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Encyclopedia > Coelacanth
Coelacanth
Fossil range: Devonian - Recent
Latimeria chalumnae
Latimeria chalumnae
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sarcopterygii
Subclass: Coelacanthimorpha
Order: Coelacanthiformes
Berg, 1937
Families

See text. For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species (type) Pouyaud , 1999 Latimeria (named for Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer) is the genus comprising the two known living species of coelocanth, the Comorese coelacanth () and the Indonesian coelocanth (). Coelacanths were believed to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous period, until the first Latimeria specimen was found off... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... . ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ...

Coelacanth (pronounced /ˈsiːləkænθ/, adaptation of Modern Latin Cœlacanthus > cœl-us + acanth-us from Greek κοῖλ-ος [hollow] + ἄκανθ-α [spine]) is the common name for an order of fish that includes the oldest living lineage of gnathostomata known to date. The coelacanths, which are related to lungfishes and tetrapods, were believed to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous period, until the first Latimeria specimen was found off the east coast of South Africa, off the Chalumna River in 1938. (They are, therefore, a Lazarus taxon.) Since 1938, Latimeria chalumnae have been found in the Comoros, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, and in Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park in South Africa. The second species, L. menadoensis, was described from Sulawesi, Indonesia in 1999.[1][2] In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ... Classes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Osteichthyes Gnathostomata is the group of vertebrates with jaws. ... For the band, see Lungfish (band). ... Groups See text. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Chalumna River is a river in South Africa. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The takahe is an example of a Lazarus taxon. ... The Greater St. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ...

Contents

Natural history

They first appear in the fossil record in the Middle Devonian, about 410 million years ago.[3] Prehistoric species of coelacanth lived in many bodies of water in Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic times. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...


Coelacanths are lobe-finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail or caudal fin diphycercal (divided into three lobes), the middle one of which also includes a continuation of the notochord. Coelacanths have modified cosmoid scales, which are thinner than true cosmoid scales, which can only be found on extinct fish. Coelacanths also have a special electroreceptive device called a rostral organ in the front of the skull, which probably helps in prey detection. Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than air does. ... The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... This large, jelly-filled cavity in the center of the snout is thought to be an electrosensory device for detecting weak electrical impulses given off by prey. ...


Fossil record

Although now represented by only two known living species, as a group the coelacanths were once very successful with many genera and species that left an abundant fossil record from the Devonian to the end of the Cretaceous period, at which point they apparently suffered a nearly complete extinction. No fossils dated after this point are known to have been found.[citation needed] It is often claimed that the coelacanth has remained unchanged for millions of years but in fact the living species and even genus are unknown from the fossil record. However, some of the extinct species, particularly those of the last known fossil coelacanth, the Cretaceous genus Macropoma, closely resemble the living species.[citation needed] The most likely reason for the gap is the taxon having become extinct in shallow waters. Deep-water fossils are only rarely lifted to levels where paleontologists can recover them, making most deep-water taxa disappear from the fossil record. This situation is still under investigation by scientists. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... // Prepleistocene extinctions A large number of historical orders are extinct, for example dinosaurs, pterosaurs and ammonites. ... Macropoma is an extinct genus of coelacanth fish in the class Sarcopterygii. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...


Latimeria - the modern Coelacanth

Modern Coelacanths
Fossil range: Recent
Latimeria chalumnae
Latimeria chalumnae
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sarcopterygii
Subclass: Coelacanthimorpha
Order: Coelacanthiformes
Family: Latimeriidae
Genus: Latimeria
Smith, 1939
Species
  • L. chalumnae (type)
  • L. menadoensis Pouyaud et al., 1999

Image File history File links Species  Latimeria chalumnae Family  Latimeriidae File links The following pages link to this file: Coelacanth ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... . ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... Species Latimeria chalumnae Latimeria menadoensis Coelacanths (pronounced SEE-le-canth, meaning hollow spine in Greek) are lobe_finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail fin divided into three lobes, the middle one of which also has a stalk. ... Species Latimeria chalumnae Latimeria menadoensis Coelacanths (pronounced SEE-le-canth, meaning hollow spine in Greek) are lobe_finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail fin divided into three lobes, the middle one of which also has a stalk. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Professor James Leonard Brierley Smith (born 26 October 1897 - died 7 January 1968) was a South African scientist who in 1938 was the first to identify a captured fish as a coelecanth, at the time thought long extinct. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In zoological nomenclature, a type is a specimen or a taxon. ...

