FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Cocaine" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cocaine
Cocaine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3- (benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate
Identifiers
CAS number 50-36-2
ATC code N01BC01 R02AD03, S01HA01, S02DA02
PubChem 5760
DrugBank APRD00080
Chemical data
Formula C17H21NO4 
Mol. mass 303.353 g/mol
Physical data
Melt. point 195 °C (383 °F)
Solubility in water 1800 mg/mL (20 °C)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Oral: 33%
Nasal: 19% (11%–26%)[1]
Metabolism Hepatic CYP3A4
Half life 1 hour
Excretion Renal (benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C Cocaine has several meanings Cocaine, a drug Cocaine (drink), an highly caffeinated energy drink that does not contain the drug cocaine Cocaine (song), a blues song by J.J. Cale, later covered by Eric Clapton Crack Epidemic, a time period Category: ... Image File history File links Cocaine-2D-skeletal. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Controlled (S8)(AU) Schedule I(CA) Class A(UK) Schedule II(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Dependence Liability High
Routes Topical, Oral, Insufflation, IV, PO

Cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is both a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant. Specifically, it is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Because of the way it affects the mesolimbic reward pathway, cocaine is addictive. Nevertheless, cocaine is used in medicine as a topical anesthetic, even in children, specifically in eye, nose and throat surgery. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Insufflation (Latin insufflatio blowing on or into) is the practice of inhaling substances into a body cavity. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants, are substances which reduce the desire to eat (anorectic, from the Greek an- = not and oreg- = extend, reach). Used on a short term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over the counter. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its negative consequences. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Eye surgery in the middle ages. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


Its possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in virtually all parts of the world. Although its free commercialization is illegal and has been severely penalized in virtually all countries, its use worldwide remains widespread in many social, cultural, and personal settings.

Contents

History

Coca leaf

For a thousand years, South American indigenous peoples have chewed the coca leaf (Erythroxylon coca), a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including cocaine. The leaf was, and is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities—ancient Peruvian mummies have been found with the remains of coca leaves, and pottery from the time period depicts humans, cheeks bulged with the presence of something on which they are chewing.[2] However, it should be noted that there is much evidence that its habitual use has led to negative consequences generally associated with habitual cocaine use today.[3][4] There is also evidence that these cultures used a mixture of coca leaves and saliva as an anesthetic for the performance of trepanation.[5] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... http://www. ... 18th century French illustration of trepanation Trepanation (also known as trepanning, trephination, trephining or burr hole) is a form of surgery in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases, though in the...

The coca plant, Erythroxylon coca.
The coca plant, Erythroxylon coca.

When the Spaniards conquered South America, they at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil. But after discovering that these claims were true, they legalized and taxed the leaf, taking 10% off the value of each crop. These taxes were for a time the main source of support for the Roman Catholic Church in the region.[citation needed] In 1569, Nicholas Monardes described the practice of the natives of chewing a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves to induce "great contentment": This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

[...when they wished to] make themselves drunk and [...] out of judgment [they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which ...] make them go as they were out of their wittes [...]

[6]


In 1609, Padre Blas Valera wrote: // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Padre (pronounced ) is a commonly used term for a military chaplain in the American, Australian Army, British, French and the Canadian Forces. ... Italic textBold textBold textItalic textlink title Headline text Media:Example. ...

Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots. And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Isolation

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855 . Many scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, worsened because coca does not grow in Europe and ruins easily during travel. Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in 1855 . Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archives de Pharmacie. A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... The German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke was the first person to isolate the cocaine alkaloid which happened in 1855. ...


In 1856, Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer, a scientist aboard the Novara (an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe), to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. In 1859 , the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann, a Ph.D. student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Karl von Scherzer, around 1857 Karl von Scherzer (sometimes written Carl -, May 1, 1821 in Vienna - February 19, 1903 in Görz, today Gorizia, Italy) was an Austrian explorer and natural scientist. ... Image of frigate Novara from expedition report Voyage of the Austrian Frigate Novara around the Earth (1861–1876) The name Novara refers to multiple ocean-going vessels, including: the frigate SMS Novara that sailed the globe for the Novara Expedition of 1857–1859 and, later, carried Archduke Maximillian and wife... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph I (in English also Francis Joseph) ( August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ...


Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern (On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves), which was published in 1860—it earned him his Ph.D. and is now in the British Library. He wrote of the alkaloid's “colourless transparent prisms” and said that, “Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.” Niemann named the alkaloid “cocaine”—as with other alkaloids its name carried the “-ine” suffix (from Latin -ina). This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ... The coca plant, Erythroxylon coca. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in 1898.[7] The synthesis started from tropinone, a related natural product and took five steps. Richard Willstätter Richard Martin Willstätter (August 13, 1872 – August 3, 1942) was a German chemist whose study of the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. ... tropinone is an alkaloid, synthesised in 1917 by Robert Robinson as a synthetic precursor to atropine, a scarce commodity during World War I . In organic chemistry the synthesis is considered a milestone in total synthesis. ...


Medicalisation

With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to jump upon and exploit the possible uses of this plant.


In 1879, Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg, devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly-discovered alkaloid. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently than the leg that had been immersed in salt water.[8] Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... [ recorded in this] The University of Würzburg is a university in Würzburg, Germany, founded in 1402. ...


Carl Koller (a close associate of Sigmund Freud, who would write about cocaine later) experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. In an infamous experiment in 1884 , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins. His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in 1884, Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. In 1885, William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia,[9] and James Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia.[10] 1898 saw Heinrich Quincke use cocaine for Spinal anaesthesia. Karl Koller (1857-1944) was an Austrian ophthalmologist who began his medical career as a surgeon at the Vienna General Hospital, and was a colleague of Sigmund Freud. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke (* 26 August 1842 in Frankfurt (or); †   19. ... Spinal anaesthesia is a form of local, or more specifically regional, anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), generally through a long fine needle. ...


Popularization

In 1859, an Italian doctor, Paolo Mantegazza, returned from Peru, where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the natives. He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence, [and] whitening of the teeth.” Paolo Mantegazza (1831-1910) was a prominent Italian neurologist. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ...

Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hipflask of Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.
Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hipflask of Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza’s paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In 1863, Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani, which had been treated with coca leaves. The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink’s effect. It contained 6 mg cocaine per ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani, which was to be exported, contained 7.2 mg per ounce to compete with the higher cocaine content of similar drinks in the United States. A “pinch of coca leaves” was included in John Styth Pemberton's original 1886 recipe for Coca-Cola, though the company began using decocainized leaves in 1906 when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. The only known measure of the amount of cocaine in Coca-Cola was determined in 1902 as being as little as 1/400 of a grain (0.2 mg) per ounce of syrup (6 ppm)[citation needed]. The actual amount of cocaine that Coca-Cola contained during the first twenty years of its production is practically impossible to determine. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate... Gold Medal is an album by American band The Donnas, released in 2004. ... Advertising bill for the wine Mariani, lithograph of Jules Cheret, 1894 Angelo Mariani or Ange-François Mariani was a French chemist born at Pero-Casevecchie in Corsica in 1832. ... Advertising bill for the wine Mariani, lithograph of Jules Cheret, 1894 Angelo Mariani or Ange-François Mariani was a French chemist born at Pero-Casevecchie in Corsica in 1832. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Advertising bill for the wine Mariani, lithograph of Jules Cheret, 1894 Vin Mariani (french meaning Marianis wine) is a tonic created around 1863 by Angelo Mariani. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... This is an article about the United States Food and Drug Act; for the Canadian version see Food and Drugs Act. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anaesthetic in Germany in 1884 , about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca, in which he wrote that cocaine causes: This article is about the drug. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...

...exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person...You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work....In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug....Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue...This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcohol....Absolutely no craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug...
Cocaine, the fast-acting anesthetic.
Cocaine, the fast-acting anesthetic.

In 1885 the U.S. manufacturer Parke-Davis sold cocaine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user’s veins with the included needle. The company promised that its cocaine products would “supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ... render the sufferer insensitive to pain.” cocaine tooth drops This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... cocaine tooth drops This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Parke-Davis was a pharmaceutical company which was previously a subsidiary of Warner-Lambert prior to Warner-Lamberts acquisition by Pfizer in 2000. ...


By the late Victorian era cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature, for example as the cucaine injected by Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional Sherlock Holmes. The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ...


In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee, cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street, costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers.[11] For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Beale Street is a street in Memphis, Tennessee and a significant location in African-American history and the history of the blues. ...


In 1909, Ernest Shackleton took “Forced March” brand cocaine tablets to Antarctica, as did Captain Scott a year later on his ill-fated journey to the South Pole.[12] Even as late as 1938 , the Larousse Gastronomique was published carrying a recipe for “cocaine pudding”. Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer who was knighted for the success of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition under his command. ... Captain Sir Robert Falcon Scott (June 6, 1868 - March 29, 1912) was a British Naval officer and Antarctic explorer. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Larousse Gastronomique is the most respected of all the food encyclopedias, produced by the French publishing company founded by Pierre Larousse (1817-1875). ...


Prohibition

By the turn of the twentieth century, the addictive properties of cocaine had become clear to many, and the problem of cocaine abuse began to capture public attention in the United States. The dangers of cocaine abuse became part of a moral panic that was tied to the dominant racial and social anxieties of the day. In 1903, the American Journal of Pharmacy stressed that most cocaine abusers were “bohemians, gamblers, high- and low-class prostitutes, night porters, bell boys, burglars, racketeers, pimps, and casual laborers.” In 1914, Dr. Christopher Koch of Pennsylvania’s State Pharmacy Board made the racial innuendo explicit, testifying that, “Most of the attacks upon the white women of the South are the direct result of a cocaine-crazed Negro brain.” Mass media manufactured an epidemic of cocaine use among African Americans in the Southern United States to play upon racial prejudices of the era, though there is little evidence that such an epidemic actually took place. In the same year, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act outlawed the use of cocaine in the United States. This law incorrectly referred to cocaine as a narcotic, and the misclassification passed into popular culture. As stated above, cocaine is a stimulant, not a narcotic. Moral panic is a sociological term, coined by Stanley Cohen, meaning a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was an American law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, distribution and use of opiates. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ...


Modern usage

In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market. Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late 1990s and early 2000s in the U.S., and has become much more popular in the last few years in the UK. Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. Cocaine in its various forms comes in second only to cannabis as the most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States, and is number one in street value sold each year.[citation needed] Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


The estimated U.S. cocaine market exceeded $35 billion in street value for the year 2003, exceeding revenues by corporations such as AT&T and Starbucks[citation needed]. There is a tremendous demand for cocaine in the U.S. market, particularly among those who are making incomes affording luxury spending, such as single adults and professionals with discretionary income. Cocaine’s status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the “party crowd”. USD redirects here. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... For other uses of Starbuck, see Starbuck. ... Look up Luxury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Club drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are popular at dance clubs, parties, and rock concerts. ...


In 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken. However, a decision in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study. In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative threatened that "If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed". This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study has been recuperated.[13] Available are profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries. WHO redirects here. ... The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, commonly known as UNICRI is a UN entity formed in 1967. ... The World Health Assembly is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 192 member states. ... WHO redirects here. ...


A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue (rather than increase euphoria) by long-term users is trauma caused by the compounds used in adulteration. Cutting or "stamping on" the drug is commonplace, using compounds which simulate ingestion effects, such as Novocain (procaine) producing temporary anaesthaesia, ephedrine producing an increased heart rate, or more dangerously, strong toxins to produce vasodilatory effects. For example a nosebleed is incorrectly regarded by heavy users as a sign of purity. The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity. Cocaine trading carries large penalties in most jurisdictions, so user deception about purity and consequent high profits for dealers are the norm.


Pharmacology

Appearance

A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A piece of compressed cocaine powder
A piece of compressed cocaine powder

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt, typically cocaine hydrochloride (CAS 53-21-4). Street market cocaine is frequently adulterated or “cut” with various powdery fillers to increase its weight; the substances most commonly used in this process are baking soda; sugars, such as lactose, dextrose, inositol, and mannitol; and local anesthetics, such as lidocaine or benzocaine, which mimic or add to cocaine's numbing effect on mucous membranes. Cocaine may also be "cut" with other stimulants such as methamphetamine.[14] Adulterated cocaine is often a white, off-white or pinkish powder. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 4577 KB) Summary Cocaine powder Taken from a US government Web site. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 4577 KB) Summary Cocaine powder Taken from a US government Web site. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 664 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 740 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Disclaimer: Only the photograph is mine, I am not in possession of the subject matter. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 664 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 740 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Disclaimer: Only the photograph is mine, I am not in possession of the subject matter. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... Inositol, (of which the most prominent naturally-occurring form is myo-inositol, cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol), is a carbocyclic polyol that plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, including inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol... Mannitol or hexan-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol (C6H8(OH)6) is an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


The color of “crack” cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation – with ammonia or baking soda – and the presence of impurities, but will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base. It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a solid, smokeable form of cocaine and is a highly addictive drug popular for its intense psychoactive high. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ...


Forms of cocaine

Cocaine sulfate

Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene. This is often accomplished by placing the ingredients into a vat and stomping on them, in a manner similar to the traditional method for crushing grapes. A more popular method in modern times is to form a makeshift "vat" by spreading a heavy nylon tarp on the floor of an enclosed area and shred the leaves with a gas-powered weed trimmer. This method is fast, and not only shreds the leaves, but results in bruising and fragmenting of the remaining pieces, aiding the extraction process. After the maceration is completed, the water is evaporated to yield a pasty mass of impure cocaine sulfate. The sulfate salt itself is an intermediate step to producing cocaine hydrochloride. Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ...


Freebase

Main article: Freebase (chemistry)

As the name implies, “freebase” is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form of cocaine hydrochloride. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride is extremely soluble in water, cocaine base is insoluble in water and is therefore not suitable for drinking, snorting or injecting. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride is not well-suited for smoking because the temperature at which it vaporizes is very high and close to the temperature at which it burns, cocaine base vaporizes at a much lower temperature, which makes it suitable for inhalation. Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Vaporization redirects here. ...


Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance (a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create). Methylecgonidine is a methylated form of cocaine in much the same way that crystal meth is a methylated form of amphetamine. Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [3] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue [4] and liver tissue. [5] Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Methamphetamine is a synthetic stimulant drug which induces a strong feeling of euphoria and is highly psychologically addictive. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ...


Smoking freebase is preferred by many users[citation needed] because the cocaine is absorbed immediately into blood via the lungs, reaching the brain in about five seconds. The rush is much more intense than snorting the same amount of cocaine nasally, but the effects do not last as long. The peak of the freebase rush is over almost as soon as the user exhales the vapor, but the high typically lasts 5–10 minutes afterward. What makes freebasing particularly dangerous is that users typically do not wait that long for their next hit and will continue to smoke freebase until none is left. These effects are similar to those that can be achieved by injecting or “slamming” cocaine hydrochloride, but without the risks associated with intravenous drug use (though there are other serious risks associated with smoking freebase). For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Freebase cocaine is produced by first dissolving cocaine hydrochloride in water. Once dissolved in water, cocaine hydrochloride (Coc-HCl) dissociates into the protonated cocaine ion (Coc-H+) and the chloride ion (Cl). Any solids that remain suspended in the solution are impurities from the cut and are removed by filtration. A base, typically ammonia (NH3), is added to the solution. The following net acid-base reaction takes place: Protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ...

Coc-H+ + NH3 → Coc + NH4+

As freebase cocaine (Coc) is insoluble in water, it precipitates and the solution becomes cloudy. To recover the freebase in the "traditional" manner, diethyl ether is added to the solution. Since freebase is highly soluble in ether, a vigorous shaking of the mixture results in the freebase being dissolved in the ether. As ether is practically insoluble in water, it can be siphoned off. The ether is then left to evaporate, leaving behind the nearly pure freebase. This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Handling diethyl ether is dangerous because ether is extremely flammable; its vapors are heavier than air and can "creep" from an open bottle, and in the presence of oxygen it can form peroxides, which can spontaneously combust. Comedian Richard Pryor has performed a skit poking fun at himself for a 1980 incident in which he caused an explosion and ignited himself attempting to smoke "freebase", presumably while still wet with ether (though his ex-wife Jennifer Lee Pryor said that he poured high-proof rum over his body and torched himself in a drug psychosis). Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Diethyl ether peroxides are a class of organic peroxides that slowly form in diethyl ether upon storage under air, light, or in the presence of metal by autoxidation. ... Richard Franklin Lennox Thomas Pryor III (December 1, 1940 – December 10, 2005) was an American comedian, actor, and writer. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Amphetamine psychosis is a form of psychosis which can result from amphetamine or methamphetamine use. ...


Crack cocaine

Main article: Crack cocaine

In its creation process, due to the dangers of using ether to produce pure freebase cocaine, cocaine producers began to omit the step of removing the freebase cocaine precipitate from the ammonia mixture. Typically, filtration processes are also omitted. The end result of this process is that the cut, in addition to the ammonium salt (NH4Cl), remains in the freebase cocaine after the mixture is evaporated. The “rock” that is thus formed also contains a small amount of water. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is also preferred in preparing the freebase, for when commonly "cooked" the ratio is 50/50 to 40/60% cocaine/bicarbonate. This acts as a filler which extends the overall profitability of illicit sales. Crack cocaine may be reprocessed in small quantities with water (users refer to the resultant product as "cookback"). This removes the residual bicarbonate, and any adulterants or cuts that have been used in the previous handling of the cocaine and leaves a relatively pure, anhydrous cocaine base. A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a solid, smokeable form of cocaine and is a highly addictive drug popular for its intense psychoactive high. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ...


When the rock is heated, this water boils, making a crackling sound (hence the onomatopoetic “crack”). Baking soda is now most often used as a base rather than ammonia for reasons of lowered stench and toxicity; however, any weak base can be used to make crack cocaine. Strong bases, such as sodium hydroxide, tend to hydrolyze some of the cocaine into non-psychoactive ecgonine. The sound of hitting a ball can be described as Whack. In rhetoric, linguistics and poetry, onomatopoeia is a figure of speech that employs a word, or occasionally, a grouping of words, that imitates, echoes, or suggests the object it is describing, such as bang, click, fizz, hush or buzz... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... Ecgonine (C9H15NO3), is an organic chemical most known for its relation to cocaine: it is both a metabolite and a precursor, and as such, it is a controlled substance, as are all substances which can be used as precursors to ecgonine itself. ...


Chewed/eaten

Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek (much in the same as chewing tobacco is chewed) and sucked of its juices. The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf state that coca leaf consumption should not be criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance (such as lime) can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion. Therefore, this is an actual additional form of administration of cocaine, albeit an inefficient one. Chewing tobacco is a smokeless tobacco product. ...


Orally administered cocaine takes approximately 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Typically, only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained approximately 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion. While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approximately 60 minutes after their peak is attained. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ...


Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: 30 to 60%. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Snorting cocaine produces maximum physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes, however, a more realistic activation period is closer to 5 to 10 minutes, which is similar to ingestion of cocaine. Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40 - 60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.[15]


Mate de coca or coca-leaf infusion is also a traditional method of consumption and is often recommended in coca producing countries, like Peru and Bolivia, to ameliorate some symptoms of altitude sickness. This method of consumption has been practiced for many centuries by the native tribes of South America. One specific purpose of ancient coca leaf consumption was to increase energy and reduce fatigue in messengers who made multi-day quests to other settlements. Coca tea. ... Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), altitude illness, or soroche, is a pathological condition that is caused by acute exposure to low air pressure (usually outdoors at high altitudes). ...


In 1986 an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed that U.S. health food stores were selling dried coca leaves to be prepared as an infusion as “Health Inca Tea.”[16] While the packaging claimed it had been “decocainized,” no such process had actually taken place. The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation, increased heart rate, and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless. Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii, Chicago, Illinois, Georgia, and several locations on the East Coast of the United States, and the product was removed from the shelves. JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ... --76. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A persons emotional mood is a measurable affective state, which can consist of a combination of emotions. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Insufflation

Insufflation (known colloquially as "snorting," "sniffing," or "blowing") is the most common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine in the Western world. Cocaine is not inhaled using this method. The drug coats and is absorbed through the mucous membranes lining the sinuses. When insufflating cocaine, absorption through the nasal membranes is approximately 30–60%, with higher doses leading to increased absorption efficiency. Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others). In a study[17] of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 14.6 minutes. Any damage to the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels – and therefore blood and oxygen/nutrient flow – to that area. Insufflation (Latin insufflatio blowing on or into) is the practice of inhaling substances into a body cavity. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mucus cells. ...


Prior to insufflation, cocaine powder must be divided into very fine particles. Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms "chunks," which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.


Rolled up banknotes, hollowed-out pens, cut straws, pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernails, and (clean) tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine. Such devices are often called "tooters" by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror) and divided into "bumps", "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.[18] The amount of cocaine in a line varies widely from person to person and occasion to occasion (the purity of the cocaine is also a factor), but one line is generally considered to be a single dose and is typically 35 mg (a "bump") to 100 mg (a "rail").[citation needed] As tolerance builds rapidly in the short-term (hours), many lines are often snorted to produce greater effects. For current exchange rates, see exchange links. ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... A drink with a pink bendy straw Plastic drinking straws The drinking straw is a device used for transferring a liquid - usually a drink from one location to another (such as from a cup, to your mouth). ... A cocaine spoon, referred to as a coke spoon, or simply spoon, is an instrument used in the process of insufflating (snorting, sniffing) cocaine. ... This article discusses the anatomical nail. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ...


A study by Bonkovsky and Mehta published in Am Acad Dermatol (2001 Feb;44(2):159-82) reported that, just like shared needles, the sharing of straws used to "snort" cocaine can spread blood diseases such as Hepatitis C.[19] This page is for the disease. ...


Injected

Drug injection provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. Upon injection, cocaine reaches the brain in a matter of seconds, and the exhilarating rush that follows can be so intense that it induces some users to vomit uncontrollably.[citation needed] In a study[17] of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3.1 minutes. The euphoria passes quickly. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substances, there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ...


An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin, known as “speedball” is a particularly popular and dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. It has been responsible for numerous deaths, particularly in and around Los Angeles, including celebrities such as John Belushi, Chris Farley (in Chicago), Mitch Hedberg (in North NJ) River Phoenix and Layne Staley (in Seattle). For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Speedballing is a term commonly referring to the intravenous use of heroin (or morphine) and cocaine together in the same needle. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... John Adam Belushi (January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982) was an Emmy Award-winning American comedian, actor and musician, notable for his work on Saturday Night Live, National Lampoons Animal House and The Blues Brothers. ... Christopher Crosby Farley (February 15, 1964 – December 18, 1997) was an American comedian and actor. ... Mitchell Lee Hedberg (February 24, 1968 – March 29, 2005) was an American stand-up comedian known for his surreal humour and unconventional comedic delivery. ... River Jude Phoenix (August 23, 1970 – October 31, 1993) was an Academy Award- and Golden Globe-nominated American film actor. ... Layne Thomas Staley (August 22, 1967 - ca. ...


Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.[20]


Smoked

See also: Crack cocaine above.

Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from "Love roses," small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts. These are sometimes called "stems", "horns", "blasters" and "straight shooters". A small piece of clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad – often called a "brillo" (actual Brillo pads contain soap, and are not used), or "chore", named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads, – serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the "rock" can be melted and boiled to vapor. In a pinch, crack smokers sometimes smoke though a soda can with small holes in the bottom instead of a crack pipe. Also, the bottoms of small glass liquor bottles can be removed, and the bottles neck can then be stuffed with chore to use as a makeshift crack pipe. For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Brillo soap pads Brillo Pad is a trade name for a scouring pad, used for cleaning dishes, and made from steel wool impregnated with soap. ... Name brand for a coarse scouring pad made of steel or copper wool. ... The aluminum can (North American English spelling) or aluminium can (other English spelling) is a popular beverage container introduced by the Coors Brewing Company. ...


Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is then inhaled by the smoker. The effects, felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do not last long – usually five to fifteen minutes. In a study[17] performed on crack cocaine users, the average time taken for them to reach their peak subjective "high" was 1.4 minutes. Most (especially frequent) users crave more immediately after the peak. "Crack houses" depend on these cravings by providing a place for smoking crack to its users, and a ready supply of small bags for sale. Crack house is an off campus residence in Northfield, Minnesota housing students of Carleton College and migrant roofers. ...


When smoked, cocaine is sometimes combined with other drugs, such as cannabis, often rolled into a joint or blunt. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on marijuana. Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Example of a blunt rolled with a Garcia Vega cigar A blunt is a type of inexpensive cigar which is usually machine rolled such as Swisher Sweets, Garcia y Vega, Phillie Blunts, White Owls, or Dutch Masters. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ...


The language referring to paraphernalia and practices of smoking cocaine vary across the United States, as do the packaging methods in the street level sale.


Coca leaf infusions

Coca herbal infusion (also referred to as Coca tea) is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers. Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions (prepared in tea pots with whole coca leaves) purportedly to help the newly-arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness. The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift. It does not produce any significant numbing of the mouth nor does it give a rush like snorting cocaine. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different. An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Two cups of coca tea Coca tea, also called mate de coca, is a tisane (tea) made using the leaves of the coca plant. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470...



It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used -in addition to counseling- to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima, Peru. Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment. The duration of abstinence increased from an average of 32 days prior to treatment to 217 days during treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.[21] Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids. For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ...


The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine of people a few hours after drinking one cup of coca leaf infusion. Benzoylecgonine is the major metabolite of cocaine. ...


Oral

Cocaine has been used medically and informally as an oral anesthetic. Many users rub the powder along the gum line, or onto a cigarette filter which is then smoked, which numbs the gums and teeth - hence the colloquial names of "numbies", "gummies" or "cocoa puffs" for this type of administration. This is mostly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation. Another oral method is to wrap up some cocaine in rolling paper and swallow it. This is sometimes called a "snow bomb."


Physical mechanisms

The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin:dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5[22]) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein. Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.e., the transporter binds the transmitter and pumps it out of the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic neuron, where it is taken up into storage vesicles. Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function. The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the extracellular space (synaptic cleft). This results in an enhanced and prolonged post-synaptic effect of dopaminergic signaling at dopamine receptors on the receiving neuron. Prolonged exposure to cocaine, as occurs with habitual use, leads to homeostatic dysregulation of normal (i.e. without cocaine) dopaminergic signaling via down-regulation of dopamine receptors and enhanced signal transduction. The decreased dopaminergic signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g. enhanced dopaminergic signalling only when cocaine is self-administered). This sensitization contributes to the intractable nature of addiction and relapse. In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The dopamine transporter or DAT is a monoamine transporter that is specific for clearing the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft and into a glial cell or the presynaptic neuron. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as...


Dopamine-rich brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex are frequent targets of cocaine addiction research. Of particular interest is the pathway consisting of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area that terminate in the nucleus accumbens. This projection may function as a "reward center", in that it seems to show activation in response to drugs of abuse like cocaine in addition to natural rewards like food or sex.[23] While the precise role of dopamine in the subjective experience of reward is highly controversial among neuroscientists, the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is widely considered to be at least partially responsible for cocaine's rewarding effects. This hypothesis is largely based on laboratory data involving rats that are trained to self-administer cocaine. If dopamine antagonists are infused directly into the nucleus accumbens, well-trained rats self-administering cocaine will undergo extinction (i.e. initially increase responding only to stop completely) thereby indicating that cocaine is no longer reinforcing (i.e. rewarding) the drug-seeking behavior. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ...


Cocaine's effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) show across multiple serotonin receptors, and is shown to inhibit the re-uptake of 5-HT3 specifically as an important contributor to the effects of cocaine. The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.[24] The 5-HT2 receptor (particularly the subtypes 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2BR and 5-HT2CR) show influence in the evocation of hyperactivity displayed in cocaine use.[25] The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, a family that also includes the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and the inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors for GABA (both GABAA and GABAC receptors) and glycine. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types including smooth muscle in animals, and mediate the... Hyperactivity can be described as a state in which a person is abnormally easily excitable and exuberant. ...


Sigma receptors are effected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist.[26] Further specific receptors it has been demonstrated to function on are NMDA and the D1 dopamine receptor.[27] Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. ... NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) is an amino acid derivative acting as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor, and therefore mimics the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. ...


Cocaine also blocks sodium channels, thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials; thus, like lignocaine and novocaine, it acts as a local anesthetic. Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction, thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures. The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra. Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms[28] and clock genes[29] in behavioral actions of cocaine. Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Lidocaine (INN) or lignocaine (former BAN) is a popular local anesthetic often used in dentistry or topically. ... Procaine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic used primarily in dentistry. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ...


Because nicotine increases the levels of dopamine in the brain, many cocaine users find that consumption of tobacco products during cocaine use enhances the euphoria. This, however, may have undesirable consequences, such as uncontrollable chain smoking during cocaine use (even users who do not normally smoke cigarettes have been known to chain smoke when using cocaine), in addition to the detrimental health effects and the additional strain on the cardiovascular system caused by tobacco. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Chain smoking is the practice of lighting a new cigarette for personal consumption immediately after one that is finished, sometimes using the finished cigarette to light the next one. ... A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ...


In addition to irritability, mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory hallucinations, crack can cause several dangerous physical conditions. It can lead to disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks, as well as chest pains or even respiratory failure. In addition, strokes, seizures and headaches are common in heavy users.


Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.


Metabolism and excretion

Cocaine is extensively metabolized, primarily in the liver, with only about 1% excreted unchanged in the urine. The metabolism is dominated by hydrolytic ester cleavage, so the eliminated metabolites consist mostly of benzoylecgonine, the major metabolite, and in lesser amounts ecgonine methyl ester and ecgonine. Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Benzoylecgonine is the major metabolite of cocaine. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ...


If taken with alcohol, cocaine combines with the ethanol in the liver to form cocaethylene, which is both more euphorigenic and some studies suggest a higher cardiovascular toxicity than cocaine by itself[citation needed]. It is precisely this characteristic that has prompted heavily inebriated persons, since the early 20th century, to snort cocaine to relieve them of the depressive effects of alcohol abuse. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Cocaethylene is the chemical that is formed when cocaine and alcohol mix inside the body. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Benzoylecgonine can be detected in urine within four hours after cocaine intake and remains detectable in concentrations greater than 150 ng/ml typically for up to eight days after cocaine is used. Detection of accumulation of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.


