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Encyclopedia > Coconut
Coconut Palm Trees

Coconut Palms (Cocos nucifera)
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Subfamily: Arecoideae
Tribe: Cocoeae
Genus: Cocos
Species: C. nucifera
Binomial name
Cocos nucifera
L.
Coconut germinating on Black Sand Beach, Island of Hawaii
Coconut germinating on Black Sand Beach, Island of Hawaii

The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only species in the genus Cocos, and is a large palm, growing to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4-6 m long, pinnae 60-90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly leaving the trunk smooth. The term coconut refers to the fruit of the coconut palm. An alternate spelling is cocoanut. Coconut can refer to: Coconut, the Coconut Palm tree, and its attendant fruit Coconut (song), a song by Harry Nilsson Coconut Records, a record label The Coconuts, a female vocal group that backs Kid Creole Coconut Records, musical project of Jason Schwartzman COcOnuts, an album by Jane Coconuts (Sonic the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 1. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Family Arecaceae Arecales is the botanical order which includes only the palm family, Arecaceae. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... The Island of Hawaii (called the Big Island or Hawaii Island) is a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean and one of the eight main islands that comprise the U.S. state of Hawaii. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pinus taeda cross section showing annual growth rings (Cheraw, South Carolina) In botany, trunk refers to the main structural member of a tree that is supported by and directly attached to the roots and which in turn supports the branches. ...


The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropical world, for decoration as well as for its many culinary and non-culinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm has some human uses. A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ...

Contents

Origins and cultivation

The coconut tree.
The coconut tree.

The origins of this plant are the subject of controversy, with most authorities claiming it is native to South Asia (particularly the Ganges Delta), while others claim its origin is in northwestern South America. Fossil records from New Zealand indicate that small, coconut-like plants grew there as long as 15 million years ago. Even older fossils have been uncovered in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, (India) and the oldest known so far in Khulna, Bangladesh. Regardless of its origin, the coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by sea-faring peoples. The fruit is light and buoyant and presumably spread significant distances by marine currents. Fruits collected from the sea as far north as Norway have been found to be viable (and subsequently germinated under the right conditions). In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in the South Pacific. They are now ubiquitous to most of the planet between 26ºN and 26ºS. The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (1,500 to 2,500 mm annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward.[1] Coconuts also need high humidity (70–80%+) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity, like the Mediterranean, even where temperatures are high enough (regularly above 24°C). They are very hard to establish in dry climates and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed.[1] They may grow but not fruit properly in areas where there is not sufficient warmth, like Bermuda. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Khulna is the third-largest city in Bangladesh. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...

Coconut and copra output in 2005
Coconut and copra output in 2005
A man climbing a palm to harvest coconuts. Behind the palm a young plant is visible.

Coconut palms require warm conditions for successful growth, and are intolerant of cold weather. Optimum growth is with a mean annual temperature of 27°C(80.6°F), and growth is reduced below 21°C(69.8°F). Some seasonal variation is tolerated, with good growth where mean summer temperatures are between 28–37 °C(82.4-98.6 °F), and survival as long as winter temperatures are above 4–12 °C(39.2-53.6 °F); they will survive brief drops to 0 °C(32°F). Severe frost is usually fatal, although they have been known to recover from temperatures of -4 °C(24.8°F).[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of coconut and copra output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia - 16,300,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of coconut and copra output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia - 16,300,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (488x1046, 243 KB) Summary A man climbig a tree to harvest coconuts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (488x1046, 243 KB) Summary A man climbig a tree to harvest coconuts. ...


The flowers of the coconut palm are polygamomonoecious, with both male and female flowers in the same inflorescence. Flowering occurs continuously, with female flowers producing seeds. Coconut palms are believed to be largely cross-pollinated, although some dwarf varieties are self-pollinating. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... The term polygamomonoecious is used to describe a species population containing plants that are polygamous and plants that are monoecious. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete...


Pests and diseases

Coconuts affected by eriophyid mites, at Taliparamba, Kannur, Kerala, India.
Coconuts affected by eriophyid mites, at Taliparamba, Kannur, Kerala, India.

Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease lethal yellowing. One recently selected cultivar, 'Maypan', has been bred for resistance to this disease. The fruit may also be damaged by eriophyid mites. The coconut is also used as a food plant by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, including the following Batrachedra spp: B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), B. mathesoni (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), and B. nuciferae. This article is a list of diseases of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 170 KB) Summary Manoj TV Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 170 KB) Summary Manoj TV Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... , Taliparamba (Perimchellur) is a city and a municipality in Kannur district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... For the district with the name Kannur, see Kannur District. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Species Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum Candidatus Phytoplasma mali Candidatus Phytoplasma morrenia Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae Candidatus Phytoplasma persicae Candidatus Phytoplasma pini Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii Candidatus... Lethal Yellowing is a phytoplasma disease that attacks many species of palms, including some commercially important species such as the Coconut and Date Palm. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Maypan is an F1 hybrid coconut palm tree that is resistant to Lethal Yellowing. ... Genera See text Eriophyid mites (Eriophyidae) are a family of about 200 genera of arachnids, which live as plant parasites, commonly causing galls or other damage to the plant tissues. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... For other uses, see Moths. ... Species See text Batrachedridae is a small family of moths. ...


Coconut hispine beetle or Brontispa longissima gestro feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms. On September 27, 2007, Philippines' Metro Manila and 26 provinces were quarantined due to having been infested with this pest (to save the $800-million Philippine coconut industry). [2] Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Seedlings are a type of popular gumball that contains many mini-gumballs. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... At the Drive-In (ATDI) was a post-hardcore band from El Paso, Texas from 1993 until 2001 and was one of the most influential bands of the genre. ... Look up Pest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Pest may refer to: A pest, an animal (usually an insect), or sometimes a plant (weed) with characteristics that are injurious or harmful to humans. ...


Growing in the United States

The only two states in the U.S. where coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation are Hawaii and Florida. Coconut palms will grow from Bradenton southwards on Florida's west coast and Melbourne southwards on Florida's east coast. The occasional coconut palm is seen north of these areas in favoured microclimates in the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater metro area and around Cape Canaveral. They may likewise be grown in favoured microclimates in the Rio Grande Valley area of Deep South Texas near Brownsville and on Galveston Island. They may reach fruiting maturity, but are damaged or killed by the occasional winter freezes in these areas. While coconut palms flourish in south Florida, unusually bitter cold snaps can kill or injure coconut palms there as well. Only the Florida Keys and the coastlines provide safe havens from the cold as far as growing coconut palms on the U.S. mainland. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. ... Brownsville is the name of several places in the United States of America: Brownsville, California Brownsville, Florida Brownsville, Kentucky Brownsville, Maryland Brownsville, Minnesota Brownsville, Ohio Brownsville, Oregon Brownsville, Pennsylvania Brownsville, Tennessee Brownsville, Texas (The first two battles of the Mexican-American War were fought neart this city. ... A map of Galveston Island, a barrier island on the Texas Gulf coast in the United States Galveston Island is a barrier island on the Texas Gulf coast in the United States, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of Houston. ... Palm trees in Islamorada The Florida Keys is an archipelago of about 1700 islands in the southeast United States. ...


The farthest north in the United States a coconut palm has been known to grow outdoors is in Newport Beach, California along the Pacific Coast Highway. In order for coconut palms to survive in Southern California they need sandy soil and minimal water in the winter to prevent root rot, and would benefit from root heating coils. City Incorporation September 1, 1906 City Tree Coral Tree City flower Bougainvillea Mayor Steven Bromberg County Orange County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water 50. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ...


Production

Indonesia is the world leader in coconut production followed by the Philippines and then India. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Top Ten Coconut Producers — 2005
Country Production (Int $1000) Footnote Production (MT) Footnote
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 1,474,172 C 16,300,000 F
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 1,311,380 C 14,500,000 F
Flag of India India 859,180 C 9,500,000 F
Flag of Brazil Brazil 274,380 C 3,033,830
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 176,358 C 1,950,000 F
Flag of Thailand Thailand 135,660 C 1,500,000 F
Flag of Mexico Mexico 86,732 C 959,000 F
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 85,014 C 940,000 F
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 64,212 C 710,000 F
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 58,786 C 650,000 F
No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;

Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ...