Biological characteristics

The average weight of the living West Indian Ocean coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, is 80 kg (176 lb), and they can reach up to 2 m (6.5 ft) in length. Adult females are slightly larger than males. Based on growth rings in their ear bones (otoliths), scientists infer that individual coelacanths may live as long as 80 to 100 years. Coelacanths live as deep as 700 m (2300 ft) below sea level, but are more usually found at depths of 90 to 200 m. Living examples of Latimeria chalumnae have a deep blue color which probably camouflages them from prey species; however, the Indonesian species is brown. Latimeria chalumnae is widely but very sparsely distributed around the rim of the western Indian Ocean, seemingly occurring in small colonies. Coelacanth eyes are very sensitive, and have a tapetum lucidum. Coelacanths are almost never caught in the daytime or on nights with full moons, due to the sensitivity of their eyes. Coelacanth eyes also have many rods: receptors in the retina that help animals see in dim light. Together, the rods and tapetum help the fish see better in dark water. Kg redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... An otolith, (oto-, ear + lithos, a stone) or otoconium is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Tapetum lucidum in a calf eye, with the retina hanging down. ... Rod cells, or rods, are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than can the other type of photoreceptor, cone cells. ... Tapetum lucidum in a calf eye, with the retina hanging down. ...

Coelacanths are opportunistic feeders, hunting cuttlefish, squid, snipe eels, small sharks, and other fish found in their deep reef and volcanic slope habitats. Coelacanths are also known to swim head down, backwards and belly up to locate their prey, presumably utilizing its rostral gland. Scientists suspect that one reason this fish has been so successful is that they can slow down their metabolisms at will, sinking into the less-inhabited depths and minimizing their nutritional requirements in a sort of hibernation mode. The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Genera Avocettina Labichthys Nemichthys See text for species. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... This large, jelly-filled cavity in the center of the snout is thought to be an electrosensory device for detecting weak electrical impulses given off by prey. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...


The coelacanths which live near Sodwana Bay, South Africa, rest in caves at depths of 90 to 150 m during daylight hours, but disperse and swim to depths as shallow as 55 m when hunting at night. The depth is not as important as their need for very dim light and, more importantly, for water which has a temperature of 14 to 22 °C. They will rise or sink to find these conditions. The amount of oxygen that their blood can absorb from the water through the gills is dependent on water temperature. Scientific research suggests that the coelacanth must stay in cold, well-oxygenated water or else their blood cannot absorb enough oxygen. [4] Present day Saldanha Bay. ...


In accordance with the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species treaty, the coelacanth was added to Appendix I (threatened with extinction) in 1989. The treaty forbids international trade for commercial purposes and regulates all trade, including sending specimens to museums, through a system of permits. In 1998, the total coelacanth population was estimated to have been 500 or fewer, a number that would threaten the survival of the species.[5] The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


Reproduction

Female coelacanths give birth to live young, called "pups", in groups of between 5 and 25 fry at a time; the pups are capable of surviving on their own immediately after birth. Their reproductive behaviors are not well known, but it is believed that they are not sexually mature until after 20 years of age. Gestation time is 13 months. Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of large quantites of eggs in water. ... Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ...


Discoveries

Timeline of discoveries[6][7]
Date Description
1938 (December 23) Discovery of the first modern coelacanth 30 kilometers SW of East London, South Africa.
1952 (December 21) Second specimen identified in the Comoros. Since then more than 200 have been caught around the islands.
1988 First photographs of coelacanths in their natural habitat, by Hans Fricke off Grande Comore.
1991 First coelacanth identified near Mozambique, 24 kilometers offshore NE of Quelimane.
1995 First recorded coelacanth on Madagascar, 30 kilometers S of Tuléar.
1997 (September 18) New species of coelacanth found in Indonesia.
2000 A group found by divers off Sodwana Bay, South Africa.
2001 A group found off the coast of Kenya.
2003 First coelacanth caught by fisherman in Tanzania. Within the year, 22 were caught in total.
2004 Canadian researcher William Sommers captured the largest recorded specimen of coelacanth off the coast of Madagascar.[citation needed]
2007 (May 19) Indonesian fisherman Justinus Lahama caught a 1.31 meter (4.30 ft) long, 51 kilogram (112 lb) coelacanth off Sulawesi Island, near Bunaken National Marine Park, that survived for 17 hours in a quarantined pool.[8]
2007 (July 15) Two fishermen from Zanzibar caught a coelacanth measuring 1.34 meters (4.40 ft), and weighing 27 kilograms (60 lb). The fish was caught off the north tip of the island, off the coast of Tanzania.[9]

