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Encyclopedia > Cockatoo
Cockatoos
Umbrella Cockatoo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Cacatuidae
GR Gray, 1840
Subfamily

Microglossinae
Calyptorhynchinae
Cacatuinae A town in the Yarra Ranges, 50kms east of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, named after the Australian native bird found in large numbers in the area. ... Download high resolution version (500x754, 103 KB)Cockatoo (type unknown) at Combe Martin Wildlife and Dinosaur Park, North Devon, England. ... Binomial name Cacatua alba (Statius Muller, 1776) Umbrella Cockatoo The Umbrella Cockatoo or White Cockatoo , Cacatua alba, is a medium-sized cockatoo endemic to the islands of Halmahera, Bacan, Ternate, Tidore, Kasiruta and Mandiole in North Maluku, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Cacatuidae Psittacidae The order Psittaciformes (Parrots) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots. ... George Robert Gray (July 8, 1808 - May 6, 1872) was an English zoologist and author and head of the ornithological section of the British Museum in London for forty-one years. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Binomial name Probosciger aterrimus Gmelin, 1788 Australian Palm Cockatoo range (in red) subspecies The Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus, is a large black parrot of the cockatoo family and this species is unique in its kind. ...

A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. Along with the Psittacidae family (the true parrots), they make up the order Psittaciformes. The name cockatoo originated from the Malay name for these birds, kaka(k)tua (either from kaka "parrot" + tuwah, or "older sister" from kakak "sister" + tua, "old"[verification needed]). For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parrot. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Cacatuidae Psittacidae The order Psittaciformes (Parrots) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Kaka, see Kaka (disambiguation). ...


Cockatoos share many features with other parrots including the characteristic curved beak shape and a zygodactyl foot, with two forward toes and two backwards toes. They differ, however in a number of characteristics, including the often spectacular movable headcrest, the presence of a gall bladder and some other anatomical details, and their lack of the Dyck texture feather composition which causes the bright blues and greens seen in true parrots. Also Cockatoo species are, on average, larger than the average size of true parrots; however, the cockatiel, the smallest Cockatoo, is a small bird, and some of the largest parrots including the Hyacinth Macaw (the longest parrot) and the flightless Kakapo (the heaviest parrot), are true parrots. Placement of the cockatoos as a separate family is fairly undisputed, but it is not resolved whether or not other living lineages of parrots (such as the lories and lorikeets) are as distinct as they are. // In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal. ... The cockatiel - an example of a crested bird species Several bird species exhibit prominent feathered crests upon their heads. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Two feathers A single white feather Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Binomial name (Kerr, 1792) Cockatiel range (in red; all-year resident) Synonyms Psittacus hollandicus Kerr, 1792 Leptolophus hollandicus The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), also known as the Quarrion and the Weero, is a diminutive Cockatoo endemic to Australia and prized as a household pet. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) Native to the forests of central South America, the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest macaw and the largest flying parrot species in the world, though the flightless Kakapo of New Zealand can outweigh it at up to 3. ... Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to... Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lories and lorikeets are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots which comprise the subfamily Loriinae. ...


Cockatoos have a much more restricted range than the true parrots, occurring naturally only in Australia and nearby islands. Eleven of the 21 species exist in the wild only in Australia, while seven species occur in Indonesia, New Guinea, and other south Pacific islands. Three species occur in both New Guinea and Australia. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...

Contents

Cockatoos as endangered or vulnerable species

All species of cockatoo are protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (also known as CITES), which makes the import, export and trade in all wild-caught parrots and cockatoos illegal. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


The following cockatoo species are protected on the CITES appendix 1 list of endangered species.

  • Goffin's cockatoo, Cacatua goffini
  • Red-vented Cockatoo, Cacatua haematuropygia
  • Moluccan Cockatoo, Cacatua moluccensis
  • Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea
    • includes the subspecies, Citron-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata
  • Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus

All of the other cockatoo species are protected on the CITES appendix 2 list of vulnerable species. Binomial name (Finsch, 1863) The Goffins Cockatoo, Cacatua goffiniana also known as Tanimbar Cockatoo is a species of cockatoo native and endemic to forests of Banda Sea islands in Indonesia. ... Binomial name Cacatua haematuropygia (Statius Muller, 1776) The Red-vented Cockatoo, Cacatua haematuropygia, sometimes called the Philippine Cockatoo, is a cockatoo roughly the size and shape of the Goffins Cockatoo. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) Moluccan Cockatoo displaying The Moluccan Cockatoo, Cacatua moluccensis also known as Salmon-crested Cockatoo is a cockatoo endemic to south Moluccas in eastern Indonesia. ... Binomial name Cacatua sulphurea Gmelin, 1788 The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea also known as Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo is a medium-sized, up to 35cm long, cockatoo with an all-white feathers, bluish bare orbital skin, grey feet, black bill and yellow crest. ... Trinomial name Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata Fraser, 1844 The Citron-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata, is the smallest of the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoos subspecies, with an orange crest instead of the typical yellow of the other sulphur-crested cockatoo species. ... Binomial name Probosciger aterrimus Gmelin, 1788 Palm Cockatoo range (in red) The Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus, is a large black parrot of the cockatoo family. ...

