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Encyclopedia > Coal mine
Wyoming coal mine
Wyoming coal mine

Coal mining is the extraction of coal from the Earth for use as fuel. coal mine this image is from: http://www. ... coal mine this image is from: http://www. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 10th 253,554 km² 450 km 580 km 0. ... Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (strip mining). ... Earth is the third planet from the Sun. ... For the workstation, see SGI Fuel. ...

Contents


Methods of extraction

The most economical of methods of coal extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams, and also the geology and environmental factors of the area being mined.


If the coal seams are near the surface, the coal is extracted by strip mining. Strip mining exposes the coal by the advancement of an open pit or strip. As the coal is exposed and extracted, the overburden from the still covered coal fills the former pit, and the strip progresses. Most open cast mines in the USA extract bituminous coal. In South Wales open casting for steam coal and anthracite is practised. Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a soft coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... South Wales is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the East and South, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the North and West. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ...


Most coal seams are too deep underground for open cast mining. In deep mining the room and pillar method progresses along the Mammoth coal vein seam, while pillars and timber are left standing to support the coal mine roof. A most dangerous method of operation in deep mining and is known as robbing the pillars. This is where miners attempt to remove and/or retreat between the timbers in order to get coal out of the main coal seam, allowing the roof to cave in. This method of mining is used principally in the United States and has contributed to many fatalities in the early history of coal mining.


Longwall mining is conducted along the seam with the use of self-advancing hydraulic roof supports known as "chocks" or "shields". These supports are placed in a line (up to 400 metres long), known as a "longwall" and as coal is removed from in front of the longwall, the supports are advanced. As the longwall advances, the cavity created behind the longwall known as the "goaf" caves in. Longwall mining is the principle method of underground mining in Australia. Longwall mining is form of underground coal mining. ...


Highwall mining is a form of coal mining in which a continuous miner is controlled remotely from outby, or outside the mine, and is guided along the seam straight back drilling holes in excess of 500 feet. A highwall is the unexcavated face of exposed overburden and coal in a surface mine. As the coal is sheared off the face of the seam, it falls below to a conveyor belt that transports the coal to the surface. A large amount of capital is required to purchase a highwall mining unit, but the labor costs are low because an operation does not require a full crew.


Highwall auger mining is generally applied in an open cast mine, once open cut mining becomes uneconomic.


History

See the main article History of coal mining The oldest continuously worked deep-mine in the UK and possibly the world is Tower Colliery at the northern end of the south Wales valleys. This colliery was started in 1805 and at the end of the 20th century it was bought out by its miners rather than allow it to be closed. Coal mining during the Industrial Revolution Coal has been used for centuries. ... Tower Colliery is the oldest, continuously worked deep-coal mine in the United Kingdom, and possibly the world, and the only mine of its kind which remains in the South Wales Valleys. ... The South Wales Valleys are a number of industrialised valleys in South Wales. ...


The World Championships in coal-carrying take place every Easter Monday, at Ossett in West Yorkshire, UK The race starts from the site of the old Savile & Shaw Cross colliery. Badge of Ossett town. ... West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England, corresponding roughly to the core of the West Riding of the traditional county of Yorkshire. ...


The first commercial coal mines in the United States were started in 1748 in Midlothian, Virginia, near Richmond, Virginia. [1] Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Midlothian, Virginia is an unincorporated place located in Chesterfield County, Virginia. ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ...


In the 1880s, Coal-cutting machines became available (prior to that, coal was mined underground by hand.)


By 1910, surface mining was underway with steam shovels specifically designed for coal mining. Wyoming strip mine Anthracite coal strip-mining with the Marion shovel in the anthracite Coal Region Heckscherville-Minersville area, Pennsylvania Surface mining is a type of mining used to extract deposits of mineral resources that are close to the surface. ...


The industry has been subject to sometimes violent labor relations in the U.S. (for example, see Ludlow massacre). Union organizers were sometimes killed by management and vice-versa. See Molly Maguires. Today, coal mining is highly unionized, and the unions are sometimes militant. Mining communities are often close-knit with a strong sense of community spirit and religious faith. The field of labor relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a labor union. ... Ludlow massacre monument The Ludlow massacre of April 20, 1914 was one of the bloodiest assaults on organized labor in American history. ... Location of the counties of the Molly Maguires, in northeaastern Pennsylvania The Molly Maguires were a clandestine society of Irish miners who were engaged in a violent confrontation against the anthracite, or hard coal mining companies in the 19th century. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ...