is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: Imonti) is a city in southeast South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Grand Comore Grand Comore (off-white) in relation to Comoros (light brown) Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja and Ngasidja, and erroneously as Njazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Quelimane (pronounced Kelly-mane) is a seaport in Mozambique, with a population of 153,187 (1997 census). ... Toliara (also known as Toliary; formerly Tuléar) is a city in Madagascar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Present day Saldanha Bay. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...

First find in South Africa

Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer with the first discovered Coelacanth.

On December 23, 1938, Hendrik Goosen, the captain of the trawler Nerine, returned to the harbour at East London, South Africa, after a trawl around the mouth of the Chalumna River. As he frequently did, he telephoned his friend, Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, curator at East London's small museum, to see if she wanted to look over the contents of the catch for anything interesting. At the harbour, Latimer noticed a blue fin and took a closer look. There she found what she later described as "the most beautiful fish I had ever seen, five feet long, and a pale mauve blue with iridescent silver markings." Picture of Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer with the first Coelacanth taken from http://www. ... Picture of Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer with the first Coelacanth taken from http://www. ... Marjorie Eileen Doris Courtenay-Latimer (February 24, 1907-May 17, 2004) was the South African museum official who in 1938 brought to the attention of the world the existence of the coelacanth, a fish thought to have been extinct for seventy million years. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: Imonti) is a city in southeast South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ... The Chalumna River is a river in South Africa. ... Marjorie Eileen Doris Courtenay-Latimer (February 24, 1907-May 17, 2004) was the South African museum official who in 1938 brought to the attention of the world the existence of the coelacanth, a fish thought to have been extinct for seventy million years. ... This is an article about the color mauve. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ...


Failing to find a description of the creature in any of her books, she attempted to contact her friend, Professor James Leonard Brierley Smith, but he was away for Christmas. Unable to preserve the fish, she reluctantly sent it to a taxidermist. When Smith returned, he immediately recognized it as a coelacanth, known only from fossils. Smith named the fish Latimeria chalumnae in honor of Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer and the waters in which it was found. The two discoverers received immediate recognition, and the fish became known as a "living fossil." The 1938 coelacanth is still on display in the East London Museum. Professor James Leonard Brierley Smith (born 26 October 1897 - died 7 January 1968) was a South African scientist who in 1938 was the first to identify a captured fish as a coelecanth, at the time thought long extinct. ... A mounted snow leopard. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


However, as the specimen had been stuffed, the gills and skeleton were not available for examination, and some doubt therefore remained as to whether it was truly the same species. Smith began a hunt for a second specimen that would take more than a decade. For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ...


Comoros

Preserved specimen of Latimeria chalumnae in the Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria (length: 170 cm - weight: 60 kg). This specimen was caught on 18 October 1974, next to Salimani/Selimani (Grande Comore, Comoros Islands) 11°48′40.7″S, 43°16′3.3″E.
Preserved specimen of Latimeria chalumnae in the Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria (length: 170 cm - weight: 60 kg). This specimen was caught on 18 October 1974, next to Salimani/Selimani (Grande Comore, Comoros Islands) 11°48′40.7″S, 43°16′3.3″E.

A worldwide search was launched for more coelacanths, with a reward of 100 British pounds, a very substantial sum to the average South African fisherman of the time. Fourteen years later, one specimen was found in the Comoros, but the fish was no stranger to the locals — in the port of Mutsamudu on the Comorian island of Anjouan, the Comorians were puzzled to be so rewarded for a "gombessa" or "mame", their names for the nearly inedible fish that their fishermen occasionally caught by mistake. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 289 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,000 × 1,085 pixels, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Species  Latimeria chalumnae Family  Latimeriidae File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 289 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,000 × 1,085 pixels, file size: 428 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Species  Latimeria chalumnae Family  Latimeriidae File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Naturhistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresien-Platz, Vienna Naturhistorisches Museum Wien The Naturhistorisches Museum (Museum of Natural History) is a large museum located in Vienna, Austria. ... GBP redirects here. ... Capital (and largest city) Mutsamudu Official languages Comorian (Shindzuani dialect), Arabic, French Government Autonomous Island  -  President Dhoihirou Halidi Area  -  Total 424 km²  163 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  2006 estimate 277,500   -  2003 census 259,100  Currency Comorian franc or Comoran franc (KMF) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed...


