FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. (However, more or less ubiquitous substances such as water do not qualify.) Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, magnesium, iron, and copper in certain forms. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic, and are known as coenzymes. Some cofactors undergo chemical changes during the course of a reaction (i.e. being reduced or oxidized). Nonetheless, as a catalyst, cofactors will be returned to their original state when the reaction in which they are needed has finished -- they are not consumed in the reaction or permanently converted to something else (that would be a substrate of the reaction). Cofactors vary in location and tightness of binding. When bound tightly to the enzyme, they are called prosthetic groups. Loosely bound cofactors typically bind in a similar fashion to enzyme substrates. When a cofactor is an organic substance that directly participates as a substrate in the reaction, it is called a coenzyme. Vitamins can serve as precursors to coenzymes (e.g. vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid) or as cofactors themselves (e.g. vitamin C). Cofactors are inorganic ions and organic, non-protein molecules that help some enzymes function as catalysts. When inorganic, they are usually either copper, zinc or iron. Found on the active sites of enzymes, they attract electrons from bonds in a substrate to cause them to break. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Generic graph showing the effect of a catalyst in an hypothetical exothermic chemical reaction. ... Water is a tasteless, odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... Properties For other articles with similar names, see Atom (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Coenzymes are a small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... In ring theory, a ring R is said to be reduced if it has no non-zero nilpotent elements. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule which is acted upon by an enzyme. ... A prosthetic group is a nonprotein (non-amino acid) component of a conjugated protein. ... In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule which is acted upon by an enzyme. ... Coenzymes are a small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... Pyridoxine Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ... 3D representation of vitamin C Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cofactor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (166 words)
Cofactor (biochemistry) is a substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme for a certain reaction to take place.
Shannon cofactor is a derived function of another function, a notion useful in computer science and mathematics.
In epidemiology, a cofactor is a condition that exacerbates the effects of another condition; for instance, while chlamydia infection on its own will not cause cervical cancer, it increases the risk that HPV infection will do so.
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