The fruit

Coconut, meat, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 350 kcal   1480 kJ
Carbohydrates     15.23 g
- Sugars  6.23 g
- Dietary fibre  9.0 g  
Fat 33.49 g
- saturated  29.70 g
- monounsaturated  1.43 g  
- polyunsaturated  0.37 g  
Protein 3.3 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.066 mg   5%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.02 mg   1%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.54 mg   4%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.300 mg  6%
Vitamin B6  0.054 mg 4%
Folate (Vit. B9)  26 μg  7%
Vitamin C  3.3 mg 6%
Calcium  14 mg 1%
Iron  2.43 mg 19%
Magnesium  32 mg 9% 
Phosphorus  113 mg 16%
Potassium  356 mg   8%
Zinc  1.1 mg 11%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Illustration of a coconut tree
Illustration of a coconut tree

Botanically, a coconut is a simple dry nut known as a fibrous drupe. The husk, or mesocarp, is composed of fibres called coir and there is an inner stone, or endocarp. The endocarp is the hardest part. This hard endocarp, the outside of the coconut as sold in the shops of non-tropical countries, has three germination pores that are clearly visible on the outside surface once the husk is removed. It is through one of these that the radicle emerges when the embryo germinates. Adhering to the inside wall of the endocarp is the testa, with a thick albuminous endosperm (the coconut "meat"), the white and fleshy edible part of the seed. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Image File history File links Koeh-187. ... Image File history File links Koeh-187. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Mesocarp is the middle part of a simple fruit. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... Endocarp is the hard inner layer of the pericarp of some fruits that contains the seed. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during germination. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ...


Although coconut meat contains less fat than other dry nuts such as peanuts and almonds, it is noted for its high amount of saturated fat[3]. Approximately 90% of the fat found in coconut meat is saturated, a proportion exceeding that of foods such as lard, butter, and tallow. However, there has been some debate as to whether or not the saturated fat in coconuts is healthier than the saturated fat found in other foods (see coconut oil for more information). Coconut meat also contains less sugar and more protein than popular fruits such as bananas, apples and oranges, and it is relatively high in minerals such as iron, phosphorus and zinc. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... This article is about the legume. ... For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... This article is about the fat. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


The endosperm surrounds a hollow interior space, filled with air and often a liquid referred to as coconut water, not to be confused with coconut milk. Coconut milk, called "santan" in Malay, is made by grating the endosperm and mixing it with (warm) water. The resulting thick, white liquid is used in much Asian cooking, for example, in curries. Coconut water from the unripe coconut, however, can be drunk fresh. Young coconuts used for coconut water are called tender coconuts. The water of a tender coconut is liquid endosperm. It is sweet (mild) with aerated feel when cut fresh. Depending on the size a tender coconut could contain the liquid in the range of 300 to 1,000 ml. It is known in Tamil/Malayalam/Kannada as "elaneer". Coconut water is the liquid endosperm inside young coconuts. ... Coconut milk in a bowl. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... This article is about the dish. ...


When viewed on end, the endocarp and germination pores give the fruit the appearance of a coco (also Côca), a Portuguese word for a scary witch from Portuguese folklore, that used to be represented as a carved vegetable lantern, hence the name of the fruit.[4] The specific name nucifera is Latin for nut-bearing.


When the coconut is still green, the endosperm inside is thin and tender, often eaten as a snack. But the main reason to pick the nut at this stage is to drink its water; a big nut contains up to one liter. The meat in a young coconut is softer and more like gelatin than a mature coconut, so much so, that it is sometimes known as coconut jelly. When the nut has ripened and the outer husk has turned brown, a few months later, it will fall from the palm of its own accord. At that time the endosperm has thickened and hardened, while the coconut water has become somewhat bitter. For the art collective, see Gelitin. ...

Coconuts sundried in Kozhikode, Kerala for making copra, which is used for making coconut oil
Coconuts sundried in Kozhikode, Kerala for making copra, which is used for making coconut oil

When the nut is still green the husk is very hard, but green nuts only fall if they have been attacked by moulds, etc. By the time the nut naturally falls, the husk has become brown, the coir has become drier and softer, and the nut is less likely to cause damage when it drops. Still, there have been instances of coconuts falling from palms and injuring people, and claims of some fatalities. This was the subject of a paper published in 1984 that won the Ig Nobel Prize in 2001. Falling coconut deaths are often used as a comparison to shark attacks; the claim is often made that a person is more likely to be killed by a falling coconut than by a shark. However, there is no evidence of people being killed in this manner.[5] However William Wyatt Gill, an early LMS missionary on Mangaia recorded a story in which Kaiara, the concubine of King Tetui, was killed by a falling green nut. The offending palm was immediately cut down. This was around 1777, the time of Captain Cook's visit. , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Copra drying in the sun Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Flying frog. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... The London Missionary Society was a non-denominational missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and Nonconformists, largely Congregationalist in outlook, with missions in the islands of the South Pacific and Africa. ... Mangaia (traditionally known as Auau Enua - which means terraced) is the most southerly of the Cook Islands and the second largest, after Rarotonga. ... British explorer James Cook is most noted for having discovered Australia and Hawaii. ...