The second specimen, found in 1952 by Comorian fisherman Ahamadi Abdallah, was described as a different species, first as 'Malania hunti' and later as Malania anjounae, after Daniel François Malan, the South African Prime Minister who had dispatched an SAAF Dakota at the behest of Professor Smith to fetch the specimen. It was later discovered that the lack of a first dorsal fin, at first thought to be significant, was caused by an injury early in the specimen's life. Ironically, Malan was a staunch creationist; when he was first shown the primitive creature, he exclaimed, with a twinkle, "My, it is ugly. Do you mean to say we once looked like that?"[10] The specimen retrieved by Smith is on display at the SAIAB in Grahamstown, South Africa where he worked. Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... SAAF flag The South African Air Force (SAAF) is the Air Force of South Africa. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... Dorsal fin of an orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... The South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), is involved in research, education and in applications of its knowledge and research to African fish fauna, for either economic or conservation benefit. ... Grahamstown from Fort Selwyn Grahamstown is a city in the Eastern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa and is the seat of the Makana municipality. ...


The Comorians are now aware of the significance of the endangered species, and have established a program to return accidentally-caught coelacanth to deep water. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


As for Smith, who died in 1968, his account of the coelacanth story appeared in the book Old Fourlegs, first published in 1956. His book Sea Fishes of the Indian Ocean, illustrated and co-authored by his wife Margaret, remains the standard ichthyological reference for the region. Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, fish; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ...


In 1988, National Geographic photographer Hans Fricke was the first to photograph the species in its natural habitat, 180 metres (590 ft) off Grande Comore's west coast.[11] Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Map of Grand Comore Grand Comore (off-white) in relation to Comoros (light brown) Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja and Ngasidja, and erroneously as Njazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. ...


Second species in Indonesia

On September 18, 1997, Arnaz and Mark Erdmann, traveling in Indonesia on their honeymoon, saw a strange fish enter the market at Manado Tua, on the island of Sulawesi.[5] Mark thought it was a gombessa (Comoros coelacanth), although it was brown, not blue. An expert noticed their pictures on the Internet and realized its significance. Subsequently, the Erdmanns contacted local fishermen and asked for any future catches of the fish to be brought to them. A second Indonesian specimen, 1.2 m in length and weighing 29 kg., was captured alive on July 30, 1998.[7] It lived for six hours, allowing scientists to photographically document its coloration, fin movements and general behavior. The specimen was preserved and donated to the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB), part of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI).[5] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A honeymoon is the traditional trip taken by newlyweds to celebrate their marriage with seclusion and sexual intimacy. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


DNA testing revealed that this specimen differed genetically from the Comorian population. Superficially, the Indonesian coelacanth, locally called raja laut ("King of the Sea"), appears to be the same as those found in the Comoros except that the background coloration of the skin is brownish-gray rather than bluish. This fish was described in a 1999 issue of Environmental Biology of Fishes by Pouyaud et al. It was given the scientific name Latimeria menadoensis. A molecular study estimated the divergence time between the two coelacanth species to be 40–30 mya.[12] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Latin name redirects here. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ...


On May 19, 2007, Justinus Lahama, an Indonesian fisherman, caught a 1.3-metre-long, 50kg/110 pound coelacanth off the coast near Manado, on northern Sulawesi Island near Bunaken National Marine Park. After spending 30 minutes out of water, the fish, still alive, was placed in a netted pool in front of a restaurant at the edge of the sea. It survived for 17 hours. Coelacanths, closely related to lungfish, usually live at depths of 200-1,000 metres. The fish was filmed by local authorities swimming in the metre-deep pool, then frozen after it died. AFP claim French, Japanese and Indonesian scientists working with the French Institute for Development and Research carried out a necropsy on the coelacanth with genetic analysis to follow. The local university is now studying the carcass.[13][8] For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ...


St. Lucia Marine Protected Area in South Africa

In South Africa, the search continued on and off over the years. 46-year-old diver Riaan Bouwer lost his life searching for coelacanths in June 1998.


