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Encyclopedia > Coal
Coal
Example chemical structure of coal

Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black rock. It is a sedimentary rock, but the harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rocks because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. It is composed primarily of carbon along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide, as well as the largest world-wide source of carbon dioxide emissions, which, according to the IPCC are responsible for causing climate change and global warming. Coal is slightly ahead of petroleum and about double that of natural gas.[1] Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open pit mining (surface mining). Anthracite coal This image is from: http://resourcescommittee. ... Anthracite coal This image is from: http://resourcescommittee. ... Image File history File links Struktura_chemiczna_wÄ™gla_kamiennego. ... Image File history File links Struktura_chemiczna_wÄ™gla_kamiennego. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earthâ€™s crust. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... u fuck in ua ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Î‘Î½Î¸ÏÎ±ÎºÎ¯Ï„Î·Ï‚, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Î†Î½Î¸ÏÎ±Î¾], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form, derived from the Greek words meta, change, and morphe, form. The protolith is subjected to extreme heat (>150 degrees Celsius) and pressure causing profound... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... The El Chino mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

## Types of coal

As geological processes apply pressure to dead matter over time, under suitable conditions, it is transformed successively into This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...

• Peat, considered to be a precursor of coal. It has industrial importance as a fuel in some countries, for example, Ireland and Finland.
• Lignite, also referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. Jet is a compact form of lignite that is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Iron Age.
• Sub-bituminous coal, whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation.
• Bituminous coal, a dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke.
• Anthracite, the highest rank; a harder, glossy, black coal used primarily for residential and commercial space heating.
• Graphite, technically the highest rank, but difficult to ignite and is not so commonly used as fuel: it is mostly used in pencils and, when powdered, as a lubricant.

The classification of coal is generally based on the content of volatiles. However, the exact classification varies between countries. According to the German classification, coal is classified as follows:[2] Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... A precursor is something that existed before and was incorporated into something that came later. ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... An ornamental stone is a stone used as a decoration. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Sub-bituminous coal is a coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Î‘Î½Î¸ÏÎ±ÎºÎ¯Ï„Î·Ï‚, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Î†Î½Î¸ÏÎ±Î¾], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ...

Name Volatiles % C Carbon % H Hydrogen % O Oxygen % S Sulfur % Heat content kJ/kg
Braunkohle (Lignite) 45-65 60-75 6.0-5.8 34-17 0.5-3 <28470
Flammkohle (Flame coal) 40-45 75-82 6.0-5.8 >9.8 ~1 <32870
Gasflammkohle (Gas flame coal) 35-40 82-85 5.8-5.6 9.8-7.3 ~1 <33910
Gaskohle (Gas coal) 28-35 85-87.5 5.6-5.0 7.3-4.5 ~1 <34960
Fettkohle (Fat coal) 19-28 87.5-89.5 5.0-4.5 4.5-3.2 ~1 <35380
Esskohle (Forge coal) 14-19 89.5-90.5 4.5-4.0 3.2-2.8 ~1 35380
Magerkohle (Non baking coal) 10-14 90.5-91.5 4.0-3.75 2.8-3.5 ~1 <35380
Anthrazit (Anthracite) 7-12 >91.5 <3.75 <2.5 ~1 <35300

The middle six grades in the table represent a progressive transition from the English-language sub-bituminous to bituminous coal, while the last class is an approximate equivalent to anthracite, but more inclusive (the U.S. anthracite has < 8% volatiles).

## Early use

China Coal Information Institute reports the Chinese mined coalstone for fuel 10,000 years ago at the time of the New Stone Age, or Neolithic Era. "People in Shanxi, now the largest coal production base, have been burning coal as fuel since then."[3] