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Encyclopedia > Code of Hammurabi
An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi.
An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi.
View of the bas-relief image at the top of the stele.
View of the bas-relief image at the top of the stele.

The Code of Hammurabi (Codex Hammurabi), the best preserved ancient law code, was created ca. 1760 BC (middle chronology) in ancient Babylon. It was enacted by the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi.[1] Earlier collections of laws include the codex of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (ca. 2050 BC), the Codex of Eshnunna (ca. 1930 BC) and the codex of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (ca. 1870 BC).[2] contrast enhanced version of Image:CodeOfHammurabi. ... contrast enhanced version of Image:CodeOfHammurabi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x1746, 173 KB) musée du Louvre, antiquités moyen-orientales. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x1746, 173 KB) musée du Louvre, antiquités moyen-orientales. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... The eighteenth century BC was the time period from 1800 BC to 1701 BC. // An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest known sets of laws 1800 BC - beginning of Iron Age in India[1] 1800 BC — beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age in the periodization system... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Eshnunna is the transliteration of the ancient name of a Sumerian city and city-state in lower Mesopotamia. ... Lipit-Ishtar, belonging to a family of shepherds and farmers from Nippur, currently in Iraq, became ruler of Isin, and ruled from around 1868 BC to 1857 BC. He made several legal pronouncements, amongst the earliest ones in the recorded human history, and preceded only by the Code of Hammurabi... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ...


At the top of the basalt stele is a bas-relief image of a Babylonian god (either Marduk or Shamash), with the king of Babylon presenting himself to the god, with his right hand raised to his mouth as a mark of respect.[1] The text covers the bottom portion with the laws written in cuneiform script. It contains a list of crimes and their various punishments, as well as settlements for common disputes and guidelines for citizens' conduct. The Code does not provide for an opportunity for explanation or justification, though it does imply one's right to present evidence. The stele was displayed for all to see; thus, no man could plead ignorance of the law as an excuse. However, in that era few people except scribes could read. For a summary of the laws, see Babylonian law. For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive. ...

Contents

History

Hammurabi (ruled ca. 1796 BC – 1750 BC) believed that he was chosen by the gods to deliver the law to his people. In the preface to the law code, he states, "Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land."[3] For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ...


The laws are numbered from 1 to 282 (numbers 13 and 66-99 are missing) and are inscribed in Old Babylonian cuneiform script on the eight-foot tall stela.[4][5] It was discovered in December 1901 in Susa, Elam, which is now Khuzestan, Iran, where it had been taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC.[6] It is currently on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris.[1] Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Shutruk-Nahhunte was king of Elam from about 1185 to 1155 BC, and the second king of the Shutrukid Dynasty. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


The code is often pointed to as the first example of the legal concept that some laws are so basic as to be beyond the ability of even a king to change. Hammurabi had the laws inscribed in stone, so they were immutable. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ...


The Code of Hammurabi was one of several sets of laws in the Ancient Near East.[7][8] Most of these codes come from similar cultures and racial groups in a relatively small geographical area, and they have passages which resemble each other. The earlier Code of Ur-Nammu (21st century BC), the Hittite laws (ca. 1300 BC), and Mosaic Law (traditionally ca. 1400 BC under Moses), all contain statutes that bear at least passing resemblance to those in the Code of Hammurabi and other codices from the same geographic area.[citation needed] Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. ... The Hittite laws have been preserved on a number of Hittite cuneiform tablets found at Hattusa (CTH 291-292, listing 200 laws). ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...

View of the back side of the stele.
View of the back side of the stele.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1188x1752, 235 KB) musée du Louvre, antiquités moyen-orientales. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1188x1752, 235 KB) musée du Louvre, antiquités moyen-orientales. ...

See also

Assyrian law was very similar to Sumerian and Babylonian law,[1] however, notably more brutal than its predecessors. ... The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive. ... Cuneiform Law was the system of law invented by ancient Sumerians and used through-out the ancient Middle East written in cuneiform script. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something [1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Louvre ( Arts and Architecture). Köln: Könemann. ISBN 3-8331-1943-8. 
  2. ^ Charles F. Horne, Ph.D. (1915). The Code of Hammurabi : Introduction (English). Yale University. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.
  3. ^ Edited by Richard Hooker; Translated by L.W. King (1910) (1996). Mesopotamia: The Code of Hammurabi (English). Washington State University. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.
  4. ^ commonlaw.com; C. H. W. Johns. Code of Hammurabi (English). commonlaw.com. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.
  5. ^ The Louvre Museum (2006). Near Eastern Antiquities: Mesopotamia (English). The Louvre Museum. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.
  6. ^ David Graves, Jane Graves (1995). Archaeological History of the Code of Hammurabi (English). Electronic Christian Media. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.
  7. ^ wwlia.org (2006). Was Hammurabi really the first law maker in history? (English). wwlia.org - Legal information. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.
  8. ^ L. W. King (2005). The Code of Hammurabi: Translated by L. W. King (English). Yale University. Retrieved on September 14, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Sources

  • Bryant, Tamera (2005). The Life & Times of Hammurabi. Bear: Mitchell Lane Publishers. ISBN 9781584153382. 
  • Mieroop, Marc (2004). King Hammurabi of Babylon: a Biography. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 9781405126601. 
  • Hammurabi, King; C. H. W. Johns (Translator) (2000). The Oldest Code of Laws in the World. City: Lawbook Exchange Ltd. ISBN 9781584770619. 
  • Falkenstein, A. (1956–57). Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden I–III. München.
  • Elsen-Novák, G. / Novák, M.: Der 'König der Gerechtigkeit'. Zur Ikonologie und Teleologie des 'Codex' Hammurapi. In: Baghdader Mitteilungen 37 (2006), pp. 131-156.
  • Julius Oppert and Joachim Menant (1877). Documents juridiques de l'Assyrie et de la Chaldee. París.
  • Thomas, D. Winton, ed. (1958). Documents from Old Testament Times. London and New York.

Julius Oppert (July 9, 1825 - August 21, 1905), German Assyriologist, was born at Hamburg, of Jewish parents. ... Joachim Menant (16 April 1820-30 August 1899) was a French magistrate and orientalist He was born at Cherbourg on the 1820. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Code of Hammurabi - MSN Encarta (465 words)
Code of Hammurabi, collection of the laws and edicts of the Babylonian king Hammurabi, and the earliest legal code known in its entirety.
A copy of the code was unearthed by a team of French archaeologists during the winter of 1901 to 1902 at Susa, in a part of Iran that was once ancient Elam.
The code was engraved on a block of fl basalt that is 2.25 m (7 ft 5 in) in height.
The Code of Hammurabi (313 words)
The Code of Hammurabi is the earliest known example of a ruler publicly proclaiming to his people an entire set of laws, in an orderly arrangement, so that all of men might read and known what was required of them.
Hammurabi was a ruler of ancient Babylon, probably from around 1795 B.C. to about 1750 B.C. His code was carved on a fl stone monument, in 3,600 lines of cuneiform, standing eight feet high, and obviously intended for public view.
Although there were definitely earlier codes of law (their existence is even implied in Hammurabi's code), they have all disappeared -- leaving the Code of Hammurabi as the earliest surviving system of laws.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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