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Systematics and evolution

Phylogeny of the family Cacatuidae based on Brown & Toft (1999)
Phylogeny of the family Cacatuidae based on Brown & Toft (1999)

Brown & Toft (1999) reviewed the existing evidence and additional mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence data to arrive at a well-supported phylogeny of the cockatoos. They could distinguish 3 subfamilies: Image File history File links Cockatoos. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... ...

  1. The all-black Palm Cockatoo represents distinct lineage that diverged early; it was previously sometimes grouped with the other black species but this is incorrect.
  2. The dark cockatoos; sexually dichromatic species which have ample melanin in their plumage and some red, yellow or orange on wing, tail and face, barred feathers on wing, tail and/or body as well as contrasting ear area spotting in females, while males have the corresponding feathers unbarred and may lack the ear spotting. This group includes the remaining black cockatoos, the Gang-gang Cockatoo and, interestingly, the cockatiel which had previously been placed in a subfamily of its own (Nymphicinae) or even as a broad-tailed parrot.
  3. The remaining species, which are all hypomelanistic and not sexually dimorphic.

The genera Calyptorhynchus and Cacatua can be further resolved into two subgenera each, and in the latter case as a distinct third lineage the white-and-pink Major Mitchell's Cockatoo, which is intermediate in coloration between the grey-and-pink Galah and the white Cacatua. It is best recognized as a monotypic genus Lophocroa. Indeed, pending further research, all subgenera could conceivably be raised to genus rank. Binomial name Probosciger aterrimus Gmelin, 1788 Palm Cockatoo range (in red) The Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus, is a large black parrot of the cockatoo family. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Binomial name Callocephalon fimbriatum (Grant, 1803) Gang-gang Cockatoo range (in red) The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum, is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine bushland. ... Binomial name (Kerr, 1792) Cockatiel range (in red; all-year resident) Synonyms Psittacus hollandicus Kerr, 1792 Leptolophus hollandicus The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), also known as the Quarrion and the Weero, is a diminutive Cockatoo endemic to Australia and prized as a household pet. ... Genera  Psephotus  Cyanoramphus  Lathamus  Barnarduis  Melopsittacus  Neophema  Neopsephotus  Northiella  Pezoporus  Platycercus  Purpureicephalus A broad-tailed parrot is any of about 35 species belonging to the subfamily Platycercinae. ... Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... Binomial name (Vigors, 1831) Major Mitchells Cockatoo range (in red) Synonyms Plyctolophus leadbeateri Vigors, 1831 Cacatua leadbeateri The Major Mitchells Cockatoo, Lophocroa leadbeateri also known as Leadbeaters Cockatoo or Pink Cockatoo is a medium-sized cockatoo restricted to arid and semi-arid inland areas of Australia. ... This article is about the bird species. ... Monotypic is an adjective, that refers to a taxonomic group with only one type: in botany it means that a taxon has only one species; Ginkgo is a monotypic genus, while Ginkgoaceae is a monotypic family. ...


Intron 7 of nuclear β-fibrinogen sequence data suggests that the Microglossinae may have diverged later, and that the cockatiel might be distinct enough to warrant recognition of the Nymphicinae (Astuti, 2004?), but in other aspects agrees with the rRNA and newly-interpreted morphological data. Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... Nuclear DNA is DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ...


The fossil record of cockatoos is even more limited than that of parrots in general, with only one truly ancient cockatoo fossil known: A species of Cacatua, most probably subgenus Licmetis, was found in Early Miocene (16-23 mya) deposits of Riversleigh, Australia (Boles, 1993). In Melanesia, subfossil bones of Cacatua species which apparently did not survive early human settlement were found on New Caledonia and New Ireland[citation needed]. The bearing of these fossils on cockatoo evolution and phylogeny is fairly limited, except that the Riversleigh fossil allows some tentative dating of the divergence of subfamilies. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Riversleigh, in North West Queensland, is a 100 km² area containing fossil remains of ancient mammals of the Oligocene and Miocene. ... Map showing Melanesia. ... Subfossil is attributed to bones or whole skeletons (and, in general all materials having living parts that can become fossil) whose fossilization process is not complete, either for lack of time or because the condition in which bones were buried were non optimal for fossilization. ... Location of New Ireland Province New Ireland (Tok Pisin: Niu Ailan) is a about 8,650 km² large island in Papua New Guinea. ...

