 found that fair trade strengthened producer organizations, improved returns to small producers, and positively affected their quality of life.[40] A 2003 study concluded that fair trade has "greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families"[41] by providing access to credit and external development funding[42] and greater access to training, giving them the ability to improve the quality of their coffee.[43] The families of fair trade producers were also more stable than those who were not involved in fair trade, and their children had better access to education.[44] A 2005 study of Bolivian coffee producers concluded that Fairtrade certification has had a positive impact on local coffee prices, economically benefiting all coffee producers, Fairtrade certified or not.[45] For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ... Stichting Max Havelaar (or the Max Havelaar Foundation in English) is the Dutch member of Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO), which unites 20 national Fairtrade initiatives across Europe, Japan, North America, Australia and New Zealand. ... Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people. ... International Fairtrade Certification Mark Fairtrade labelling (usually simply Fairtrade or Fair Trade Certified in the United States) is a product certification system designed to allow consumers to identify products (especially agricultural products such as coffee) which meet agreed standards. ...


The production and consumption of "Fair Trade Coffee" has grown in recent years as some local and national coffee chains have started to offer fair trade alternatives.[46]


Processing

Roasting

Roasted coffee beans
Roasted coffee beans

Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand. Then, they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds—usually called beans—are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, which process generates massive amounts of highly polluted coffee wastewater. Finally the seeds are dried, sorted, and labeled as green coffee beans.[47] Traditional coffee drying in Boquete, Panamá Processing of coffee is the method converting the raw fruit of the coffee plant (cherry) into the commodity green coffee. ... Italian roasted coffee beans Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 859 KB) Espresso-roasted coffee beans. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 859 KB) Espresso-roasted coffee beans. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... // The unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, must undergo a long process to make it ready for consumption. ...


The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted.[48] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[49] During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean.[50] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (400 °F), other oils start to develop.[49] One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.[16] Italian roasted coffee beans Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. ... Start of roast End of roast Chaff // Home roasting is the process of obtaining green coffee beans and roasting them on a small scale for personal consumption. ... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Monosaccharides are carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars. ...


Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as light, medium-light, medium, medium-dark, dark, or very dark. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as Spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee’s relative degree of roast or flavor development. Such devices are routinely used for quality assurance by coffee roasting businesses. For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ...


Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times.[51] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[52] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.[49] Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.[16] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[16] Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans, mate, cocoa, tea leaves and other caffeine containing materials. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...


Storage

Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. Ideal conditions are air-tight and cool. Air, moisture, heat and light are the environmental factors[53] in order of importance to preserving flavor in coffee beans.


Folded-over bags, a common way consumers often purchase coffee, is generally not ideal for long-term storage because it allows air to enter. A better package contains a one-way valve, which prevents air from entering.[53]


Preparation

Main article: Coffee preparation
Espresso brewing, with dark reddish-brown crema
Espresso brewing, with dark reddish-brown crema

Coffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. Grinding the roasted coffee beans is done at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. They are most commonly ground at a roastery then packaged and sold to the consumer, though "whole bean" coffee can be ground at home. Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean, an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed, and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. Coffee preparation is the process of turning coffee beans into a beverage. ... Image File history File links Linea_doubleespresso. ... Image File history File links Linea_doubleespresso. ... Brewing is an important technique in cookery and involves boiling or simmering. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grind. The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee brewing machines.[54] A cup of Turkish coffee served at an Ä°stanbul terrace. ... A coffee percolator, caffettiera, is a type of pot used to brew coffee. ... A French press. ...


Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, steeped, or pressured. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[55] It is prepared by powdering the beans with a mortar and pestle, then adding the powder to water and bringing it to a boil in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a briki. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface.[55] A cup of Turkish coffee served at an Ä°stanbul terrace. ... A mortar and pestle is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix substances. ... A Turkish cezve A cezve is a Turkish coffee pot designed specifically to make Turkish coffee. ...


Machines such as percolators or automatic coffeemakers brew coffee by gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker, hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while absorbing its oils and essences. Gravity causes the liquid to pass into a carafe or pot while the used coffee grounds are retained in the filter.[56] In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by pressure created by boiling. The water then passes downwards through the grounds due to gravity, repeating the process until shut off by an internal timer.[56] A coffee percolator, caffettiera, is a type of pot used to brew coffee. ... A blue Alaska brand drip coffeemaker. ... Used coffee filter A coffee filter is a coffee-brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper, but recently stainless steel. ... Coffee preparation is the process of turning coffee beans into a beverage. ...


Coffee may also be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière). Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a coffee press and left to brew for a few minutes. A plunger is then depressed to separate the coffee grounds, which remain at the bottom of the container. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine.[57] A French press. ...