In some parts of the world, trained pig-tailed macaques are used to harvest coconuts. Training schools for pig-tailed macaques still exist both in southern Thailand and in the Malaysian state of Kelantan[6]. Competitions are held each year to find the fastest harvester. For other uses, see Macaca. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14...


Uses

Nearly all parts of the coconut palm are useful, and the palms have a comparatively high yield, up to 75 fruits per year; it therefore has significant economic value. The name for the coconut palm in Sanskrit is kalpa vriksha, which translates as "the tree which provides all the necessities of life". In Malay, the coconut is known as pokok seribu guna, "the tree of a thousand uses". In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly given the title "Tree of Life".[7] It its theorised that if you were to become stranded on a desert island populated by palm trees, you could survive purely on the tree and coconut alone, as the coconut provides all of the required natural properties for survival. Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ...

Coconut in market
Coconut in market
Sold on a street at Guntur, India
Sold on a street at Guntur, India
Green Coconut Vendor in Delhi, India in Summer
Green Coconut Vendor in Delhi, India in Summer
A relatively young coconut which has been served in a hawker centre in Singapore with a straw with which to drink its coconut water.
A relatively young coconut which has been served in a hawker centre in Singapore with a straw with which to drink its coconut water.

Uses of the various parts of the palm include: Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about a city in India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1224x1632, 189 KB) Summary A coconut which has been stripped of its husk. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1224x1632, 189 KB) Summary A coconut which has been stripped of its husk. ... Coconut water is the liquid endosperm inside young coconuts. ...


Culinary

  • The white, fleshy part of the seed is edible and used fresh or dried in cooking.
  • Sport fruits are also harvested, primarily in the Philippines, where they are known as macapuno. They are sold in jars as "gelatinous mutant coconut" cut into balls or strands.
  • The cavity is filled with coconut water which contains sugar, fibre, proteins, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. Coconut water provides an isotonic electrolyte balance, and is a highly nutritious food source. It is used as a refreshing drink throughout the humid tropics and is also used in isotonic sports drinks. It can also be used to make the gelatinous dessert nata de coco. Mature fruits have significantly less liquid than young immature coconuts; barring spoilage, coconut water is sterile until opened.
  • Coconut milk is made by processing grated coconut with hot water or milk, which extracts the oil and aromatic compounds. It should not be confused with the coconut water discussed above, and has a fat content of approximately 17%. When refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream will rise to the top and separate out the milk.The milk is used to produce virgin coconut oil by controlled heating and removing the oil fraction. Virgin coconut oil is found superior to the oil extracted from copra for cosmetic purposes.
  • The leftover fibre from coconut milk production is used as livestock feed.
  • The smell of coconuts comes from the 6-pentyloxan-2-one molecule, known as delta-decalactone in the food and fragrance industry.[8]
  • The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is fermented to produce palm wine, also known as "toddy" or, in the Philippines, tuba. The sap can also be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy.
  • Apical buds of adult plants are edible and are known as "palm-cabbage" or heart-of-palm. It is considered a rare delicacy, as the act of harvesting the bud kills the palm. Hearts of palm are eaten in salads, sometimes called "millionaire's salad".
  • Ruku Raa is an extract from the young bud, a very rare type of nectar collected and used as morning break drink in the islands of Maldives reputed for its energetic power keeping the "raamen" (nectar collector) healthy and fit even over 80 and 90 years old. And by-products are sweet honey-like syrup and creamy sugar for desserts.
  • Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like consistency called coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes the developing embryo.
  • In the Philippines, rice is wrapped in coco leaves for cooking and subsequent storage - these packets are called puso.