Effects and health issues

Acute

Data from The Lancet shows Cocaine to be the 2nd most dependent and 2nd most harmful of 20 drugs.
Data from The Lancet shows Cocaine to be the 2nd most dependent and 2nd most harmful of 20 drugs.

Cocaine is a potent central nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from 20 minutes to several hours, depending upon the dosage of cocaine taken, purity, and method of administration. The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ...


The initial signs of stimulation are hyperactivity, restlessness, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate and euphoria. The euphoria is sometimes followed by feelings of discomfort and depression and a craving to experience the drug again. Sexual interest and pleasure can be amplified. Side effects can include twitching, paranoia, and impotence, which usually increases with frequent usage. A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


With excessive dosage the drug can produce itching, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Overdoses cause tachyarrhythmias and a marked elevation of blood pressure. These can be life-threatening, especially if the user has existing cardiac problems. For other uses, see Itch (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... Formication is a tactile hallucination that insects or snakes are crawling over or under the skin. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ...


The LD50 of cocaine when administered to mice is 95.1 mg/kg.[30] Toxicity results in seizures, followed by respiratory and circulatory depression of medullar origin. This may lead to death from respiratory failure, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, or heart-failure. Cocaine is also highly pyrogenic, because the stimulation and increased muscular activity cause greater heat production. Heat loss is inhibited by the intense vasoconstriction. Cocaine-induced hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction and myoglobinuria resulting in renal failure. Emergency treatment often consists of administering a benzodiazepine sedation agent, such as diazepam (Valium) to decrease the elevated heart rate and blood pressure. Physical cooling (ice, cold blankets, etc...) and paracetamol(acetaminophen) may be used to treat hyperthermia, while specific treatments are then developed for any further complications.[31] There is no officially approved specific antidote for cocaine overdose, and although some drugs such as dexmedetomidine and rimcazole have been found to be useful for treating cocaine overdose in animal studies, no formal human trials have been carried out. An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Hyperthermia in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. ... Myoglobinuria is the presence of myoglobin in the urine, usually associated to rhabdomyolysis or muscle destruction. ... Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... Dexmedetomidine is a sedative medication used by intensive care units and anesthesiologists. ...


In cases where a patient is unable or unwilling to seek medical attention, cocaine overdoses resulting in mild-moderate tachycardia (i.e.: a resting pulse greater than 120 bpm), may be initially treated with 20 mg of orally administered diazepam or equivalent benzodiazepine (eg: 2mg lorazepam). Acetaminophen and physical cooling may likewise be used to reduce mild hyperthermia (<39 C). However, a history of high blood pressure or cardiac problems puts the patient at high risk of cardiac arrest or stroke, and requires immediate medical treatment. Similarly, if benzodiazepine sedation fails to reduce heart rate or body temperatures fails to lower, professional intervention is necessary.[32][33][34] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Cocaine's primary acute effect on brain chemistry is to raise the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the nucleus accumbens (the pleasure center in the brain); this effect ceases, due to metabolism of cocaine to inactive compounds and particularly due to the depletion of the transmitter resources (tachyphylaxis). This can be experienced acutely as feelings of depression, as a "crash" after the initial high. Further mechanisms occur in chronic cocaine use. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Studies have shown that cocaine usage during pregnancy triggers premature labor[35] and may lead to abruptio placentae.[36]


Cocaine can cause coronary artery spasms which lead to a myocardial infarction. This effect can happen randomly to any user. The coronary artery spasms can occur on the users first usage or any other usage after. The coronary spasms cause the ectopic ventricular foci of the heart to become hypoxic and the extreme irritability can trigger life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Heart attack redirects here. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ...


Chronic

Chronic cocaine intake causes brain cells to adapt functionally to strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes. Thus, receptors disappear from the cell surface or reappear on it, resulting more or less in an "off" or "working mode" respectively, or they change their susceptibility for binding partners (ligands) – mechanisms called down-/upregulation. Chronic cocaine use leads to a DATS upregulation,[verification needed] further contributing to depressed mood states. However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.[37] Physical withdrawal is not dangerous, and is in fact restorative. The experience of insatiable hunger, aches, insomnia/oversleeping, lethargy, and persistent runny nose are often described as very unpleasant. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons. Down regulation is the process by which a cell decreases the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to reduce its sensitivity to this molecule. ... Upregulation is the process by which a cell increases the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to improve its sensitivity to this molecule. ... The Vesicular Monoamine Transporter is a transport protein located within the presynaptic cell. ...


All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect. The lack of normal amounts of serotonin and dopamine in the brain is the cause of the dysphoria and depression felt after the initial high. The diagnostic criteria for cocaine withdrawal are characterized by a dysphoric mood, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, erectile dysfunction, increased appetite, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and anxiety.


Cocaine abuse also has multiple physical health consequences. It is associated with a lifetime risk of heart attack that is 6% higher than that of non-users. During the hour after cocaine is used, heart attack risk rises 24-fold.[38] Heart attack redirects here. ... Heart attack redirects here. ...


Side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pruritus, fever, diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophiliachest, pain, lung trauma, shortness of breath, sore throat, asthma, hoarse voice, dyspnea, and an aching, flu-like syndrome. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism, which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.[39] Dyspnea (R06. ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... A profile of a smile, exhibiting significant wear, especially on the maxillary incisors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils (the septum nasi), leading eventually to its complete disappearance. Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.[1] Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. ... The septum nasi is actually the central bone in the nose, separating the two nostrils. ...


Cocaine may also greatly increase this risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus, Goodpasture's disease, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and other diseases.[40][41][42][43] It can also cause a wide array of kidney diseases and renal failure.[44][45] While these conditions are normally found in chronic use they can also be caused by short term exposure in susceptible individuals. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. ... Goodpasture’s syndrome (also known as Goodpasture’s disease and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease or anti-GBM disease) was first described by Ernest Goodpasture in 1919. ... In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis and abbreviated GN, is a primary or secondary immune-mediated renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. ... Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and life-threatening condition. ...


Cocaine abuse doubles both the risks of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes.[46]


Years after the abuse has ended, many ex-abusers report a noticeably reduced attention span. Attention span is the amount of time a person can concentrate on a single activity. ...


Cocaine as a local anesthetic

Cocaine was historically useful as a topical anesthetic in eye and nasal surgery, although it is now predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery. The major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's intense vasoconstrictor activity and potential for cardiovascular toxicity. Cocaine has since been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anaesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine, lignocaine/xylocaine/lidocaine, and tetracaine though it remains available for use if specified. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine. In Australia it is currently prescribed for use as a local anesthetic for conditions such as mouth and lung ulcers. Some ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, which is placed in the nostril for the 10-15 minutes immediately prior to the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized and also vasoconstriction. Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. Lacrimal apparatus of the right eye. ... A vasoconstrictor, also vasopressor or simply pressor, is any substance that acts to cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of the lumena of blood vessels) and usually results in an increase of the blood pressure. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever. ... A topical eye anesthetic is a topical anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of the eye. ... Lidocaine (INN) or lignocaine (former BAN) is a popular local anesthetic often used in dentistry or topically. ... Lidocaine (INN) or lignocaine (former BAN) is a popular local anesthetic often used in dentistry or topically. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Tetracaine (INN, also known as amethocaine; trade name Pontocaine) is a potent local anesthetic of amino ester group. ... Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and to increase blood pressure. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ... For other uses, see ENT. Ents are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Cauterization is a medical term describing the burning of the body to remove or close a part of it. ...