The espresso method forces hot, but not boiling, pressurized water through ground coffee. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9-10 atm) the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the amount of coffee to water as gravity brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. A well prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.[54] The drink "Americano" is popularly thought to have been named after American soldiers in WW II who found the European way of drinking espresso too strong. Baristas would cut the espresso with hot water for them. Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... Americano (also café américano) is a style of coffee prepared by adding espresso to hot water, giving a similar strength but different flavor than regular drip coffee. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...

Presentation is an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the fancy design layered into this latte
Presentation is an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the fancy design layered into this latte

[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 851 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Un ejemplo de arte del latte. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 851 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Un ejemplo de arte del latte. ... A latte For the type of pillar found in the Marianas Islands, see Latte stone. ...

Presentation

French "petit noir"
French "petit noir"

Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Drip brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served with no additives (colloquially known as black) or with either sugar, milk or cream, or both. When served cold, it is called iced coffee. One version of iced coffee Iced coffee is a cold variant of the normally hot beverage coffee. ...


Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, it is served alone as a "shot" or in the more watered down style café américano—a shot or two of espresso with hot water.[58] The Americano should be served with the espresso shots on top of the hot water to preserve the crema. Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a cafè latte,[59] equal parts espresso and milk froth make a cappuccino,[58] and a dollop of hot, foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato.[60] Americano (also café américano) is a style of coffee prepared by adding espresso to hot water, giving a similar strength but different flavor than regular drip coffee. ... A latte For the type of pillar found in the Marianas Islands, see Latte stone. ... A cappuccino poured with latte art into two rosettes. ... A glass of cows milk. ... A Caffè Macchiato as being served in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Caffè macchiato (IPA: , anglicised variously as IPA: , , , sometimes Espresso macchiato), an Italian beverage, is espresso with a tiny dollop of hot, foamed milk on top. ...


A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[61] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in Japan and South Korea. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States.[62] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee and costs about 10 cents a cup to produce. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.[63] Instant coffee Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. ... Freeze drying (also known as Lyophilization) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material, or to make the material more convenient for transport. ... Canned coffee (缶コーヒー) or can coffee is ubiquitous in Japan, with a large number of companies competing fiercely and offering various types for sale. ... A typical U.S. snack vending machine A vending machine is a machine that provides various snacks, beverages and other products to consumers. ...


Social aspects

See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee, and caffè for specifically Italian traditions.
A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900)
A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900)

Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[citation needed] The United States is the largest market for coffee, followed by Germany. ... Discussing the War in a Paris Café, Illustrated London News 17 September 1870 Coffee shop redirects here. ... Caffè is the Italian word for coffee and may indicate either the Italian way of preparing this beverage at home or espresso, which is prepared instead with electrical steam machines. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x635, 108 KB) A Coffee-house in Palestine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x635, 108 KB) A Coffee-house in Palestine. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Coffee became the substitute beverage in place of wine in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden.[12] Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited to Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned. Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretic substance, and its production and consumption were briefly repressed. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV.[64] Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited to Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places.[65] For the Islamic term for sanctuary, see Haram. ... Sufism (Arabic: ‎ - taá¹£awwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ...


A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[66] The organization claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.[67] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith, in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly", which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[67] For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... The Word of Wisdom is the common name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants,[1] a book that consists of what many churches within the Latter Day Saint movement consider to be revelations from God. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


Health and pharmacology

Main article: Coffee and health

Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.[3] Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to 7 million metric tons annually by 2010.[68] Coffee is consumed in large part not simply because of taste, but because of the effect it has on those who drink it. ... A water tap Tap water (running water) is part of indoor plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.[7]


Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[69] and gout, but it increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases.[70] Some health effects of coffee are due to its caffeine content, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.[71] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[72] Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... Liver cirrhosis as seen on an axial CT of the abdomen. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD, or GORD when -oesophageal, the BE form, is substituted) is injury to the esophagus that develops from chronic exposure of the esophagus to acid coming up from the stomach (reflux). ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Coffee's negative health effects are mostly due to its caffeine content. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[73] Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia,[74] and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[75] About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,[76] and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.[77] Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.[78] For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of magnesium, the result of numerous conditions. ... Hypomagnesemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally depleted level of magnesium in the blood. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary, working, or active memory, is said to hold a small amount of information for about 20 seconds. ... Released on November 11, 2003, Train of Thought is an album by the progressive metal band Dream Theater. ...


An American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans, and that this method might also be used for research animals.[79] The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ...


