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Encyclopedia > Coal mine fire

A mine fire is the underground smouldering of a coal mine. Such fires have economic, social and ecological impact. Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from reactions occurring on the surface of a solid fuel when heated in an oxidizing environment. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...


Mine fires can burn for very long periods of time (months or years), until the seam in which they smoulder is exhausted. They propagate in a creeping fashion along mines shafts and cracks. Because they are underground, they are extremely difficult and costly to reach and put out. There is a strong similarity between mine fires and peat fires. Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from reactions occurring on the surface of a solid fuel when heated in an oxidizing environment. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


Some fires along coal seams are natural occurrences. Some coals may self-ignite at temperatures below 100°C (212°F) in the right conditions of moisture and grain size. Wildfires (lightning caused or others) can ignite the coal closer to the surface or entrace, and the smouldering fire can spread through the seam, creating subsidence that may open further seams to oxygen. Prehistoric clinker outcrops in the American West are the result of prehistoric coal fires that left a residue that resists erosion better than the matrix, leaving buttes and mesa. "Scientists estimate that Australia's Burning Mountain, the oldest known coal fire, has burned for 6,000 years," (Kevin Krajick, reported in Smithsonian Magazine). Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... For the physical phenomenon, see spontaneous combustion. ... Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from reactions occurring on the surface of a solid fuel when heated in an oxidizing environment. ... Clinker has several meanings: In boat building, clinker is a method of constructing wooden boats by fixing planks to a frame so that the planks overlap each other gaining support from the frame and from adjacent planks. ... Butte near Sedona, Arizona A butte is an isolated hill with steep sides and a small flat top. ... Mathematics Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) is a current program that is building in schools around the United States. ... Burning Mountain is a feature near Wingen, New South Wales, Australia, approximately 300km north of Sydney. ...


Mine fires may begin as a result of an industrial accident, generally involving a gas explosion. Historically, some mine fires were started when bootleg mining was stopped by authorities, usually by blowing the mine up. Many recent mine fires have started from people burning trash in a landfill that was in proximity to abandoned coal mines (e.g. Centralia). Bootleg mining is illegal coal mining. ... A landfill compaction vehicle in operation A landfill, also known as a dump (US) or a tip (UK), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ... Centralia is a borough in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


Globally, thousands of inextinguishable mine fires are burning, especially in China and India, where poverty, lack of government regulations and runaway development combine to create an environmental disaster. Modern strip mining exposes smoldering coal seams to the air, revitalizing the flames. (Krajick 2005)


Among hundreds of mine fires in the United States, the most publicized is in Centralia, Pennsylvania, which has been burning since 1962. Other mine fires in the United States burning today include a fire in Vanderbilt, Pennsylvania, the state with the most mine fires. Centralia is a borough in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Vanderbilt is a borough located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. ...


Rural Chinese in coal-bearing regions often dig coal for household use, abandoning the pits when they become unworkably deep, leaving highly combustible coal dust exposed to the air. Mapping China's coal fires from satellite photography discovered many previously unknown fires. There have been a few successes: in 2004, China ended a mine fire at Liuhuanggou colliery, near Urumqi in Xinjiang province. It had been burning since 1874. The worst of the current fires are in the Wuda coalfields of Inner Mongolia. China's coal fires burn 20 – 30 million tons of coal a year (Krajick 2005). 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچى; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Chinese: 烏魯木齊; Pinyin: Wūlǔmùqí; population about 1. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N...


 
 

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