On the 28th of October 2000, just south of the Mozambique border in Sodwana Bay in the St. Lucia Marine Protected Area, three deep-water divers, Pieter Venter, Peter Timm, and Etienne le Roux, made a dive to 104 metres and unexpectedly spotted a coelacanth. Present day Saldanha Bay. ... The Greater St. ...


Calling themselves "SA Coelacanth Expedition 2000", the group returned with photographic equipment and several additional members. On the 27th of November, after an unsuccessful initial dive the previous day, four members of the group, Pieter Venter, Gilbert Gunn, Christo Serfontein, and Dennis Harding, found three coelacanths. The largest was between 1.5 and 1.8 metres in length; the other two were from 1 to 1.2 metres. The fish swam head-down and appeared to be feeding from the cavern ledges. The group returned with video footage and photographs of the coelacanths.


During the dive, however, Serfontein lost consciousness, and 34-year-old Dennis Harding rose to the surface with him in an uncontrolled ascent. Harding complained of neck pains and died from a cerebral embolism while on the boat. Serfontein recovered after being taken underwater for decompression sickness treatment. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ...


In March–April of 2002, the Jago Submersible and Fricke Dive Team descended into the depths off Sodwana and observed fifteen coelacanths. A dart probe was used to collect tissue samples.


The shallowest recorded sighting of a coelacanth is at a depth of 58 m off the coast of Sodwana Bay by Christo Vanjaarsveld.


Tanzania

Coelacanths have been caught off the coast of Tanzania since 2004. Two coelacanths were initially reported captured in Kigombe, a small village off the edge of the Indian Ocean in August 2004. A spate of 19 more specimens of these extremely rare fishes weighing between 25 kg. to 80 kg. were reported netted in the space of the next 5 months, with another specimen captured in January 2005. A coelacanth weighing as much as 110 kg. was reported by the Observer newspaper in 2006. Officials of the Tanga Coastal Zone Conservation and Development Programme, which has a long-term strategy for protecting the species, see a connection with the timing of the captures with trawling - especially by Japanese vessels - near the coelacanth's habitat, as within a couple of days of trawlers casting their nets coelacanths have turned up in shallow-water fishing nets intended for sharks. The sudden appearance of the coelacanth off Tanzania that has raised real worries about its future due to damage done to the coelacanth population by the effects of indiscriminate trawling methods and habitat damage.[14] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For fishing by dragging a baited line after a boat, see troll (angling). ... Fishing with a cast net. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ...


Hassan Kolombo, a programme co-ordinator, said. "Once we do not have trawlers, we don't get the coelacanths, it's as simple as that." His colleague, Solomon Makoloweka, said they had been pressuring the Tanzanian government to limit trawlers' activities. He said: "I suppose we should be grateful to these trawlers, because they have revealed this amazing and unique fish population. But we are concerned they could destroy these precious things. We want the government to limit their activity and to help fund a proper research program so that we can learn more about the coelacanths and protect them."[14]


Taxonomy

A preserved Coelacanth specimen in the Natural History Museum, London
A preserved Coelacanth specimen in the Natural History Museum, London
In Late Devonian vertebrate speciation, descendants of pelagic lobe-finned fish – like Eusthenopteron – exhibited a sequence of adaptations: Panderichthys, suited to muddy shallows; Tiktaalik with limb-like fins that could take it up onto land; Early tetrapods in weed-filled swamps, such as: Acanthostega which had feet with eight digits, Ichthyostega with limbs. Descendants also included pelagic lobe-finned fish such as coelacanth species.
In Late Devonian vertebrate speciation, descendants of pelagic lobe-finned fish – like Eusthenopteron – exhibited a sequence of adaptations: Descendants also included pelagic lobe-finned fish such as coelacanth species.

Subclass Coelacanthimorpha (Actinistia) are sometimes used to designate the group of Sarcopterygian fish that contains the Coelacanthiformes. The following is a classification of known coelacanth genera and families:[7] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2341x1144, 1159 KB) Photographer: User:Ballista I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2341x1144, 1159 KB) Photographer: User:Ballista I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... Image File history File links Fishapods. ... Image File history File links Fishapods. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... Species (type) Eusthenopteron was a genus of lobe-finned fish which has attained an iconic status from its close relationships to tetrapods. ... Panderichthys Panderichthys is a 90-130 cm long fish from the Late Devonian period . ... Binomial name Daeschler, Shubin & Jenkins, 2006 Tiktaalik (IPA pronunciation: ) is a genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals) [1]. It is an example from several lines of ancient sarcopterygian fish developing adaptations to oxygen... Groups See text. ... Binomial name Jarvik, 1952 Acanthostega is an extinct tetrapod genus, among the first vertebrate animals to have recognizable limbs. ... Species Ichthyostega (Greek: fish roof) is an early tetrapod genus living in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) period, 367-362. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ...