Etymology

The word "cocaine" was made from "coca" + the suffix "-ine"; from its use as a local anaesthetic a suffix "-caine" was extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anaesthetics. For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ...


Current Prohibition

The production, distribution and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine is additionally regulated by the 1970 Controlled Substances Act. The production, the distribution and the sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population, but nevertheless prohibit the production, sale and consumption of cocaine. For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


Some parts of Europe and Australia allow processed cocaine for medicinal uses only. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In certain countries in the Middle East and Asia, such as Singapore, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia, being in possession of cocaine can be punishable by death.[citation needed] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Interdiction

In 2004, according to the United Nations, 589 metric tons of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Colombia seized 188 tons, the United States 166 tons, Europe 79 tons, Peru 14 tons, Bolivia 9 tons, and the rest of the world 133 tons.[47] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ...


Illicit trade

Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is commonly transported.
Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is commonly transported.

Because of the extensive processing it undergoes during preparation, cocaine is generally treated as a 'hard drug', with severe penalties for possession and trafficking. Demand remains high, and consequently black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves, are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form. The scale of the market is immense: 770 tonnes times $100 per gram retail = up to $77 billion. Hard and soft drugs are loose categories of psychoactive drugs. ... Binomial name Erythroxylum coca Lam. ...


Production

By 1999, Colombia had become the world's leading producer of cocaine. Three-quarters of the world's annual yield of cocaine was produced there, both from cocaine base imported from Peru (primarily the Huallaga Valley) and Bolivia, and from locally grown coca. There was a 28% increase from the amount of potentially harvestable coca plants which were grown in Colombia in 1998 . This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mid-1990s. Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade. Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use. Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. The cultivation of coca has become an attractive, and in some cases even necessary, economic decision on the part of many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the persistence of worldwide demand, the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, and the spread of new strains of the coca plant. Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Huallaga Valley is located in northern Peru, south of Tarapoto. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ...

Estimated Andean Region Coca Cultivation and Potential Pure Cocaine Production, 2000–2004.[48]
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Net Cultivation (km²) 1875 2218 2007.5 1663 1662
Potential Pure Cocaine Production (tonnes) 770 925 830 680 645

This article is about the metric tonne. ...

Synthesis

Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry, as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine. However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done. Formation of inactive enantiomers and synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.


Note, names like 'synthetic cocaine' and 'new cocaine' have been misapplied to phencyclidine (PCP) and various designer drugs. “Angel Dust” redirects here. ... Designer drug is a term to used to describe psychoactive drugs which are created (or marketed, if they had already existed) to get around existing drug laws by modifying their molecular structures to varying degrees. ...


Trafficking and distribution

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. Most cocaine is grown and processed in South America, particularly in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and smuggled into the United States and Europe, where it is sold at huge markups; usually in the US at $50-$75 for 1 gram (or a "fitty rock"), and $125-200 for 3.5 grams (1/8th of an ounce, or an "eight ball"). Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America are generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico. The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U.S.–Mexico border. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States are in Arizona, southern California, southern Florida, and Texas. Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U.S.-Mexico border. Sixty Five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.[49] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as “mules” (or “mulas”), who cross a border either legally, e.g. through a port or airport, or illegally through undesignated points along the border. The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. If he or she is caught however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking by him/herself. Plain radiograph of the abdomen of a mule A mule or courier is someone who smuggles something with him or her (as opposed to sending by mail, etc. ...


Cocaine traffickers from Colombia, and recently Mexico, have also established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug. The traffickers use a variety of smuggling techniques to transfer their drug to U.S. markets. These include airdrops of 500–700 kg in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico, mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of 500–2,000 kg, and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of The Bahamas is an independent English_speaking nation in the West Indies. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Commonwealth of The Bahamas is an independent English_speaking nation in the West Indies. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ...


Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western CaribbeanGulf of Mexico area. These vessels are typically 150–250-foot (50–80 m) coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2.5 tonnes. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats, as those used by the local populations. West Indies redirects here. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... // A go-fast is the preferred boat of many smugglers. ...


Bales of cocaine washed up on the beaches of Cornwall February 28.[50] For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sophisticated submarine-like boats are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on March 20, 2008. Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.[51] is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sales to consumers

Cocaine is readily available in all major countries' metropolitan areas. According to the Summer 1998 Pulse Check, published by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy, cocaine use had stabilized across the country, with a few increases reported in San Diego, Bridgeport, Miami, and Boston. In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper and provides a longer-lasting high. Numbers of cocaine users are still very large, with a concentration among urban youth. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... “Bridgeport” redirects here. ... Miami redirects here. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


In addition to the amounts previously mentioned, cocaine can be sold in "bill sizes": for example, $10 might purchase a "dime bag," a very small amount (0.1–0.15 g) of cocaine. Twenty dollars might purchase .15–.3 g. However, in lower Texas its sold cheaper due to it being easier to recieve. A dime for $10 is .4g, a 20 is .8 or a gram and a 8-ball (3.5g) is sold for $60 to $80 dollars depending on the quality and dealer. These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one's body. Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region.[52]

Wraps of cocaine. Wraps are used to distribute cocaine by street-level dealers.
Wraps of cocaine. Wraps are used to distribute cocaine by street-level dealers.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 716 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Low quality picture of wraps of cocaine in London. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 716 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Low quality picture of wraps of cocaine in London. ...

Consumption

World annual cocaine consumption currently stands at around 600 metric tons, with the United States consuming around 300 metric tons, 50% of the total, Europe about 150 metric tons, 25% of the total, and the rest of the world the remaining 150 metric tons or 25%.[53] A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006 World Drug Report, the United States has the world's greatest rate of cocaine consumption by people aged 15 to 64, 2.8%. It is closely followed by Spain with 2.7%, and England & Wales with 2.4%. Most Western European countries have a consumption rate between 1% and 2%.[54] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ...


Usage

According to a 2007 United Nations report, Spain is the country with the highest rate of cocaine usage (3.0% of adults in the previous year).[55] Other countries where the usage rate meets or exceeds 1.5% are the United States (2.8%), England and Wales (2.4%), Canada (2.3%), Italy (2.1%), Bolivia (1.9%), Chile (1.8%), and Scotland (1.5%).[55] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


In the United States

General usage

Cocaine has become the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the U.S. (behind marijuana).[56] Cocaine is commonly used in middle to upper class communities. It is also popular amongst college students, not just to aid in studying, but also as a party drug. Its users span over different ages, races, and professions. In the 1970s and 80's, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio 54. Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about the music genre. ... The original Studio 54 logo. ...


The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) reported in 1999 that cocaine was used by 3.7 million Americans, or 1.7% of the household population age 12 and older. Estimates of the current number of those who use cocaine regularly (at least once per month) vary, but 1.5 million is a widely accepted figure within the research community.


Although cocaine use had not significantly changed over the six years prior to 1999, the number of first-time users went up from 574,000 in 1991, to 934,000 in 1998 – an increase of 63%. While these numbers indicated that cocaine is still widely present in the United States, cocaine use was significantly less prevalent than it was during the early 1980s. Cocaine use peaked in 1982 when 10.4 million Americans (5.6% of the population) reportedly used the drug.[citation needed]


Usage among youth

The 1999 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey found the proportion of American students reporting use of powdered cocaine rose during the 1990s. In 1991, 2.3% of eighth-graders stated that they had used cocaine in their lifetime. This figure rose to 4.7% in 1999. For the older grades, increases began in 1992 and continued through the beginning of 1999. Between those years, lifetime use of cocaine went from 3.3% to 7.7% for tenth-graders and from 6.1% to 9.8% for high school seniors. Lifetime use of crack cocaine, according to MTF, also increased among eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-graders, from an average of 2% in 1991 to 3.9% in 1999. Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Monitoring the Future is an annual survery given to 50,000 8th, 10th and 12th graders in the United States to determine drug use trends and patterns. ...