A sulphur-crested cockatoo
A sulphur-crested cockatoo

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x743, 146 KB) Author Diego Trazzi, www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x743, 146 KB) Author Diego Trazzi, www. ...

Family Cacatuidae

  • Subfamily Microglossinae
  • Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae - dark cockatoos
    • Genus Callocephalon
      • Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum
    • Genus Nymphicus (tentatively placed here)
    • Genus Calyptorhynchus
      • Subgenus Calyptorhynchus - black-and-red cockatoos
        • Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus (Calyptorhynchus) banksii
        • Glossy Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus (Calyptorhynchus) lathami
      • Subgenus Zanda - black-and-yellow/white cockatoos
        • Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus (Zanda) funereus
        • Short-billed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus (Zanda) latirostris
        • Long-billed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus (Zanda) baudinii
    • Genus Eolophus
      • Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla
  • Subfamily Cacatuinae - white cockatoos
    • Genus Cacatua
      • Subgenus Cacatua - true white cockatoos
        • Leadbeater's aka Major Mitchell's Cockatoo, Cacatua leadbeateri
        • Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) galerita
        • Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) sulphurea
          • Citron-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) sulphurea citrinocristata
        • Blue-eyed Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) ophthalmica
        • Moluccan Cockatoo or Salmon-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) moluccensis
        • Umbrella Cockatoo, Cacatua (Cacatua) alba
      • Subgenus Licmetis - corellas

