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Encyclopedia > Coalition government

A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. The usual reason for this arrangement is that no party on its own has a majority in the parliament. In times of crisis such as a war or a major economic or political crisis parties may form an all-party National Unity Government or Grand Coalition. A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... States currently utilising parliamentary systems are denoted in red A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... National governments or national unity governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... A grand coalition is a coalition government in a parliamentary system where political parties representing a vast majority of the parliament unite in a coalition. ...

Cabinets based on a coalition with majority in the parliament ideally are more stable and longlived than minority cabinets. While the former are prone to internal struggles, they have less reason to fear votes of non confidence, although majority governments based on a single party are usually even more stable as long as its majority can be maintained. A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed by the leading political party when it has won a plurality but not a majority of seats in the parliament. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non confidence, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ...

Coalition cabinets are common in countries where the parliament is proportionally representative for several political parties. It does not appear at all in countries where the cabinet is chosen by the president rather than the lower house (such as the United States). In semi-presidential systems, such as France, where the president formally appoints the prime minister but where the government itself must still maintain the confidence of parliament, coalition governments occur quite regularly. Countries that often have a coalition cabinet include: the Nordic countries, the Benelux countries, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Israel and India. Switzerland has been ruled by a loose coalition of the four strongest parties in parliament since 1959, called the "Magic Formula". Sometimes a coalition government is also created in times of national difficulties or crises, for example during wartime, to give the government a high degree of political legitimacy and acceptability whilst also diminishing internal political strife. Proportional representation, also known as full representation, is an electoral system in which the overall votes are reflected in the overall outcome of the body or bodies of representatives. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Overview map of the region. ... Satellite image of the Benelux countries Benelux Benelux is an economic union in Western Europe comprising three neighbouring monarchies, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ...

To deal with a situation where no clear majorities appear, parties either form coalition cabinets, supported by a parliamentary majority, or minority cabinets which can consist of one or several parties. For minority régime, see Apartheid. ...

In Germany, for instance, coalitions are the norm as it is rare for either the CDU/CSU or SPD to win a majority of their own. Thus coalitions are formed with at least one of the smaller parties. Helmut Kohl's CDU governed for years in coalition with the FDP, From 1998 to 2005, Gerhard Schröder's SPD was in a coalition with the Greens. If a coalition collapses a confidence vote is held. This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... Dr. Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) was a prominent German politician and statesman. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ...

A similar situation exists in Israel with its dozens of parties. The centre-right Likud thus forms coalitions with far right and orthodox groups, while Labour allies itself with more leftist and pacifist parties. Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a right-wing political party in Israel. ... Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ...

In both countries, grand coalitions of the two large parties also occur, but these are rarer and large parties usually prefer to associate with small ones. But if none of the larger parties can receive enough votes to form their preferred coalition, a grand coalition may be the only choice. This is the current situation in Germany: In early elections in September 2005, the CDU/CSU did not garner enough votes to form a coalition with the FDP; similarly the SPD and Greens did not have enough votes to continue their governing coalition. A grand coaltion was formed between the CDU/CSU and the SPD, but partnerships like these usually involve carefully structured cabinets. The CDU/CSU ended up gaining the Chancellory, but the SPD took a majority of cabinet posts.

A coalition can consist of any number of parties. In Germany, a coalition rarely consists of more than two parties (where CDU and CSU, two non-competing parties that always form a single caucus, are considered a single party), while in Belgium, where there are separate Dutch language and French language parties for each political group, coalitions of six parties are quite common. India's governing coalition, the United Progressive Alliance, consists of fourteen different parties. Finland experienced its most stable government since the independence with a five-party coalition established in the 1990s. A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... Dutch ( (help· info)), sometimes referred to as Netherlandic in English, is a Low Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium (2005 [1]). Standard Dutch spoken in Belgium is colloquially often referred to as Flemish (Vlaams), although in official use this is considered incorrect... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...

In Australia, the conservative Liberal and National parties are united in an effectively permanent coalition. This coalition has become so stable (at least at a Federal level) and so permanent, that in effect Australia has a two-party system. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian liberal conservative political party. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... A two-party system is a form of party system where only two major political parties exists with a realistic chance of winning an election. ...

In the United Kingdom, coalition governments (known as National Governments) have since 1915 only been appointed at times of national crisis. The most prominent was the National Government of 1931-1940. In other circumstances when no party has had a majority, minority governments have been the rule. However, the devolved government in Scotland is run by a coalition of Scottish Labour and the Scottish Liberal-Democrats, as Labour does not have a majority in the Scottish Parliament. 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all major political parties. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... For the national legislative body adjourned in 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ...

Arguments for and against coalition government

Coalition governments often occur in countries that possess an electoral system based upon proportional representation. Advocates of PR suggest that a coalition government leads to more consensual politics, in that a government comprising differing parties (often based on different ideologies) would have to concur in regard to governmental policy. Another advantage is that a coalition government better reflects the popular opinion of the electorate within a country. Proportional representation, also known as full representation, is an electoral system in which the overall votes are reflected in the overall outcome of the body or bodies of representatives. ...

People who disapprove of coalition governments believe that such governments have a tendency to be fractious and prone to disharmony. This is because coalitions would include different parties with differing beliefs, who may not always agree on the correct path for governmental policy. Sometimes the results of an election are of such nature that the coalitions that are mathematically most probable are ideologically unfeasible, such as in Flanders or Northern Ireland. A second problem may be the ability for minor parties to be "kingmakers" and especially in close elections, gain far more for their support than their vote would indicate. Flanders (Flemish, Fleming) (Dutch: Vlaanderen (Vlaams, Vlaming)) has two main designations: a geographical region in the north of Belgium, corresponding to the Flemish Region, a consituent part of the federal Belgian state. ... Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked... Kingmaker can refer to the following: Kingmaker is a term referred to during the middle ages whereby nobles would conspire to interfere in the sucession to the thrones of kingdoms, either by political or religious means, or by more overt tactics sometimes amounting to undeclared war. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Coalition government - definition of Coalition government in Encyclopedia (560 words)
Countries that often have a coalition cabinet include the Nordic countries, the Benelux, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Israel and India.
Thus coalitions are formed with at least one of the smaller parties.
In the United Kingdom, coalition governments (known as National Governments) have since 1915 only been appointed at times of national crisis.
  More results at FactBites »



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