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Encyclopedia > Cocoa
Cocoa beans in a cacao pod
Cocoa beans in a cacao pod

Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. "Cocoa" can often also refer to cocoa powder, the dry powder made by grinding cocoa seeds and removing the cocoa butter from the dark, bitter cocoa solids; or it may refer to the combination of both cocoa powder and cocoa butter together.[1] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The term Cocoa can refer to: Cocoa (theobroma cacao), a plant Cocoa (API), an API and programming environment for Mac OS X Cocoa (Internet Authoring for Kids), an Apple-designed development environment for kids Cocoa, Florida, a town in the United States CoCoA System, a computer algebra system CoCoA (Compilation... Description: Cocoa beans in a cacao pod. ... Description: Cocoa beans in a cacao pod. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Cocoa powder, also known as cocoa solids, is the nonfat component of chocolate after the fat, known as cocoa butter, has been separated. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Cocoa powder, also known as cocoa solids, is the nonfat component of chocolate after the fat, known as cocoa butter, has been separated. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ...


A cocoa pod has a rough leathery rind about 3 cm thick (this varies with the origin and variety of pod). It is filled with sweet, mucilaginous pulp called 'baba de cacao' in South America, enclosing 30 to 50 large almond-like seeds (beans) that are fairly soft and pinkish or purplish in color. Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Cocoa should not be confused with the coca plant which is used to create cocaine. Binomial name Lam. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...

Contents

History

The cacao tree may have originated in the foothills of the Andes in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of South America where today, examples of wild cacao still can be found. However, it may have had a larger range in the past, evidence for which may be obscured because of its cultivation in these areas long before, as well as after, the Spanish arrived. It may have been introduced into Central America by the ancient Mayas, and cultivated in Mexico by the Toltecs and later by the Aztecs. It was a common currency throughout MesoAmerica and the Caribbean before the Spanish conquests. This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... This article is about the river. ... For other uses, see Orinoco (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ...


Cacao trees will grow in a limited geographical zone, of approximately 20 degrees to the north and south of the Equator. Nearly 70% of the world crop is grown in West Africa.


Cocoa was an important commodity in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Spanish chroniclers of the conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés relate that when Montezuma II, emperor of the Aztecs, dined he took no other beverage than chocolate, served in a golden goblet and eaten with a golden spoon. Flavored with vanilla and spices, his chocolate was whipped into a froth that dissolved in the mouth. No fewer than 50 pitchers of it were prepared for the emperor each day, and 2000 more for nobles of his court. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Moctezuma II (also Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin) (1466-1520) was an Aztec ruler or tlatoani c. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Vanilla pods Vanilla is a flavouring derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


Chocolate was introduced to Europe by the Spaniards and became a popular beverage by the mid 1500s. They also introduced the cacao tree into the West Indies and the Philippines. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


The cacao plant was first given its botanical name by Swedish natural scientist Carolus Linnaeus in his original classification of the plant kingdom, who called it "Theobroma ("food of the gods") cacao". Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...


Production

World production

Top Cocoa Producers
in 2004
(million metric tons)
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 1.33
Flag of Ghana Ghana 0.74
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 0.43
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria 0.37
Flag of Brazil Brazil 0.17
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia 0.13
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador 0.09
World Total 3.6
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)
[1]
Cocoa bean output in 2005
Cocoa bean output in 2005

About 3,000,000 tonnes of cocoa is grown each year. The global production was Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cocoa bean output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Cote dIvoire - 1,286,330... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cocoa bean output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Cote dIvoire - 1,286,330... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ...

1,556,484 t in 1974,
1,810,611 t in 1984,
2,672,173 t in 1994,
3,607,052 t in 2004 (record).

This is an increase of 131.7% in 30 years.


There are three main varieties of the Theobroma cacao: Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario. The first comprises 95% of the world production of cacao, and is the most widely used. Overall, the highest quality of cacao comes from the Criollo variety and is considered a delicacy [2]; however, Criollo is harder to produce, hence very few countries produce it, with the majority of production coming from Venezuela (Chuao and Porcelana). The Trinitario is a mix between Criollo and Forastero [3].