save the cookatoos by sending money to the zoos e.c.t tronger zoo Binomial name Probosciger aterrimus (Gmelin, 1788) The Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus, is a large black parrot of the cockatoo family. ... Binomial name Probosciger aterrimus Gmelin, 1788 Palm Cockatoo range (in red) The Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus, is a large black parrot of the cockatoo family. ... Binomial name Callocephalon fimbriatum Grant, 1803 Gang-gang Cockatoo range (in red) The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum, is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine bushland. ... Binomial name Callocephalon fimbriatum (Grant, 1803) Gang-gang Cockatoo range (in red) The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum, is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine bushland. ... Binomial name Nymphicus hollandicus (Kerr, 1792) The Cockatiel, Nymphicus hollandicus, is a small, rather atypical cockatoo with a distinctive pointed yellow crest. ... Binomial name (Kerr, 1792) Cockatiel range (in red; all-year resident) Synonyms Psittacus hollandicus Kerr, 1792 Leptolophus hollandicus The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), also known as the Quarrion and the Weero, is a diminutive Cockatoo endemic to Australia and prized as a household pet. ... Subgenus Calyptorhynchus Zanda The genus Calyptorhynchus has five species and is the only genus of the subfamily Calyptorhynchinae. ... Binomial name Calyptorhynchus banksii Latham, 1790 Red-tailed Black Cockatoo range (in red) The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus banksii, is a large cockatoo native to Australia. ... Binomial name Calyptorhynchus lathami Temminck, 1807 Glossy Black Cockatoo range (in red) The Glossy Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami) is the smallest member of the subfamily Calyptorhynchus found in Australia. ... Subgenus Calyptorhynchus Zanda The genus Calyptorhynchus has five species and is the only genus of the subfamily Calyptorhynchinae. ... Binomial name Shaw, 1794 Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo range (in red) Subspecies The Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus funereus, is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of Australia. ... Binomial name Calyptorhynchus latirostris Carnaby, 1948 The Short-billed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris is a cockatoo endemic to south-western Australia. ... Binomial name Calyptorhynchus baudinii Lear, 1832 The Long-billed Black Cockatoo or White-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) is a cockatoo endemic to south-western Australia. ... Binomial name Eolophus roseicapilla (Vieillot, 1817) The Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla, is one of the most common and widespread cockatoos. ... This article is about the bird species. ... Subfamily Microglossinae Calyptorhynchinae Cacatuinae Nymphicinae A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Binomial name (Vigors, 1831) Major Mitchells Cockatoo range (in red) Synonyms Plyctolophus leadbeateri Vigors, 1831 Cacatua leadbeateri The Major Mitchells Cockatoo, Lophocroa leadbeateri also known as Leadbeaters Cockatoo or Pink Cockatoo is a medium-sized cockatoo restricted to arid and semi-arid inland areas of Australia. ... Binomial name Cacatua galerita Latham, 1790 Australian Sulphur-crested Cockatoo range (in red) The Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita, is one of the larger and more widespread of Australias cockatoos. ... Binomial name Cacatua sulphurea Gmelin, 1788 The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea also known as Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo is a medium-sized, up to 35cm long, cockatoo with an all-white feathers, bluish bare orbital skin, grey feet, black bill and yellow crest. ... Trinomial name Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata Fraser, 1844 The Citron-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata, is the smallest of the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoos subspecies, with an orange crest instead of the typical yellow of the other sulphur-crested cockatoo species. ... Binomial name Cacatua ophthalmica Sclater, 1864 The Blue-eyed Cockatoo, Cacatua ophthalmica, is a cockatoo. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) Moluccan Cockatoo displaying The Moluccan Cockatoo, Cacatua moluccensis also known as Salmon-crested Cockatoo is a cockatoo endemic to south Moluccas in eastern Indonesia. ... Binomial name Cacatua alba (Statius Muller, 1776) Umbrella Cockatoo The Umbrella Cockatoo or White Cockatoo , Cacatua alba, is a medium-sized cockatoo endemic to the islands of Halmahera, Bacan, Ternate, Tidore, Kasiruta and Mandiole in North Maluku, Indonesia. ... Licmetis is the name given to a subgenus of the White Cockatoos Cacatua. ... Binomial name Kuhl, 1820 Long-billed Corella range (in red) The Long-billed Corella, Cacatua tenuirostris, is a cockatoo native to Australia. ... Binomial name Cacatua pastinator (Gould , 1841) The Western Corella, Cacatua pastinator, is a cockatoo endemic to Australia. ... Binomial name Cacatua sanguinea Gould, 1843 The Little Corella, Cacatua sanguinea, is a white cockatoo native to Australia; it is sometimes called the bare eyed cockatoo. ... Binomial name Cacatua haematuropygia (Statius Muller, 1776) The Red-vented Cockatoo, Cacatua haematuropygia, sometimes called the Philippine Cockatoo, is a cockatoo roughly the size and shape of the Goffins Cockatoo. ... Binomial name (Finsch, 1863) The Goffins Cockatoo, Cacatua goffiniana also known as Tanimbar Cockatoo is a species of cockatoo native and endemic to forests of Banda Sea islands in Indonesia. ... Binomial name Cacatua ducorpsii (Pucheran, 1853) The Ducorps Cockatoo (Cacatua ducorpsii) is a species of cockatoo endemic to the Solomon Islands. ...


Popular culture

Cockatoos often have pronounced responses to musical sounds, and numerous videos exist showing the birds "dancing" to popular music, although it is not known if their musical perception is any different from that of other birds. A search with the terms "dancing cockatoo" yields over 200 results on YouTube, mostly by private owners.


References

  • Astuti, Dwi (2004?): A phylogeny of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes) inferred from DNA sequences of the seventh intron of nuclear β-fibrinogen gene. Doctoral work, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Japan. PDF fulltext
  • Boles, W.E. (1993): A new cockatoo (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae) from the Tertiary of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, and an evaluation of rostral characters in the systematics of parrots. Ibis 135: 8-18.
  • Brown, D.M. & Toft, C.A. (1999): Molecular systematics and biogeography of the cockatoos (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae). Auk 116(1): 141-157.

Ibis (ISSN print 0019-1019; online 1474-919X), subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists Union. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cacatuidae
  • MyToos.com - site pertaining to cockatoo ownership

  Results from FactBites:
 
San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Cockatoo (1025 words)
Cockatoos differ from other parrots not only because of their crests but also because they are mostly fl or white (with a few notable exceptions, such as the gray and pink galah Eolophus roseicapillus).
Cockatoos also do not have oil glands, but they do produce a fine powder that is the result of the breakdown of special downy feathers.
In fact, certain species of Indonesian cockatoos are thought to be extinct in the wild because of trapping for the pet trade.
Cockatoo (493 words)
Major Mitchell's Cockatoo has been universally acclaimed as the most beautiful of the cockatoos and among the most beautiful of all parrots.
Like other cockatoos they have the habit of stripping leaves and bark from trees in which they are roosting.
Major Mitchell's cockatoos feed on the seed of grasses and herbaceous plants, nuts, fruits, berries and roots.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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