Class Sarcopterygii
Subclass Coelacanthimorpha
Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... Species Latimeria chalumnae Latimeria menadoensis Coelacanths (pronounced SEE-le-canth, meaning hollow spine in Greek) are lobe_finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail fin divided into three lobes, the middle one of which also has a stalk. ...

  • Order COELACANTHIFORMES
    • Family Coelacanthidae (extinct)
      • Axelia (extinct)
      • Coelacanthus (extinct)
      • Ticinepomis (extinct)
      • Wimania (extinct)
    • Family Diplocercidae (extinct)
      • Diplocercides (extinct)
    • Family Hadronectoridae (extinct)
      • Allenypterus (extinct)
      • Hadronector (extinct)
      • Polyosteorhynchus (extinct)
    • Family Mawsoniidae (extinct)
      • Alcoveria (extinct)
      • Axelrodichthys (extinct)
      • Chinlea (extinct)
      • Diplurus (extinct)
      • Holophagus (extinct)
      • Mawsonia (extinct)
    • Family Miguashaiidae (extinct)
      • Miguashaia (extinct)
    • Family Latimeriidae
      • Holophagus (extinct)
      • Libys (extinct)
      • Macropoma (extinct)
      • Macropomoides (extinct)
      • Megacoelacanthus (extinct)
      • Latimeria (James Leonard Brierley Smith, 1939)
        • L. chalumnae (Comorese coelacanth) (James Leonard Brierley Smith, 1939)
        • L. menadoensis (Indonesian coelacanth) (Pouyaud, Wirjoatmodjo, Rachmatika, Tjakrawidjaja, et al., 1999)
      • Undina (extinct)
    • Family Laugiidae (extinct)
      • Coccoderma (extinct)
      • Laugia (extinct)
    • Family Rhabdodermatidae (extinct)
      • Caridosuctor (extinct)
      • Rhabdoderma (extinct)
    • Family Whiteiidae (extinct)
      • Whiteia (extinct)

Species Coelacanthus (Hollow Spine) is a genus of extinct coelacanths first appearing during the Permian period. ... Macropoma is an extinct genus of coelacanth fish in the class Sarcopterygii. ...

The coelacanth in popular culture

A Comorian 5 franc coin with an image of the coelacanth.

