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Encyclopedia > Codex
First page of the Codex Argenteus
First page of the Codex Argenteus

A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. The scholarly study of manuscripts from the point of view of the bookmaking craft is called codicology. The study of ancient documents in general is called paleography. page of the Codex Argenteus. ... page of the Codex Argenteus. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus The Codex Argenteus (or Silver Bible) is a 6th century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilass 4th century translation of the bible into the Gothic language. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Look up book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Codicology is the study of a codex, an older handwritten book. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ...


New World codices were written as late as the sixteenth century (see Maya codices and Aztec codices). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... Maya codices (singular codex) are books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, using the Maya hieroglyphic script. ... Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. ...


The codex was an improvement upon the scroll, which it gradually replaced as the written medium. The codex in turn was replaced by the printed book. A scroll is a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

The Romans used similar precursors made of reusable wax-covered tablets of wood for taking notes and other informal writings. The first recorded use of the codex for literary works dates from the late first century AD, when Martial experimented with the format. At that time the scroll was the dominant medium for literary works and would remain dominant for secular works until the fourth century. Julius Caesar, traveling in Gaul, found it useful to fold his scrolls accordion-fashion for quicker reference.[citation needed] As far back as the early 2nd century, there is evidence that the codex—usually of papyrus—was the preferred format among Christians: in the library of the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum (buried in AD 79), all the texts (Greek literature) are scrolls; in the Nag Hammadi "library", secreted about AD 390, all the texts (Gnostic Christian) are codices. (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A scroll is a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. ... Gāius JÅ«lius Caesar (IPA: ;[1]), July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... The Villa of the Papyri is an enormous private house of ancient Herculaneum owned by Julius Caesars father-in-law, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, and first excavated in 1765 by Karl Weber. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano, in the Italian region of Campania. ... The town of Nag Hammadi in Egypt Nag Hammâdi (Arabic نجع حمادي; transliterated: Naj Hammādi) (26°03′N 32°15′E), is a town in the middle of Egypt, called Chenoboskion in classical antiquity, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor with some 30,000 citizens. ...


In Western culture the codex gradually replaced the scroll. From the fourth century, when the codex gained wide acceptance, to the Carolingian Renaissance in the eighth century, many works that were not converted from scroll to codex were lost to posterity. The codex was an improvement over the scroll in several ways. It could be opened flat at any page, allowing easier reading; the pages could be written on both recto and verso; and the codex, protected within its durable covers, was more compact and easier to transport. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... The recto of a broadsheet, pamphlet or any printed document is the side that is meant to be read first or the right-hand page of a folded sheet. ... The verso of a broadsheet, pamphlet or any printed document is the side that is meant to be read second or the left-hand page of a folded sheet. ...

Aztec warriors as shown in the Florentine Codex.
Aztec warriors as shown in the Florentine Codex.

The codex also made it easier to organize documents in a library because it had a stable spine on which the title of the book could be written. The spine could be used for the incipit, before the concept of a proper title was developed, during medieval times. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1009x457, 229 KB) Summary Copy of painting from Florentine Codex, page IX, F, 5v; see article for further info Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1009x457, 229 KB) Summary Copy of painting from Florentine Codex, page IX, F, 5v; see article for further info Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in... Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... A modern-style library in Chambéry In the traditional sense of the word, a library is a collection of books and periodicals, . It can refer to an individuals private collection, but more often it is a large collection that is funded and maintained by a city or institution. ... The incipit of a text, such as a poem, song, or book, is its first few words. ...


Although most early codices were made of papyrus, papyrus was fragile and supplies from Egypt, the only place where papyrus grew, became scanty; the more durable parchment and vellum gained favor, despite the cost. Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... Vellum (from the Latin for wool or pelt) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ...


The codices of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica had the same form as the European codex, but were instead made with long folded strips of either fig bark (amatl) or plant fibers, often with a layer of whitewash applied before writing. The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica The term Mesoamérica is used to refer to a geographical region that extends roughly from the Tropic of Cancer in central Mexico down through Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua to northwestern Costa Rica, and which is characterized by the particular cultural homogeneity... Part of the Huexotzinco Codex, printed on amatl Amatl (from the Nahuatl paper) or Amate (Spanish) is a type of paper developed in Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Whitewash is a type of inexpensive paint made from slaked lime (Calcium hydroxide, or Ca(OH)2) and chalk (whiting). ...


Some codices

Codices are usually named for their most famous resting-place, whether a city or a private library.