Perceived risk and disapproval of cocaine and crack use both decreased during the 1990s at all three grade levels. The 1999 NHSDA found the highest rate of monthly cocaine use was for those aged 18–25 at 1.7%, an increase from 1.2% in 1997. Rates declined between 1996 and 1998 for ages 26–34, while rates slightly increased for the 12–17 and 35+ age groups. Studies also show people are experimenting with cocaine at younger ages. NHSDA found a steady decline in the mean age of first use from 23.6 years in 1992 to 20.6 years in 1998.


Addiction

Main article: Cocaine dependence

Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine. It can result in physiological damage, lethargy, psychosis, depression, or a potentially fatal overdose. Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine. ... Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Pagliaro, Louis; Ann Marie Pagliaro (2004). Pagliaros’ Comprehensive Guide to Drugs and Substances of Abuse. Washington, D.C.: American Pharmacists Association. ISBN 1582120668. 
  2. ^ Altman AJ, Albert DM, Fournier GA (1985). “Cocaine’s use in ophthalmology: our 100-year heritage”. Surv Ophthalmol 29: 300–307. 
  3. ^ A. Barnett, R. Hawks, and R. Resnick (1981). “Cocaine Pharmacokinetics in Humans”. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology 3: 353–366. 
  4. ^ A. Weil (1981). “The Therapeutic Value of Coca in Contemporary Medicine”. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology 3: 367–376. 
  5. ^ Gay GR, Inaba DS, Sheppard CW and Newmyer JA (1975). “Cocaine: History, epidemiology, human pharmacology and treatment. A perspective on a new debut for an old girl”. Clinical Toxicology 8: 149–178. 
  6. ^ Monardes, Nicholas; Translated into English by J. Frampton (1925). Joyfull Newes out of the Newe Founde Worlde. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf. 
  7. ^ Andrew J. Humphrey and David O'Hagan. Tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. A century old problem unresolved. Natural Products Reports 2001, 18, 494-502.doi:10.1039/b001713m
  8. ^ Yentis SM, Vlassakov KV (1999). “Vassily von Anrep, forgotten pioneer of regional anesthesia”. Anesthesiology 90: 890–895. 
  9. ^ Halsted W (1885). “Practical comments on the use and abuse of cocaine”. New York Medical Journal 42: 294–295. 
  10. ^ Corning JL (1885). “An experimental study”. New York Medical Journal 42: 483. 
  11. ^ Barlow, William. "Looking Up At Down": The Emergence of Blues Culture. Temple University Press (1989), p. 207. ISBN 0-87722-583-4.
  12. ^ Streatfeild, Dominic (2003). Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography. Picador. ISBN 0312422261. 
  13. ^ WHO/UNICRI (1995). WHO Cocaine Project.
  14. ^ Psychedelic Chemistry: Cocaine. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  15. ^ G. Barnett, R. Hawks and R. Resnick, "Cocaine Pharmacokinetics in Humans," 3 Journal of Ethnopharmacology 353 (1981); Jones, supra note 19; Wilkinson et al., Van Dyke et al.
  16. ^ Siegel RK, Elsohly MA, Plowman T, Rury PM, Jones RT (January 3, 1986). “Cocaine in herbal tea”. Journal of the American Medical Association 255 (1): 40. 
  17. ^ a b c Nora D. Volkow et al. (August 2000). "Effects of route of administration on cocaine induced dopamine transporter blockade in the human brain". Life Sciences 67 (12): 1507–1515. PMID 10983846. 
  18. ^ cesar.umd.edu - Cocaine terminology
  19. ^ www.erowid.org - Cocaine, Bits & Pieces
  20. ^ Dimitrijevic N, Dzitoyeva S, Manev H (August 2004). “An automated assay of the behavioral effects of cocaine injections in adult Drosophila”. J Neurosci Methods 137 (2): 181–184. 
  21. ^ Teobaldo, Llosa (1994). “The Standard Low Dose of Oral Cocaine: Used for Treatment of Cocaine Dependence”. Substance Abuse 15 (4): 215–220. 
  22. ^ Rothman, et al. "Amphetamine-Type Central Nervous System Stimulants Release Norepinepehrine more Potently than they Release Dopamine and Serotonin." (2001): Synapse 39, 32-41 (Table V. on page 37)
  23. ^ Spanagel R, Weiss F (1999). "The dopamine hypothesis of reward: past and current status". Trends Neurosci. 22 (11): 521–7. PMID 10529820. 
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ Contribution of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2 receptor subtypes to the hyperlocomotor effects of cocaine: Acute and chronic pharmacological analyses - Filip et al., 10.1124/jpet.104.068841 - Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics
  26. ^ Sigma Receptors Play Role In Cocaine-induced Suppression Of Immune System
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ Uz T, Akhisaroglu M, Ahmed R, Manev H (2003). "The pineal gland is critical for circadian Period1 expression in the striatum and for circadian cocaine sensitization in mice.". Neuropsychopharmacology 28 (12): 2117-23. PMID 12865893. 
  29. ^ McClung C, Sidiropoulou K, Vitaterna M, Takahashi J, White F, Cooper D, Nestler E (2005). "Regulation of dopaminergic transmission and cocaine reward by the Clock gene.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102 (26): 9377-81. PMID 15967985. 
  30. ^ Bedford JA, Turner CE, Elsohly HN (1982). “Comparative lethality of coca and cocaine”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 17 (5): 1087–1088. 
  31. ^ Cocaine Overdose.
  32. ^ Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose: Specific Drugs and Poisons.
  33. ^ Clinical predictors of leak after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity..
  34. ^ Cocaine Drug Use and Dependence: Merck Manual Professional..
  35. ^ (October 1993) "Cocaine triggers premature labor". USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education). 
  36. ^ Flowers D, Clark JFJ, Westney LS (1991). “Cocaine intoxication associated with abruptio placentae”. Journal of the National Medical Association 83 (3): 230–232. 
  37. ^ Biological Psychiatry By H. A. H. D'haenen, Johan A. den Boer, Paul Willner
  38. ^ Vascia, Gabriella; Christopher C. Tennant (2002). Cocaine use and cardiovascular complications. MJA 177 (5): 260-262. 
  39. ^ Baigent, Michael (2003). Physical complications of substance abuse: what the psychiatrist needs to know. Curr Opin Psychiatry 16 (3): 291-296. 
  40. ^ scienceblog.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  41. ^ Trozak D, Gould W (1984). "Cocaine abuse and connective tissue disease.". J Am Acad Dermatol 10 (3): 525. PMID 6725666. 
  42. ^ Ramón Peces; Rafael A. Navascués; José Baltar; Miguel Seco; Jaime Alvarez (1999). "Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody-Mediated Glomerulonephritis after Intranasal Cocaine Use". Nephron 81 (4): 434–438. PMID 10095180. 
  43. ^ Patricia M Moore; Bruce Richardson (July 1998). "Neurology of the vasculitides and connective tissue diseases" 65 (1): 10–22. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. PMID 9667555. 
  44. ^ Jared A. Jaffe; Paul L. Kimmel (2006). "Chronic Nephropathies of Cocaine and Heroin Abuse: A Critical Review". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1 (4). American Society of Nephrology. 
  45. ^ Fokko J. van der Woude (March 2000). "Cocaine use and kidney damage". Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 15 (3): 299-301. Oxford University Press. PMID 10692510. 
  46. ^ MedlinePlus: Stroke a risk for cocaine, amphetamine abusers. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.[dead link]
  47. ^ "Cocaine: Seizures, 1998–2003", World Drug Report 2006, vol. 2, New York: United Nations, 2006, <http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_chap4_cocaine.pdf>
  48. ^ NDIC (2006). "National Drug Threat Assessment 2006".
  49. ^ Jacobson, Robert. "Illegal Drugs: America's Anguish". Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006
  50. ^ Cocaine galore in Cornwall. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  51. ^ Coast Guard hunts drug-running semi-subs. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.
  52. ^ "Pricing powder", The Economist, June 28, 2007, Prices: USA around $110/g, Israel/ Germany/ Britain around $46/g, Colombia $2/g, New Zealand recordbreaking $714.30/g
  53. ^ The Cocaine Threat: A Hemispheric Perspective, United States Department of Defense, <http://www.dod.mil/policy/sections/policy_offices/solic/cn/cocaine2.pdf>
  54. ^ World Drug Report 2006, vol. 2, New York: United Nations, 2006, <http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_volume2.pdf>
  55. ^ a b World Drug Report 2007, New York: United Nations, 2007, <http://www.unodc.org/pdf/research/wdr07/WDR_2007.pdf>, p243.
  56. ^ erowid.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.

