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Encyclopedia > Cobalt
27 ironcobaltnickel
-

Co

Rh
General
Name, symbol, number cobalt, Co, 27
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 94, d
Appearance metallic with gray tinge
Standard atomic weight 58.933195(5) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d7 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 15, 2
Density (near r.t.) 8.90 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.75 g·cm−3
Melting point 1768 K
(1495 °C, 2723 °F)
Boiling point 3200 K
(2927 °C, 5301 °F)
Heat of fusion 16.06 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 377 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 24.81 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1790 1960 2165 2423 2755 3198
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 2, 3
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.88 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 760.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1648 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3232 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 152 pm
Covalent radius 126 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 62.4 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 100 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 13.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 4720 m/s
Young's modulus 209 GPa
Shear modulus 75 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 5.0
Vickers hardness 1043 MPa
Brinell hardness 700 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-48-4
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of cobalt
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
56Co syn 77.27 d ε 4.566 56Fe
57Co syn 271.79 d ε 0.836 57Fe
58Co syn 70.86 d ε 2.307 58Fe
59Co 100% Co is stable with 32 neutrons
60Co syn 5.2714 years β- 2.824 60Ni
References
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Cobalt (pronounced /ˈkoʊbɒlt/) is a hard, lustrous, silver-grey metal, a chemical element with symbol Co. It is found in various ores, and is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys. Its compounds are used in the production of inks, paints, and varnishes. Look up Cobalt, cobalt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... Cobalt table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 26, 2003, 10:22 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Group 9 elements are: Cobalt (27) Rhodium (45) Iridium (77) Meitnerium (109) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 457 pixelsFull resolution (2602 × 1486 pixel, file size: 1. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon by which materials, such as iron, in an external magnetic field become magnetized and remain magnetized for a period after the material is no longer in the field. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Cobalt (Co) Standard atomic mass: 58. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 106 seconds (a megasecond) and 107 seconds (11. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 3. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Cobalt metal is a silver or grey ferromagnetic element of atomic number 27. The Curie temperature is of 1388 K with 1.6~1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. In nature, it is frequently associated with nickel, and both are characteristic ingredients of meteoric iron. Mammals require small amounts of cobalt which is the basis of vitamin B12. Cobalt-60, an artificially produced radioactive isotope of cobalt, is an important radioactive tracer and cancer-treatment agent. Cobalt has a relative permeability two thirds that of iron. Metallic cobalt commonly presents a mixture of two crystallographic structures hcp and fcc with a transition temperature hcp→fcc of 722 K. Cobalt has a hardness of 5.5 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness.[citation needed] Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ... In physics, the Curie point, or Curie temperature, is the temperature above which a ferromagnet loses its ferromagnetic ability to possess a net (spontaneous) magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field. ... In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol ) is named after the physicist Niels Bohr. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Bacubirito in Culiacan, Mexico is second largest meteorite in the Americas, fifth largest in the world A meteorite is a relatively small extra-terrestrial body that reaches the Earths surface. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Cobalt 60 is a Front 242 side project featuring Front 242s Jean-Luc de Meyer and Dominique Lallement. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... A radioactive tracer is a substance containing a radioactive isotope (radioisotope). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In electromagnetism, permeability is the degree of magnetization of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Close-packing of spheres is the arranging of an infinite lattice of spheres so that they take up the greatest possible fraction of an infinite 3-dimensional space. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... In telecommunication, a transition is the change from one signal state to another signal state. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ...


Common oxidation states of cobalt include +2 and +3, although compounds with oxidation state +1 are also well developed. The oxidation state or oxidation number is defined as the sum of negative and positive charges in an atom, which indirectly indicates the number of electrons it has accepted or donated. ...


Applications

Cobalt blue glass
Cobalt blue glass


An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy able to withstand extreme temperatures that would destroy conventional metals like steel and aluminum. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... High speed steel (often abbreviated HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and other cutters. ... Calcium carbide. ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... A recording medium is a physical material that holds information expressed in any of the existing recording formats. ... Alnico is an acronym[1] referring to alloys which are composed primarily of aluminium (symbol Al), nickel (symbol Ni) and cobalt (symbol Co), hence al-ni-co, with the addition of iron, copper, and sometimes titanium, typically 8-12% Al, 15-26% Ni, 5-24% Co, up to 6% Cu... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Hydroformylation is the transformation of an alkene to an aldehyde via the addition of both H2 and CO. The aldehyde has one more carbon atom than the precursor alkene. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Cobalt Blue is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy to the Flash. ... Cobalt green, also sometimes known as Rinmanns green, is a translucent green pigment made by mixing cobalt(II) oxide and zinc oxide and heating. ... A small collection of Bristol Blue decorative glassware, hand blown in Bristol, England. ... A small collection of Bristol Blue decorative glassware, hand blown in Bristol, England. ...

Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... A simple column for Ni2+-affinity chromatography. ... A fusion protein is a protein created through genetic engineering from two or more proteins/peptides. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...