The coelacanths' widely-published status as a "living fossil" earned it a place in music, video games, literature, and television. "Coelacanth" is the title of songs and tracks by bands including Deja Voodoo (spelled "Coelecanth"), Shriekback, Mr. Children, Avast!, Polysics, and Lotus Child. Other musical items referring to the coelacanth include John Fahey's posthumously released double album "Sea Changes and Coelacanths". Coelacanths are also heavily featured in video games. The coelacanth appears in games such as Animal Crossing, Animal Crossing: Wild World,[15] SEGA Marine Fishing, E.V.O.: Search for Eden (where the coelacanth is dubbed "Coelafish"), We Love Katamari, Me and My Katamari, and Endless Ocean. The Coelacanth was also the inspiration for the Pokémon Relicanth,[16] the Digimon Coelamon, the Ancient Fish discovery in Skies of Arcadia (which is simply a flying Coelacanth), and bosses in the Darius series .[17] Image File history File linksMetadata KMF_5_obv. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KMF_5_obv. ... ISO 4217 Code KMF User(s) Comoros Inflation rate 3% Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ... Late 1980s-era poster for Deja Voodoo and fellow Og Music label members The Gruesomes Deja Voodoo was a two man band from the early- to late 1980s comprised of Gerard van Herk and Tony Dewald. ... Shriekback is a rock band formed in the early 1980s by Barry Andrews, formerly of XTC and League of Gentlemen (keyboards/synthesizers/vocals), Carl Marsh (guitars/vocals), and Dave Allen, formerly of the Gang of Four (bass). ... Mr. ... Avast! Antivirus is an anti-virus program developed by ALWIL Software based in Prague, Czech Republic, first released in 1988. ... Polysics are a Japanese new wave/Rock band from Tokyo, who personally dub their unique style as technicolor pogo punk. The band started in 1997, but got their big break in 1998 at a concert in Tokyo. ... John Fahey (February 28, 1939 – February 22, 2001) was an American fingerstyle guitarist and composer who pioneered the steel-string guitar as a solo instrument. ... For other uses, see Animal Crossing (disambiguation). ... SEGA Marine Fishing is a simulation game in which the player attempts to catch various marine sport fish. ... We ♥ Katamari , lit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Endless Ocean[2] (known as Forever Blue (フォーエバーブルー)in Japan and Europe[1]) is an upcoming video game for Nintendos Wii video game console. ... Relicanth (ジーランス Jiiransu in Japanese, also called Relicanth in German and French) is a fictional creature of the Pokémon franchise. ... Digimon , short for デジタルモンスター dejitaru monsutā, Digital Monster) is a popular Japanese series of media and merchandise, including anime, manga, toys, video games, trading card games and other media. ... Coelamon is a fictional character from the Digimon franchise, a Digimon that resembles the Coelacanth, one of the most ancient species of fish. ... Skies of Arcadia, released in Japan as Eternal Arcadia ), is a console role-playing game developed by Overworks for the Dreamcast and published by Sega in 2000. ... Flag Ship from the video game Gorf A boss is an enemy-based challenge in video games that, once encountered, stops the games progression until the player is able either to surmount the enemy or is thwarted by it. ... The Darius series is a series of horizontally-scrolling shoot em up video games, released by Taito. ...


The coelacanth is also featured in books. In Margaret Atwood's novel Oryx and Crake, the coelacanth is used as a symbol for the underground scientific association Extinctathon. In Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency, Professor Chronotis admits to causing the extinction of the dodos by trying to save the Coelacanth. In Lee Battersby's Father Muerte and the Rain, coelacanths rain from the sky when an ancient butterfly is stolen from its home time. The reference to the Latimeria Chalumnae is also a recurring one in Anne Landsman's novel, The Rowing Lesson, which is set, in part, in pre-World War II South Africa. Specific reference is made to the coelacanth's discovery as part of the narrative and as an allegorical reference to one's connection with the past. Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... Dirk Gentlys Holistic Detective Agency is a novel by Douglas Adams. ... Professor Urban Chronotis is a fictional character created by Douglas Adams. ... For other uses, see Dodo (disambiguation). ... Lee Battersby is an Australian author of science fiction and fantasy stories. ...


A textbook on the C programming language by Peter van der Linden entitled Expert C Programming - Deep C Secrets (1994) features a Coelecanth on its cover. Coelacanths have also been featured in television shows, such as Futurama, and in movies, such as Monster on the Campus Wikibooks has a book on the topic of C Programming The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. ... This article is about the television series. ... Monster on the Campus (1958) was a black and white, science fiction, horror film, released by Universal Pictures on a low budget. ...


Shriekback performed a primitive woodwind and synthesizer instrumental, "Coelacanth", for their 1985 album, Oil & Gold. Shriekback is a rock band formed in the early 1980s by Barry Andrews, formerly of XTC and League of Gentlemen (keyboards/synthesizers/vocals), Carl Marsh (guitars/vocals), and Dave Allen, formerly of the Gang of Four (bass). ... Oil & Gold, the third full-length Shriekback album, is widely considered the bands highest moment. ...


Coelocanths can be seen in the Disney animated film Atlantis- the Lost Empire.


In the 2008 film, Cloverfield, one of the characters mentions a "...fish that was found off the coast of Madagascar that was thought to have been extinct for centuries" as an example of where the monster came from. For the creature of the film, see Cloverfield (creature). ...


The Collectible Card Game Yu-Gi-Oh! has a card from the set Phantom Darkness named Superancient Deepsea King Coelacanth, and its effect reflects its opportunistic hunting. Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Shonen Jump BANZAI! Shonen Jump Comics House Original run 1996 – March 2004 Volumes 38 volumes, with 343 total chapters TV anime: Yu-Gi-Oh! Director Various Studio Toei Animation Network TV Asahi Original run April 4, 1998 – October 10, 1998 Episodes 27 TV anime: Yu...