Coffee enemas may have properties which may help cancer patients.[80] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Caffeine content

Caffeine molecule
Caffeine molecule

Depending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. On average, a single cup of coffee of about 207 milliliters (7 fluid ounces) or a single shot of espresso of about 30 mL (1oz) can be expected to contain the following amounts of caffeine:[81][82][83] Image File history File links Caffeine. ... Image File history File links Caffeine. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ...

Drip brew is a method for brewing coffee which involves pouring water over coffee contained in a filter. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... Instant coffee Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans, mate, cocoa, tea leaves and other caffeine containing materials. ... Instant coffee Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. ...

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  83. ^ Mayo Clinic Staff. Caffeine content of common beverages. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alton Brown (born on July 30, 1962 in Los Angeles, California, U.S.) is an American food personality, cinematographer, author, and actor. ... Food Network is an American cable network that airs many specials and recurring (episodic) shows about food. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Metcalf, Allan A. (1999), The World in So Many Words, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0395959209 

External links

Find more about Coffee on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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  • Coffee and caffeine health information - A collection of peer reviewed and journal published studies on coffee health benefits is evaluated, cited and summarized.
  • Benjamin Joffe-Walt and Oliver Burkeman, The Guardian, 16 September 2005, "Coffee trail" - from Ethiopian village of Choche to London coffee shop
  • Coffee Tree - Growing and cultural information with soil types and pruning instructions
  • Coffee on a Grande Scale - Article about the biology, chemistry, and physics of coffee production
  • This is Coffee - Short tribute to coffee in the form of a documentary film (1961), made by "The Coffee Brewing Institute". The movie includes some do's and don'ts of making "the perfect cup of coffee" and an overview of different ways to enjoy coffee throughout the world.
  • An Illustrated Coffee Guide - Side-by-side diagrams of a few common espresso drinks
  • F. Engelmann, M. E. Dulloo, C. Astorga, S. Dussert and F. Anthony (2007). Complementary strategies for ex situ conservation of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genetic resources. A case study in CATIE, Costa Rica, Topical reviews in Agricultural Biodiversity. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.. 
  • Descriptors for Coffee (Coffea spp. and Psilanthus spp.)
  • Italian Espresso National Institute
  • International Institute of Coffee Tasters
  • Coffee Taster, the free newsletter of the International Institute of Coffee Tasters, featuring articles on the quality of espresso, chemical and sensory analysis, market trends
  • Geography of Coffee