Radioisotopes of Cobalt

Main article: Isotopes of cobalt

Naturally occurring cobalt is "monoisotopic", i.e. only one isotope is stable: 59Co. 22 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 60Co with a half-life of 5.2714 years, 57Co with a half-life of 271.79 days, 56Co with a half-life of 77.27 days, and 58Co with a half-life of 70.86 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 18 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 second. This element also has 4 meta states, all of which have half-lives less than 15 minutes. Cobalt (Co) Standard atomic mass: 58. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The isotopes of cobalt range in atomic weight from 50 u (50Co) to 73 u (73Co). The primary decay mode for isotopes with atomic mass unit values less than that of the most abundant stable isotope, 59Co, is electron capture and the primary mode of decay for those of greater than 59 atomic mass units is beta decay. The primary decay products before 59Co are element 26 (iron) isotopes and the primary products after are element 28 (nickel) isotopes. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Isotopes are atoms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic weights, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that isotopes are located at the same place on the periodic table. ...

Cobalt Isotopes[1]
Isotope Decay mechanism Half life
Co-50 positron emission 44 millisecond
Co-51 positron emission unmeasured
Co-52 positron emission 0.12 second
Co-53 positron emission 0.24 second
Co-54 positron emission 193.2 millisecond
Co-55 positron emission 17.53 h
Co-56 electron capture, positron emission 77.3 d
Co-57 positron emission 271.8 d
Co-58 electron capture 70.88 d
Co-59 stable
Co-60 beta decay 5.271 yr
Co-61 beta decay 1.65 hr
Co-62 beta decay 1.5 min
Co-63 beta decay 27.5 second
Co-64 beta decay 0.30 second
Co-65 beta decay 1.17 second
Co-66 beta decay 0.190 second
Co-67 beta decay 0.43 second
Co-68 beta decay 0.20 second
Co-69 beta decay 0.22 second
Co-70 beta decay 0.13 second
Co-71 beta decay 0.21 second
Co-72 beta decay 90 millisecond

Cobalt radioisotopes in medicine

Cobalt-60 (Co-60 or 60Co) is a radioactive metal that is used in radiotherapy. It produces two gamma rays with energies of 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV. The 60Co source is about 2 cm in diameter and as a result produces a geometric penumbra, making the edge of the radiation field fuzzy. The metal has the unfortunate habit of producing a fine dust, causing problems with radiation protection. The 60Co source is useful for about 5 years but even after this point is still very radioactive, and so cobalt machines have fallen from favor in the Western world where linacs are common. Cobalt-60 is an isotope of cobalt, with a half life of 5. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... Geometry (from the Greek words Ge = earth and metro = measure) is the branch of mathematics first introduced by Theaetetus dealing with spatial relationships. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Umbra. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A particle accelerator uses electric fields to propel charged particles to great energies. ...


Cobalt-57 (Co-57 or 57Co) is a radioactive metal that is used in medical tests; it is used as a radiolabel for vitamin B12 uptake. It is useful for the Schilling's test.[2] Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ...


Industrial uses for radioactive isotopes

Cobalt-60 (Co-60 or 60Co) is useful as a gamma ray source because it can be produced—in predictable quantity, and high activity—by simply exposing natural cobalt to neutrons in a reactor for a given time. It is used for This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Look up activity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Cobalt-59 is used as a source in Mössbauer spectroscopy.kl For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... The Radura logo, used to show a food has been treated with radiation. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... A radiograph of a right elbow-joint Radiography is the use of certain types of electromagnetic radiation—usually ionizing—to view objects. ... Mößbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect. ...


History

Cobalt compounds have been used for centuries to impart a rich blue color to glass, glazes, and ceramics. Cobalt has been detected in Egyptian sculpture and Persian jewelry from the third millennium BC, in the ruins of Pompeii (destroyed AD 79), and in China dating from the Tang dynasty (AD 618–907) and the Ming dynasty (AD 1368–1644)[3]. Cobalt glass ingots have been recovered from shipwrecks dating to the time of the Minoans [citation needed] (BC 2700-1450). This article is about the material. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ...


Swedish chemist George Brandt (1694–1768) is credited with isolating cobalt in 1735. He was able to show that cobalt was the source of the blue color in glass, which previously had been attributed to the bismuth found with cobalt. Georg Brandt (b. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ...


During the 19th century, cobalt blue was produced at the Norwegian Blaafarveværket (70-80% of world production), led by the Prussian industrialist Benjamin Wegner. Blaafarveværket in Modum, Norway, was in the mid 19th century the largest industrial company in Norway, employing more than 2,000 workers. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Jacob Benjamin Wegner (1795-1864) was a Prussian-Norwegian industrialist born in Königsberg. ...


In 1938, John Livingood and Glenn Seaborg discovered cobalt-60. Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American atomic scientist. ... Cobalt 60 is a Front 242 side project featuring Front 242s Jean-Luc de Meyer and Dominique Lallement. ...