Dangers to miners

Historically, coal mining has been a very dangerous activity. Open cut hazards are principally slope failure, underground mining roof collapse and gas explosions. Most of these risks can be greatly reduced in modern mines, and multiple fatality incidents are now rare in the developed world. Improvements in mining methods (i.e. longwall mining), gas drainage, safety-lamps, and ventilation have reduced many of these risks. Safety lamp is the name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against coal dust, methane, or firedamp, a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them. ...


However, in lesser developed countries, thousands continue to die annually in coal mines. China in particular has the highest number of coal mining related deaths in the world, with official estimates of around 6,000 fatalities in 2004. Unofficial estimates place the figure much higher, at around 20,000 deaths. China also leads the world in the production and consumption of coal.


Chronic lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis are common in miners, leading to reduced life expectancy. Black damp, a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in a mine can cause suffocation. There have been many deaths related to the safety conditions that exist in mines around the world. Pneumoconiosis is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a living being (or the average for a class of living beings) of a given age to live. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ...


Environmental impacts

Coal mining frequently causes significant adverse environmental impacts. Strip mining typically destroys most environmental value in the land through which it passes. All forms of mining are likely to generate areas where coal is stacked and where the coal has significant sulphur content, such coal heaps generate highly acidic metal rich drainage when exposed to normal rainfall. These liquors can cause severe environmental damage to receiving water-courses. In addition, the waste heaps are subject to slipping, as in the Aberfan disaster which killed 144 people in 1966. The Natural Environment comprises all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... Aberfan (in Welsh the f is pronounced like a v in standard English) is a small village 5 miles (8 km) south of Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales. ...


In the United States, the environmental impacts of strip mining are regulated by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Sign at Indian Head Mine, near Beulah, ND. Photo: Chuck Meyers, OSM. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. ...


See also

Coal mining during the Industrial Revolution Coal has been used for centuries. ... Acid Rock drainage (ARD) (formerly called acid mine drainage) refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines. ... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... A Bevin Boy was one of the young British men conscripted to work in coal mines during the Second World War. ... Pneumoconiosis is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Bootleg mining is illegal coal mining. ... A coal measure (stratigraphic unit) is the name given to any rock sequence that occurs in the upper part of the Carboniferous System in Europe. ... Harlan County, USA is a 1976 documentary film documenting the efforts of 180 coal-miners on strike in Harlan County, Kentucky in 1974. ... Coal mining during the Industrial Revolution Coal has been used for centuries. ... A mine fire is a fire that starts in a coal mine and burns underground. ... Mining accidents are dangerous and often deadly accidents which occur in the process of mining minerals from underneath the surface of the planet. ... Introduction Around the Augustinian Abbey of Rolduc coal is found very close to the surface, and since the 16th century it has been extracted for sale as fuel. ... The Powder River Basin spanning the Montana - Wyoming border is the single largest source of coal mined in the United States. ... Wilkes-Barre (IPA: , , or ) is the county seat of Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. ...

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Coal mining
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Coal mining
  • Dueling Mythologies, by Gilbert Wesley Purdy. A book review/essay that contains considerable information on coal mining in the early 20th century.

Richards Gray Coal Mining Coal mining searches are required for some properties in the UK Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coal Mining Task Force Summary of Action Plan and Projects (2214 words)
Coal beneficiation prepares coal for the intended end use by removing or reducing impurities that interfere with clean combustion.
The United States leads the world in coal mine methane capture and utilization at active mines and is exchanging leading practices on their experiences with Partner countries.
This project seeks to abate hazards associated with the reclamation of coal mining areas, in particular reclamation of legacy coal mines.
Mining Coal (1725 words)
Coal is mined by surface mining or underground mining.
When the coal seam is fairly close to the surface yet too deep to use surface mining, a slope mine can be built, with the mine entrance being a tunnel which slants down from the surface to the coal seam.
A drift mine is a mine in which the entry is directly into a horizontal coal seam exposed at or near the surface.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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