The American Pharmaceutical Association (previously known as the American Pharmaceutical Association) is a professional society of pharmacists within the United States. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), established in 1993, is a component of the U.S. Department of Justice and a member of the Intelligence Community. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Coca eradication is a controversial strategy strongly promoted by the United States government as part of its War on Drugs to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine. ... A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive form of cocaine that is popular for its intense high. ... Crack Cocaine The crack epidemic refers to a six year period between 1984 and 1990 in the United States during which there was a huge surge in the use of crack cocaine in major cities, and crack-houses all over the USA. Fallout from the crack epidemic included a huge... Cuscohygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid found in coca. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drugs and prostitution are related in that some drug addicts, most commonly heroin or crack cocaine users, obtain their drugs primarily through prostitution. ... See Also Cocaine Methylecgonine cinnamate Truxilline Hydroxytropacocaine Tropacocaine Ecgonine Cuscohygrine Dihydrocuscohygrine Hygrine ... The Great Binge is a term used by historians to describe the period between 1870 and 1914 when various drugs were developed and widely consumed, alongside strong alcoholic drinks, without prohibition and in quantities that nowadays are considered excessive. ... An alkaloid found in cocaine Categories: Pharmacology stubs ... Hygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid, found mainly in coca leaves (0. ... See Also Cocaine Ecgonine benzoate Truxilline Hydroxytropacocaine Tropacocaine Ecgonine Cuscohygrine Dihydrocuscohygrine Hygrine ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Vanoxerine, also known as GBR-12909, is a piperazine derivative which is a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor. ...

External links

  • Cocaine in Egyptian Mummies
  • EMCDDA drugs profile: Cocaine(2007)
  • Erowid -> Cocaine Information — A collection of data about cocaine including dose, effects, chemistry, legal status, images and more.
  • Slang Dictionary for Cocaine.
  • Cocaine content of plants
  • Cocaine - The History and the Risks at h2g2
  • www.HarmReduction.org A coalition of harm reduction advocates with resources and insightful help for those dealing with drug issues as well as those trying to provide help.
  • www.DanceSafe.org A community-driven project from the rave culture gives non-judgmental information considered "youth-friendly" and well-informed. DanceSafe has pioneered many harm-reduction campaigns.
  • The Economics Behind Cocaine from the libertarian think tank, the Prometheus Institute
  • Cocaine Frequently Asked Questions
Look up Cocaine in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Aminobenzoic acid (a benzoic acid with an amino group) can refer to: 4-Aminobenzoic acid (para-aminobenzoic acid, or simply PABA) ortho-Aminobenzoic acid (or Anthranilic acid) Category: ... Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever. ... Chloroprocaine hydrochloride (Nesacaine®, Nesacaine-MPF®) is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery. ... Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. ... A topical eye anesthetic is a topical anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of the eye. ... Tetracaine (INN, also known as amethocaine; trade name Pontocaine) is a potent local anesthetic of amino ester group. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Septocaine® is a branded dental local anesthetic manufactured and distributed by Septodont. ... Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic. ... Cinchocaine (or Dibucaine) is an amide local anesthetic. ... Etidocaine, marketed under the trade name Duranest, is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery. ... Levobupivacaine (rINN) (IPA: ) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Mepivacaine (IPA: ) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type. ... Prilocaine (IPA: ) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type. ... Ropivacaine (1-propyl-2’,6’-pipecoloxylidide; Naropin®) is a long-acting local anesthetic given by injection to reduce the sensation of pain. ... Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Hexylcaine hydrochloride, also called cyclaine (Merck) or osmocaine, is a short-acting local anesthetic. ... Iontocaine, known by the brand name Numby, is local anesthetic administered via iontophoresis through the skin. ... Lidocaine/prilocaine is a eutectic mixture of equal quantities (by weight) of lidocaine and prilocaine. ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Dequalinium is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... 2,4-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol is a mild antiseptic, able to kill bacteria associated with mouth and throat infections. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Chlorquinaldol is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Hexylresorcinol is a chemical compound with anaesthetic, antiseptic and antihelmintic properties. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Povidone-iodine (PVPI) is a water-soluble complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with from 9. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Hexamidine is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Tyrothricin is a cyclic polypeptide used in throat lozenges as an antibiotic. ... Fusafungine, also known as fusafungin, is an active agent used in antibiotics for treatment of nasal and throat infection. ... A tube of bacitracin ointment for eyes Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. ... The discontinuous diamer is seen showing the antiparallel hydrogen bonding between the amid hydrogens and carbonyl oxygens. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Dyclonine is an oral anasthetic found in Sucrets which is an over the counter throat lozenger. ... Otology is a branch of biomedicine which studies normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the ear (hearing and vestibular sensory systems and related structures and functions) as well as its diseases, diagnosis and treatment. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Nitrofurazone, 2-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide, chemical formula C6H6N4O4, is a pale yellow crystalline compound. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Clioquinol is a powerful anti-infective drug available for topical (Vioform) and internal (Enterovioform) use. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Chlorhexidine (free base) structure Chlorhexidine Gluconate is an antiseptic used as an active ingredient in mouthwash designed to kill plaque and other oral bacteria. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Polymyxin B (also referred to as PMB) are antibiotics primary used for resistant gram negative infections. ... The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics which are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis mediterranei, or artificially. ... Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Hydrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which may be given by injection or by topical application. ... Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid hormones. ... Betamethasone dipropionate is a corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities, used especially where water retention is undesirable. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cocaine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9500 words)
Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.
Cocaine hydrochloride is not well-suited for smoking because the temperature at which it vaporizes is very high, and close to the temperature at which it burns; however, cocaine base vaporizes at a low temperature, which makes it suitable for inhalation.
Cocaine's primary acute effect on brain chemistry is to raise the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the nucleus accumbens (the pleasure center in the brain); this effect ceases, due to metabolism of cocaine to inactive compounds and particularly due to the depletion of the transmitter resources (tachyphylaxis).
Cocaine: Encyclopedia of Medicine (1742 words)
Cocaine use declined significantly during the early 1990s, but it remains a significant problem and is on the increase in certain geographic areas and among certain age groups.
Cocaine interferes with the normal functioning of neurons by blocking the re-uptake of dopamine, which builds up in the synapses and is believed to cause the pleasurable feelings reported by cocaine users.
The rise in cocaine use as well as the appearance of crack cocaine in the late 1980s spurred fears about its effects on the developing fetus and, since then, several research reports have suggested that prenatal cocaine use could be associated to a wide range of fetal, newborn, and child development problems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m