The Netherlands is the leading cocoa processing country, followed by the U.S.. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Cocoa and its products (including chocolate) are used world-wide. Belgium had the highest per-capita consumption at 5.5 kg in 1995/96, 10 times the world average [2].


The world's largest cocoa bean producing countries are as follows. The figure gives the production estimates for the 2006/7 season from the International Cocoa Organization. The percentage is the proportion of the world's total of 3.5 million tonnes for the relevant period.[3]

Country Amount produced Percentage of world production
Côte d’Ivoire 1.3 million tonnes 37.4%
Ghana 720 thousand tonnes 20.7%
Indonesia 440 thousand tonnes 12.7%
Cameroon 175 thousand tonnes 5.0%
Nigeria 160 thousand tonnes 4.6%
Brazil 155 thousand tonnes 4.5%
Ecuador 118 thousand tonnes 3.4%
Dominican Republic 47 thousand tonnes 1.4%
Malaysia 30 thousand tonnes 0.9%

Look up Côte dIvoire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government Embassy of Côte dIvoire in Japan government information and links News allAfrica - Côte dIvoirenews headline links Overviews BBC News - Country Profile: Ivory Coast CIA World Factbook - Cote dIvoire Library of Congress Country Study...

Harvesting

Cocoa pods in various stages of ripening

When the pods ripen, they are harvested from the trunks and branches of the Cocoa tree with a curved knife on a long pole. The pod itself is green when ready to harvest, rather than red or orange. Normally, red or orange pods are considered of a lesser quality because their flavors and aromas are poorer; these are used for industrial chocolate. The pods are either opened on the field and the seeds extracted and carried to the fermentation area on the plantation, or the whole pods are taken to the fermentation area. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 505 KB) Photo by Medicaster. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 505 KB) Photo by Medicaster. ... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ...


Processing

The harvested pods are opened with a machete, the pulp and cocoa seeds are removed and the rind is discarded. The pulp and seeds are then piled in heaps, placed in bins, or laid out on grates for several days. During this time, the seeds and pulp undergo "sweating", where the thick pulp liquifies as it ferments. The fermented pulp trickles away, leaving cocoa seeds behind to be collected. Sweating is important for the quality of the beans, which originally have a strong bitter taste. If sweating is interrupted, the resulting cocoa may be ruined; if underdone the cocoa seed maintains a flavor similar to raw potatoes and becomes susceptible to mildew. This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ...


The liquified pulp is used by some cocoa producing countries to distill alcoholic spirits. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The fermented beans are dried by spreading them out over a large surface and constantly raking them. In large plantations, this is done on huge trays under the sun or by using artificial heat. Small plantations may dry their harvest on little trays or on cowhides. Finally, the beans are trodden and shuffled about (often using bare human feet) and sometimes, during this process, red clay mixed with water is sprinkled over the beans to obtain a finer color, polish, and protection against molds during shipment to factories in the United States, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and other countries. Drying in the sun is preferable to drying by artificial means, as no extraneous flavors such as smoke or oil are introduced which might otherwise taint the flavor. Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ... Cowhides are natural products and a by product of the food industry from cows. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Chocolate production