A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... A bud sport is a part of a plant or tree — for example, a leaf, shoot or flower — which due to a genetic mutation clearly differs from the rest of the plant, and which can also be grafted to grow new plants which retain this genetic difference. ... Coconut water is the liquid endosperm inside young coconuts. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For Isotonic muscle exercise, see Isometric exercise and Weight training. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Nata de Coco, a high fiber, zero fat Filipino dessert. ... Coconut milk in a bowl. ... Coconut cream is an infusion of shredded coconut and water. ... The abbreviation, acronym, or initialism SAP has several different meanings: SAP AG, a German software company, or its various products such as SAP R/3 or SAP Business Information Warehouse second audio program (television) Session Announcement Protocol Soritong audio player Simple As Possible Computer Architecture Structural Adjustment Program of the... For other uses, see Palm wine (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Meristem. ... Heart of palm. ... For the plant, see Althaea (genus). ... Puso is a dish originating from the province of Cebu in the Philippines. ...

Non-culinary

Extracting the fibre from the husk (Sri Lanka).
Extracting the fibre from the husk (Sri Lanka).
  • Coconut water can be used as an intravenous fluid.[9]
  • Coir (the fibre from the husk of the coconut) is used in ropes, mats, brushes, caulking boats and as stuffing fibre; it is also used extensively in horticulture for making potting compost.
  • Coconut oil can be rapidly processed and extracted as a fully organic product from fresh coconut flesh[10], and used in many ways including as a medicine and in cosmetics, or as a direct replacement for diesel fuel.
  • Copra is the dried meat of the seed and, after further processing, is a source of low grade coconut oil.
  • The leaves provide materials for baskets and roofing thatch.
  • Palmwood comes from the trunk and is increasingly being used as an ecologically-sound substitute for endangered hardwoods. It has several applications, particularly in furniture and specialized construction (notably in Manila's Coconut Palace).
  • Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or even small canoes.
  • The husk and shells can be used for fuel and are a good source of charcoal.
  • Dried half coconut shells with husks are used to buff floors. In the Philippines, it is known as "bunot".
  • In the Philippines, dried half shells are used as a music instrument in a folk dance called maglalatik, a traditional dance about the conflicts for coconut meat within the Spanish era
  • Shirt buttons can be carved out of dried coconut shell. Coconut buttons are often used for Hawaiian Aloha shirts.
  • The stiff leaflet midribs can be used to make cooking skewers, kindling arrows, or are bound into bundles, brooms and brushes.
  • The roots are used as a dye, a mouthwash, and a medicine for dysentery. A frayed-out piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush.
  • Half coconut shells are used in theatre, banged together to create the sound effect of a horse's hoofbeats. They were used in this way in the Monty Python film Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
Making a rug from coconut fibre.
Making a rug from coconut fibre.
  • The leaves can be woven to create effective roofing materials, or reed mats.
  • Half coconut shells may be deployed as an improvised bra, especially for comedic effect or theatrical purposes. They were used in this way in the 1970s UK sitcom It Ain't Half Hot Mum for example.
  • Drained coconuts can be filled with gun powder and used as Improvised explosive devices.
  • In fairgrounds, a "coconut shy" is a popular target practice game, and coconuts are commonly given as prizes.
  • A coconut can be hollowed out and used as a home for a rodent or small bird. Halved, drained coconuts can also be hung up as bird feeders, and after the flesh has gone, can be filled with fat in winter to attract tits.
  • Fresh inner coconut husk can be rubbed on the lens of snorkelling goggles to prevent fogging during use.
  • Dried coconut leaves can be burned to ash, which can be harvested for lime.
  • Coconuts can be used as ammunition for homemade catapults.
  • Dried half coconut shells are used as the bodies of musical instruments, including the Chinese yehu and banhu, and the Vietnamese đàn gáo.
A wall made from coconut husks.
A wall made from coconut husks.
  • Coconut is also commonly used as a herbal remedy in Pakistan to treat bites from rats.
  • The "branches" (leaf petioles) are strong and flexible enough to make a switch. The use of coconut branches in corporal punishment was revived in the Gilbertese community on Choiseul in the Solomon Islands in 2005.[11]
  • In World War II, coastwatcher scout Biuki Gasa was the first of two from the Solomon Islands to reach the shipwrecked, wounded, and exhausted crew of Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 commanded by future U.S. president John F. Kennedy. Gasa suggested, for lack of paper, delivering by dugout canoe a message inscribed on a husked coconut shell. This coconut was later kept on the president's desk, and is now in the John F. Kennedy Library.
  • Coconut trunks are used for building small bridges, preferred for their straightness, strength and salt resistance