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... soil types In terms of soil texture, soil type usually refers to the different sizes of mineral particles in a particular sample. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... It has been suggested that Origins of coffee be merged into this article or section. ... Main article: Coffee Coffee is one of the worlds most important primary commodities; it ranks second only to petroleum in terms of dollars traded worldwide, ($70 billion pa)[1]. With over 400 billion cups consumed every year, coffee is one of the worlds most popular beverages. ... Coffee is consumed in large part not simply because of taste, but because of the effect it has on those who drink it. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... Map of coffee bean producton: r for , a for , and m for both species Coffee varietals refer to the genetic subspecies of coffee. ... Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ... Kenya is the 17th largest producer of coffee in the world. ... Kona coffee is the market name for a variety of coffee (Coffea arabica) cultivated on the slopes of Mount Hualalai and Mauna Loa in the North and South Kona Districts of the Big Island of Hawaii. ... Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is a classification of coffee grown in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. ... Binomial name Coffea canephora L. Coffea canephora (Robusta Coffee; syn. ... Kopi Luwak or Civet coffee is coffee made from coffee berries which have been eaten by and passed through the digestive tract of the Asian Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). ... Kape Barako, also spelled Baraco (English: Barako coffee) is coffee varietal grown in the Philippines, particularly in the provinces of Batangas and Cavite. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Cafestol is a diterpene molecule present in coffee. ... Coffee processing aquapulp Processing of coffee is the method converting the raw fruit of the coffee plant (cherry) into the commodity green coffee. ... Italian roasted coffee beans Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. ... Start of roast End of roast Chaff // Home roasting is the process of obtaining green coffee beans and roasting them on a small scale for personal consumption. ... Corretto, from the Italian for Corrected is the name given to a home roasting coffee method that used a bread machine to stir the beans and a stand-mounted heat gun to provide the heat. ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans, mate, cocoa, tea leaves and other caffeine containing materials. ... Coffee preparation is the process of turning coffee beans into a beverage. ... A coffee percolator, caffettiera, is a type of pot used to brew coffee. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... Lungo is italian for long, and refers to the coffee beverage made by using an espresso machine to make an espresso (single or double dose or shot) with much more water (generally twice as much), resulting in a stretched espresso, a lungo. ... Ristretto is a very short shot of espresso coffee. ... Drip brew is a method for brewing coffee which involves pouring water over coffee contained in a filter. ... A blue Alaska brand drip coffeemaker. ... A French press. ... A cup of Turkish coffee served at an İstanbul terrace. ... Instant coffee Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Chemex coffeemaker. ... A long black is a style of coffee, most commonly found in Australia and New Zealand, made by pulling a double-shot of espresso over hot water (usually the water is also heated by the espresso machine). ... Look up café au lait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Popular rock band in Costa Rica in the late 1980s. ... Caffè Corretto, an Italian beverage, is a shot of espresso coffee corrected with a shot of liquor, usually Grappa or Brandy. ... A Liqueur coffee, as its name suggests, is a coffee brew with a measure of liqueur. ... Milk and coffee mixing in a Latte A Café mocha is a variant of a cafe latte. ... Ca phe sua da ready to be stirred, poured over ice, and enjoyed. ... A cappuccino poured with latte art into two rosettes. ... Coffee milk is a drink similar to chocolate milk. ... Cortado A cortado is nothing more than an espresso cut (from the Spanish and Portuguese cortar) with a small amount of warm milk to reduce the acidity. ... It has been suggested that Yiannis Dritsas be merged into this article or section. ... South Indian Coffee, also known as Madras Filter Coffee is a sweet milky coffee made from dark roasted coffee beans (70%-80%) and chicory (20%-30%), especially popular in the southern states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. ... A classic Irish coffee consists of hot coffee, Irish whiskey and sugar, with cream floated on top. ... A latte For the type of pillar found in the Marianas Islands, see Latte stone. ... A Flat White is a beverage served in Australia and New Zealand, prepared with espresso and milk. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A Caffè Macchiato as being served in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Caffè macchiato (IPA: , anglicised variously as IPA: , , , sometimes Espresso macchiato), an Italian beverage, is espresso with a tiny dollop of hot, foamed milk on top. ... A latte macchiato is a latte (espresso with steamed milk topped with foam), but instead of having the espresso shots on the bottom, the espresso is poured on top of the foam. ... One version of iced coffee Iced coffee is a cold variant of the normally hot beverage coffee. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Starbucks. ... This article is about a non-alcoholic coffee beverage. ... An affogato [roughly rhymes with avocado] is an Italian dessert/drink. ... The United States is the largest market for coffee, followed by Germany. ... The Coffee ceremony is one of the most recognizable parts of Eritrean, and Ethiopian culture. ... Discussing the War in a Paris Café, Illustrated London News 17 September 1870 Coffee shop redirects here. ... Caffè is the Italian word for coffee and may indicate either the Italian way of preparing this beverage at home or espresso, which is prepared instead with electrical steam machines. ... Cafe redirects here. ... A Kopitiam or kopi tiam is a traditional breakfast and coffee shop found in Singapore and Malaysia in Southeast Asia. ... Coffee house culture: the ever-present newspaper The Viennese café (German: Wiener Kaffeehaus) is a typical institution of Vienna that still plays an important role in Viennese culture and tradition. ... A tradition in the cafés of Naples is to order a caffè sospeso – literally, a coffee in suspense – as a sign of your good fortune. ... Coffee cupping, or coffee tasting, is the practise of observing the tastes and aromas of brewed coffee. ... A coffee break is a daily social gathering for a snack and short downtime practiced by employees in business and industry. ... Fika is a Swedish verb that roughly means take a coffee break. Fika is a social institution in Sweden: it means taking a break from work or other activities and having a coffee with ones colleagues, friends, or family. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coffee (1729 words)
The world's largest coffee producing region is likely to continue to be Latin America and the Caribbean, although the projected annual growth rate for the region is expected to decrease from 1.7 percent in the previous decade to 0.4 percent annually during the projection period.
Coffee output in Côte d'Ivoire is expected to increase by 3.8 percent per annum, which would likely bring its output to 217 000 tonnes (3.6 million bags) by 2010.
Coffee consumption in developed countries is projected to grow by 0.1 percent annually to 5.0 million tonnes (83 million bags) by 2010.
Coffee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2588 words)
Coffee is the second most commonly traded commodity in the world (measured by monetary volume), trailing only crude oil (and its products, such as petroleum) as a source of foreign exchange to developing countries.
The effects of coffee were such that it became forbidden among orthodox and conservative imams in Mecca at 1511 and at Cairo in 1532 by a theological court.
Recently, coffee was found to reduce the chances of developing cirrhosis of the liver: the consumption of 1 cup a day was found to reduce the chances by 20%, and 4 cups a day reduced the chances by 80%.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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