Chocolate
Chocolate
Main article: Chocolate#Production

To make 1 kg (2.2 pounds) of chocolate, about 300 to 600 beans are processed, depending on the desired cocoa content. In a factory, the beans are washed and roasted. Next they are de-hulled by a "nibber" machine that also removes the germ. The nibs are what is left of the bean after this process, and are ground between three sets of stones into a thick creamy paste, known as chocolate liquor. This "liquor" is separated into cocoa powder and cocoa fat (cocoa butter) using a hydraulic press or the Broma process. This process produces around 50% cocoa butter and 50% cocoa powder. Standard cocoa powder has a fat content of approximately 10-12 percent. Cocoa butter is used in chocolate bar manufacture, other confectionery, soaps, and cosmetics. Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... The germ is the heart of the cereal kernel, the embryo of the seed, and a concentrated source of several essential nutrients including Vitamin E, folate (folic acid), phosphorus, thiamin, zinc and magnesium. ... Chocolate liquor, also known as cocoa liquor and cocoa mass, is a smooth liquid form of chocolate. ... Cocoa powder, also known as cocoa solids, is the nonfat component of chocolate after the fat, known as cocoa butter, has been separated. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... The Broma process is a method used to remove cocoa butter from cacao beans. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Cocoa powder, also known as cocoa solids, is the nonfat component of chocolate after the fat, known as cocoa butter, has been separated. ... Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, edible natural vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Candy bar redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ...


Adding an alkali produces Dutch process cocoa powder, which is less acidic, darker and more mellow in flavor than what is generally available in most of the world. Regular (nonalkalized) cocoa is acidic, so when added to an alkaline ingredient like baking soda, the two react and leave a byproduct. Alkaline redirects here. ... Dutch process chocolate is chocolate that has been treated with an alkalizing agent to modify its color and give it a more mild flavor. ...


Problems in the use of cocoa as a commodity

There are several difficulties in the use of cocoa as a commodity. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cocoa farmers in many countries lack information on production and marketing practices to help them improve their livelihoods. Charities such as the World Cocoa Foundation helps to support sustainable cocoa efforts through public-private partnerships in cocoa growing regions. NGOs such as SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (http://www.snvworld.org / http://www.snvla.org) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (http://www.wbcsd.org) have created a strategic Alliance to broker inclusive business opportunities that are good for businesses and benefit low income communities (http://www.inclusivebusiness.org). One concrete business opportunity being pursued concerns the cocoa sector in Ecuador, which employs 120,000 producers in the country.


The Cocoa Producers' Alliance (COPAL) is an intergovernmental organization instituted in January 1962 by representatives of the governments of five cocoa producing countries in the city of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The founding members are Ghana, Nigeria, Brazil, Ivory Coast, and Cameroon. COPAL is guided by the Abidjan Charter. The headquarters is located in Lagos, Nigeria.


Child slavery has commonly been used in its production to cover the lower profit margin. According to the U.S. Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) in 'the worst forms of child labor' in 2002.[4] See Cocoa Protocol for an effort to end this practice. The Cocoa Protocol has been critiqued by a number of groups including the International Labor Rights Fund since it is an industry initiative which has failed to meet its goals of phasing out child labor in the industry. Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Child laborers coming out of a dye factory, Dhaka, Bangladesh Child labor is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... The Harkin-Engel Protocol, also known as the Cocoa Protocol is an agreement signed by the cocoa and chocolate industries to eliminate child slavery in their field. ... The Harkin-Engel Protocol, also known as the Cocoa Protocol is an agreement signed by the cocoa and chocolate industries to eliminate child slavery in their field. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Natural pollination is exclusively by midges, which may be affected by pesticides. Pollination is also carried out manually. Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Midges on a car Midges are small, two-winged flying insects. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


Many cocoa farmers receive a low price for their production. This has led to cocoa and chocolate being available as fairtrade items in some countries. However, this fair trade remains as a tiny percentage of the total trade. The fair trade movement promotes international agreements to enforce price supports for commodities, particularly those exported from poor countries to the industrialised West. ...