The Chi Rho Monogram from the Book of Kells
The Chi Rho Monogram from the Book of Kells

Download high resolution version (1077x1473, 482 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1077x1473, 482 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... Abrogans, also Codex Abrogans, is probably the oldest book in the German language. ... Folio 65v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book. ... The Codex Alimentarius (Latin = “food law” or “food code”) is a collection of international standards and is alleged to be for the sake of food safety and consumer protection. ... The Aleppo Codex (the Keter (Crown) Aram Tzova) is the oldest complete manuscript Hebrew Bible, though scrolls of individual books of the Tanakh are much older (see Dead Sea scrolls). ... The Codex Amiatinus is the most celebrated manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, remarkable as the best witness to the true text of St. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus The Codex Argenteus (or Silver Bible) is a 6th century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilass 4th century translation of the bible into the Gothic language. ... The Codex Astensis is Medieval catalog of the Asti region. ... Categories: Religion stubs | Art stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... Folio 72 verso of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch contain an illumination of Christ in Majesty. ... In 1896, the Coptic Berlin Codex (aka. ... A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae The Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis (Gregory-Aland no. ... Carmina Burana (IPA: ; note that the stress is on the first syllable of Carmina, not the second) also known as the Burana Codex is a manuscript collection, now in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich, of over 1000 poems and songs written in the early 13th century. ... Codex Claromontanus is a 6th-century manuscript in an uncial hand on vellum of the Epistles of Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews in Greek and Latin on facing pages (thus a diglot manuscript, like Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis). ... The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual of the Middle Ages, presumably designed to help Catholic missionaries to the Kipchaks. ... Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus is an early 5th century Greek manuscript of the Bible, the last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible (see Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Vaticanus). ... The Exeter Book, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a book (or, as some prefer, a codex) of Anglo_Saxon poetry from the 10th century. ... The Flatey Book, (in Icelandic the Flateyjarbók Flat-island book) is one of the most important medieval Icelandic manuscripts. ... The Codex Gigas is one of the largest manuscripts in the world, said to require two men to lift (hence Gigas, Greek for giant). It includes the entire Latin Bible, Isidore of Sevilles Etymologiae, a Latin translation of Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, Cosmas of Pragues Chronicle of... The Codex Grandior (Larger Codex) was a large single volume copy of the Bible in an Old Latin translation that was made for or by Cassiodorus, for his monastic foundation at Vivarium. ... Codex Hierosolymitanus (the Jerusalem Codex, often designated simply H in scholarly discourse) is an 11th-century Greek book, written by an unknown scribe named Leo, who dated it 1056. ... The Codex Koridethi (Θ, 038, Q, or theta) is a 9th century manuscript of the four Gospels. ... The Codex Leicester is a collection of largely scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci. ... The Leningrad codex is the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible, dated 1008. ... Maya codices (singular codex) are books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, using the Maya hieroglyphic script. ... Folio 371r shows Johannes Hadlaub Folio 149v shows a portrait of Wolfram von Eschenbach The Manesse Codex or Grosse Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. ... The Codex Mendoza is a painted document from the 1540s. ... The Codex ms. ... he joost hoestie, wat loop je ons nou uit te schelden, je stinkt zelf, want je bent een nep japanner ... The Codex Florentinus, formerly the Codex Pisanus, is a 6th century Byzantine copy of the Pandects of Emperor Justinian, (Justiniani Augusti Digestorum seu Pandectarum), the digest of laws assembled under his direction. ... The Codex Regius is an Icelandic manuscript (See also Codex) which is thought to have been written in the 1270s, but many of the poems and stories contained in it pre-date the conversion of Scandinavia to Christianity in the late tenth century. ... Rohonczi codex sample Rohonczi Codex is a set of writings in an unknown writing system. ... The Codex Runicus is one of the few runic texts found on parchment. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... The Codex Tchacos is an ancient Egyptian Coptic papyrus document containing early Christian Gnostic texts: The Gospel of Judas The First Apocalypse of James The Letter of Peter to Philip A fragment of Allogenes It is important because it contains the first known surviving text of the Gospel of Judas... Folio 149v contains the only surviving decoration in the Codex Usserianus Primus. ... Page from Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. ... the first page shows a fencer with various arms. ... Codex Zamoscianus is the oldest known / preserved manuscript copy of the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written on parchment and dating from the end of the 13th century. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ... Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... The town of Nag Hammadi in Egypt Nag Hammâdi (Arabic نجع حمادي; transliterated: Naj Hammādi) (26°03′N 32°15′E), is a town in the middle of Egypt, called Chenoboskion in classical antiquity, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor with some 30,000 citizens. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ...

Notes

    See also

    Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. ... Maya codices (singular codex) are books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, using the Maya hieroglyphic script. ... The Codex Seraphinianus is a book written and illustrated by the Italian architect and industrial designer Luigi Serafini during the late 1970s. ...

    References

    • K.C. Hanson, Catalogue of New Testament Papyri & Codices 2nd—10th Centuries

      Results from FactBites:
     
    CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (309 words)
    The Codex Alimentarius Commission was created in 1963 by FAO and WHO to develop food standards, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
    The main purposes of this Programme are protecting health of the consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade, and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations.
    Applications must be completed by the officially designated country's Codex Contact Point in full consultation with all interested parties and submitted by email to: codextrustfund@who.int or by fax to + 41 22 791 4807.
    CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Codex Vaticanus (1294 words)
    This codex is a quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century, on folios of fine parchment bound in quinterns.
    The Vatican Codex, in spite of the views of Tischendorf, who held for the priority of the Codex Sinaiticus, discovered by him, is rightly considered to be the oldest extant copy of the Bible.
    It may be said that the Vatican Codex, written in the first half of the fourth century, represents the text of one of those recensions of the Bible which were current in the third century, and that it belongs to the family of manuscripts made use of by Origen in the composition of his Hexapla.
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