The word cobalt is derived from the German kobalt, from kobold meaning "goblin", a term used for the ore of cobalt by miners. The first attempts at smelting the cobalt ores to produce cobalt metal failed, yielding cobalt(II) oxide instead; not only that, but because of cobalt's curious affinity for arsenic, the primary ores of cobalt always contain arsenic, and upon smelting the arsenic oxidized into the highly toxic As4O6, which was breathed in by workers. Kobolds are spirits of German folklore. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


Biological role

Cobalt in small amounts is essential to many living organisms, including humans. Having 0.13 to 0.30 mg/kg of cobalt in soils markedly improves the health of grazing animals. Cobalt is a central component of the vitamin cobalamin, or vitamin B12. Life on Earth redirects here. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ...


Occurrence

Cobalt ore
Cobalt ore
Cobalt output in 2005
Cobalt output in 2005
World production trend
World production trend

Cobalt is not found as a native metal but generally found in the form of ores. Cobalt is usually not mined alone, and tends to be produced as a by-product of nickel and copper mining activities. The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot, and skutterudite. Cobalt ore Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cobalt ore Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of cobalt in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Congo Dem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of cobalt in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Congo Dem. ... Image File history File links Cobalt_-_world_production_trend. ... Image File history File links Cobalt_-_world_production_trend. ... A native metal is any of twenty-one metals that can be found freely in nature. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... Cobaltite is a mineral composed of cobalt, iron, arsenic sulfide, (Co,Fe)AsS. Structuraly it resembles pyrite (FeS2) with one of the sulfur atoms replaced by an arsenic atom. ... Erythrite is a secondary hydrated arsenate of cobalt minerals with the formula (Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O). ... Glaucodot is a cobalt iron arsenic sulfide mineral with formula: (Co,Fe)AsS. The cobalt:iron(II) ratio is typically 3:1 with minor nickel substituting. ... Skutterudite is a naturally occurring cobalt arsenide mineral. ...


In 2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo was the top producer of cobalt with almost 40% world share followed by Canada, Zambia, Russia, Brazil and Cuba, reports the British Geological Survey. The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...

see also Category:Cobalt minerals

Compounds

There is a wide variety of cobalt compounds. The +2 and +3 oxidation states are most prevalent, however cobalt(I) complexes are also fairly common. Cobalt(II) salts form the red-pink [Co(OH2)6]2+ complex in aqueous solution. Adding excess chloride will also change the colour from pink to blue, due to the formation of [CoCl4]2-. Cobalt oxides are antiferromagnetic at low temperature: CoO (Neel temperature 291 K) and Co3O4 (Neel temperature: 40 K), which is analogous to magnetite (Fe3O4), with a mixture of +2 and +3 oxidation states. The oxide Co2O3 is probably unstable; it has never been synthesized. Other than Co3O4 and the brown fluoride CoF3 (which is instantly hydrolyzed in water), all compounds containing cobalt in the +3 oxidation state are stabilized by complex ion formation. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the spins of magnetic electrons align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins pointing in opposite directions. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The Neel temperature, TN, is the temperature at which an antiferromagnetic material becomes paramagnetic - that is, the thermal energy becomes large enough to upset the magnetic ordering within the material. ... Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...

see also Category:Cobalt compounds

Precautions

Powdered cobalt in metal form is a fire hazard.


Cobalt compounds should be handled with care due to cobalt's slight toxicity.


60Co is a high-energy gamma ray emitter. Acute high-dose exposures to the gamma emissions, such as can occur when irradiation equipment is inadvertently diverted into scrap, can cause severe burns and death. Extended exposures increase the risk of morbidity or mortality from cancer.[4] Cobalt-60 is an isotope of cobalt, with a half life of 5. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


Nuclear weapon designs could intentionally incorporate 59Co, some of which would be activated in a nuclear explosion to produce 60Co. The 60Co, dispersed as nuclear fallout, creates what is sometimes called a dirty bomb or cobalt bomb, once predicted by physicist Leó Szilárd as being capable of wiping out all life on earth. The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leó Szilárd (February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964 Originally Szilárd Leó) was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project. ...


References & notes

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory: Cobalt
  1. ^ Nuclides and Isotopes: Chart of the Nuclides, 16th Edition, by Edward Baum, Harold Knox, and Thomas Miller; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; 2002
  2. ^ JPNM Physics Isotopes
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
  4. ^ The Juarez accident

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cobalt
Look up cobalt in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • National Pollutant Inventory - Cobalt fact sheet
  • WebElements.com – Cobalt
  • London celebrates 50 years of Cobalt-60 Radiotherapy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cobalt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1040 words)
Cobalt is a central component of the vitamin cobalamin, or vitamin B-12.
Cobalt is not found as a free metal and is generally found in the form of ores.
Cobalt is usually not mined alone, and tends to be produced as a by-product of nickel and copper mining activities.
Cobalt - MSN Encarta (299 words)
Cobalt melts at about 1495°C (about 2723°F), boils at about 2927°C (about 5301°F), and has a specific gravity of 8.9; the atomic weight of cobalt is 58.933.
The chief commercial sources of cobalt are the cobaltite ores of Ontario in Canada, and the central African nations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire) and Zambia, which, along with Canada, are the world's leading producers of the metal.
Cobalt is also used in ceramics and paint driers, and as a catalyst.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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