Cocoa trading

Cocoa beans, Cocoa butter and cocoa powder are traded on two world exchanges: London and New York. The London market is based on West African cocoa and New York on cocoa predominantly from South East Asia. Cocoa is the world's smallest soft commodity market. The futures price of cocoa butter and cocoa powder is determined by multiplying the bean price by a ratio. The combined butter and powder ratio has tended to be around 3.5. If the combined ratio falls below around 3.2, production ceases to be economically viable and some factories cease extraction of butter and powder and trade exclusively in cocoa liquor. soft commodity is a commodity such as coffee, cocoa, sugar and fruit. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Health benefits of cocoa consumption

Chocolate and cocoa contain a high level of flavonoids, specifically epicatechin, which may have beneficial cardiovascular effects on health[citation needed]. The ingestion of flavonol-rich cocoa is associated with acute elevation of circulating Nitrous oxide, enhanced flow-mediated vasodilation, and augmented microcirculation[5]. Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... The microcirculation is the blood flow through blood vessels smaller than 100 µm (i. ...


Prolonged intake of flavonol-rich cocoa has been linked to cardiovascular health benefits[citation needed], though it should be noted that this refers to plain cocoa. Milk chocolate's addition of whole milk reduces the overall cocoa content per ounce while increasing saturated fat levels, possibly negating some of cocoa's heart-healthy potential benefits. Nevertheless, studies have still found short term benefits in LDL cholesterol levels from dark chocolate consumption. [4] Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ...


Hollenberg and colleagues of Harvard Medical School studied the effects of cocoa and flavanols on Panama's Kuna Indian population, who are heavy consumers of cocoa. The researchers found that the Kuna Indians living on the islands had significantly lower rates of heart disease and cancer compared to those on the mainland who do not drink cocoa as on the islands. It is believed that the improved blood flow after consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa may help to achieve health benefits in hearts and other organs. In particular, the benefits may extend to the brain and have important implications for learning and memory. [5] [6]


Foods rich in cocoa appear to reduce blood pressure but drinking green and black tea may not, according to an analysis of previously published research in the April 9, 2007 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. [7]


Non-human animal consumption

Chocolate is a food product with appeal not only to the human population, but to many different animals as well. However, chocolate and cocoa contain a high level of xanthines, specifically theobromine and to a much lesser extent caffeine, that are detrimental to the health of many animals, including dogs and cats. While these compounds have desirable effects in humans, they cannot be efficiently metabolized in many animals and can lead to cardiac and nervous system problems, and if consumed in high quantities, even lead to death. However, since the mid-2000s, some cocoa derivatives with a low concentration of xanthines, have been designed by specialized industry to be suitable for pet consumption, enabling the pet food industry to offer animal safe chocolate and cocoa flavored products.[citation needed] It results in products with a high concentration of fiber and proteins, while maintaining low concentrations of sugar and other carbohydrates; thus enabling it to be used to create healthy functional cocoa pet products. Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic nutritional function of supplying nutrients, although there is no consensus on an exact definition of the term. ...


See also

For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Some chocolate-producing companies employ exploitative labor practices (notably enslavement of young males) in contemporary chocolate plantations in west Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.taunton.com/finecooking/articles/sorting-out-chocolate.aspx
  2. ^ Cocoa Beans Per Capita Consumption, www.fas.usda.gov, 1997
  3. ^ Top Cocoa Chocolate Exporters
  4. ^ U.S. Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2005 Human Rights Report on Côte d'Ivoire
  5. ^ http://www.webmd.com/content/article/17/1671_52817?src=Inktomi&condition=Diet%20&%20Nutrition

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cocoa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1095 words)
Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made.
In the United States, 'cocoa' often refers to cocoa powder, the dry powder made by grinding cocoa seeds and removing the cocoa butter from the dark, bitter cocoa solids.
The harvested pods are opened with a machete, the pulp and cocoa seeds are removed and the rind is discarded.
Cocoa (API) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2220 words)
Cocoa applications are typically developed using the development tools provided by Apple, specifically Xcode (formerly Project Builder) and Interface Builder, using the Objective-C language.
Cocoa also has a level of Internet support, including the NSURL and WebKit HTML classes, and others, while under OPENSTEP there was only rudimentary support for managed network connections through NSFileHandle classes and Berkeley sockets.
Cocoa's NSObject class, from which most classes, both vendor and user, are derived, implements a reference counting scheme for memory management.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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