Finally, coelacanths have been used as symbols in objects and as nicknames. "Les Coelecantes" (meaning "the Coelacanths") is a nickname for the Comoros national football team. Coelacanths have been shown on coins,[18] phone cards,[19] and beer bottles.[20] First international Mauritius 3 - 0 Comoros (Réunion; August 26, 1979) Biggest win Comoros 4 - 2 Djibouti (Yemen; December 17, 2006) Biggest defeat Madagascar 5 - 0 Comoros (Seychelles; August 20, 1993) Mauritius 5 - 0 Comoros (Mauritius; September 4, 2003) The Comoros national football team is the national football team of...


References

  1. ^ Reference for divergence dated on mitochondrial genome
  2. ^ Erdmann, Mark V. (April 1999). "An Account of the First Living Coelacanth known to Scientists from Indonesian Waters". Environmental Biology of Fishes Volume 54 (#4): 439-443. Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1023/A:1007584227315. 0378-1909 (Print) 1573-5133 (Online). Retrieved on 2007-05-18. 
  3. ^ A fossil coelacanth jaw found in a stratum datable 410 mya that was collected near Buchan in Victoria, Australia's East Gippsland, currently holds the record for oldest coelacanth; it was given the name Eoactinistia foreyi when it was published in September 2006. [1]
  4. ^ page 200, Weinberg, Samantha. 2006. A Fish Caught in Time: the Search for the Coelacanth. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY.
  5. ^ a b c Jewett, Susan L., "On the Trail of the Coelacanth, a Living Fossil", The Washington Post, 1998-11-11, Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  6. ^ Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town
  7. ^ a b c Nelson, Joseph S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471250317
  8. ^ a b Reuters (2007), "Indonesian fisherman nets ancient fish", Reuters UK, 2007-05-21, Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  9. ^ Reuters (2007), "Zanzibar fishermen land ancient fish",yahoo.com, 2007-07-15, Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  10. ^ page 73, Weinberg, Samantha. 2006. A Fish Caught in Time: the Search for the Coelacanth. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY.
  11. ^ Fricke, Hans (June, 1988). "Coelacanths:The fish that time forgot". National Geographic 173 (6): 824-828. 
  12. ^ Inoue J.G., Miya M., Venkatesh B., Nishida M. 2005. The mitochondrial genome of Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis (Sarcopterygii: Coelacanthiformes) and divergence time estimation between the two coelacanths. Gene 349: 227-235
  13. ^ "Ancient Indonesian fish is 'living fossil'", Cosmos Online, 2007-07-29.
  14. ^ a b "Dinosaur fish pushed to the brink by deep-sea trawlers", The Observer, 2006-01-08, Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  15. ^ "Nintendocanth". In Megaman X2, a miniboss in Crystal snail's stageis that of a giant mechanic Coelacanth. Retrieved on 2007-1-13.
  16. ^ "Relicanth". Retrieved on 2007-1-13.
  17. ^ Cyber Coelacanth. Retrieved on 2007-1-13].
  18. ^ "Coincanth". Retrieved on 2007-1-13.
  19. ^ "Phonecanth". 2007-1-13.
  20. ^ "Beercanth". Retrieved on 2007-1-13.

The reference to the Latimeria Chalumnae is also a recurring one in Anne Landsman's novel, The Rowing Lesson", which is set, in part, in pre-World War II South Africa. A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

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Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) is the largest organization of emergency physicians in the United States. ... The mitochondrial genome is the genetic material of the mitochondria. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coelacanth - MSN Encarta (717 words)
The coelacanth and its cousin, the lungfish, are the only surviving lobe-finned fishes, an ancient group named for the muscular, scale-covered lobe at the base of their fins.
Coelacanth reproductive behaviors are not well known, but biologists believe that females do not reach sexual maturity until after 20 years of age.
Biologists estimate that only 200 to 500 coelacanths remain in the western part of their range (the status of the eastern population is not yet known), and concern for the coelacanth’s continued survival is mounting.
Comoros Coelacanth - Latimeria chalumnae (603 words)
The Comoros coelacanth (pronounced see-la-kanth) is a large lobe-finned fish that was first discovered in 1938.
The Comoros coelacanth is a benthic fish and not of the true deep waters.
Coelacanths are captured by scientists because of their peculiarity and they are also wanted as museum specimens.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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