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (565x742, 157 KB) Summary A picture I took of how fibre is produced from coconuts in Sri Lanka sometime in the late 1990s. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (565x742, 157 KB) Summary A picture I took of how fibre is produced from coconuts in Sri Lanka sometime in the late 1990s. ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Look up cosmetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Copra drying in the sun Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Palmwood is the commercial name for the wood from the Coconut Palm Tree. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... The Coconut Palace is a palace in Manila, Philippines, built by former First Lady Imelda Marcos for Pope John Paul IIs visit. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Aloha shirts are usually adorned with repeating tropical patterns. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 film written and performed by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin), and directed by Gilliam and Jones. ... Image File history File links Srilanka_coconut_rug. ... Image File history File links Srilanka_coconut_rug. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... It Aint Half Hot Mum was a British sitcom about the adventures of a Royal Artillery Concert Party, broadcast between 1974 and 1981, and written by Jimmy Perry and David Croft, the creators of Dads Army. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... Ferris wheel Amusement park is the more generic term for a collection of amusement rides and other entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a fairly large group of people. ... A traditional coconut shy run by Albert Harris. ... Genera see text The tits, chickadees, and titmice, family Paridae, are a large family of small passerine birds which occur in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Drawing of a Roman ballista For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... Yehu is a Chinese stringed huqin family instrument used particularly in the South. ... Banhu is a huqin family instrument in China. ... The đàn gáo is a Vietnamese bowed string instrument with two strings. ... A switch is a flexible rod, typically used for corporal punishment of the birching type, called switching after it, especially when using a single branch: multiple branches are rather called a rod, a less flexible single rod is rather called a cane, an inflexible one a stick. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Captain Martin Clemens, Australian Coastwatcher on Guadalcanal, rendered services to Allied forces during the battle for the island (August, 1942-February, 1943). ... Buiki Gasa would be remembered as the man who found the shipwrecked John F. Kennedy and his PT-109 crew. ... PT-109 redirects here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ...

See also

Gelugu (coconut wood) in Klaten, Java
Gelugu (coconut wood) in Klaten, Java

This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Coconut cream is an infusion of shredded coconut and water. ... Coconut milk in a bowl. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Coconut water is the liquid endosperm inside young coconuts. ... Maypan is an F1 hybrid coconut palm tree that is resistant to Lethal Yellowing. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry: Cocos nucifera (pdf file)
  2. ^ Inquirer.net, Beetles infest coconuts in Manila, 26 provinces
  3. ^ Nutrition Facts and Information for Vegetable oil, coconut
  4. ^ Figueiredo, Cândido. Pequeno Dicionário da Lingua Portuguesa. Livraria Bertrand. Lisboa 1940. (in Portuguese)
  5. ^ Are 150 people killed each year by falling coconuts? The Straight Dope, 19 July 2002. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
  6. ^ Training without Reward: Traditional Training of Pig-Tailed Macaques as Coconut Harvesters, Mireille Bertrand, Science 27 January 1967: Vol. 155. no. 3761, pp. 484 - 486
  7. ^ Fife, Bruce (2005). Coconut Cures. Piccadilly Books, Ltd., 17. ISBN 0941599604. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  8. ^ Data sheet about delta-decalactone and its properties: http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/data/rw1013411.html
  9. ^ Campbell-Falck D, Thomas T, Falck TM, Tutuo N, Clem K (2000). "The intravenous use of coconut water". Am J Emerg Med 18 (1): 108–11. PMID 10674546. 
  10. ^ Direct Micro Expelling of Extra Virgin Coconut Oil, Kokonut Pacific Pty Ltd, accessed 4 January 2008
  11. ^ Corporal punishment on the Solomon Islands

is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Coconut-Info.com - the place for information on the health benefits of coconut products (515 words)
Coconut oil is rich in lauric acid, which is known for being anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-fungal.
Coconut oil is also being used by thyroid sufferers to increase body metabolism, and to lose weight.
Virgin coconut oil is also used for making natural soaps and other health products, as it is one of the healthiest things one can put on their skin.
CGIAR: Research & Impact: Areas of Research: Coconut (491 words)
Although coconut is a major crop in countries like the Philippines, Indonesia and India, many of the coconut producing countries are small islands in the Pacific, Indian Ocean and the Caribbean.
The main economic products derived from the coconut palm are the fruits or nuts, the copra, which is the dried solid endosperm of meat of the nut, the edible oil extracted from the copra, and desiccated coconut for which the endosperm is ground before drying.
Coconut plays an important role in sustaining fragile ecosystems in island and coastal communities and is used as a source of food, drink, fuel, animal feed and shelter.
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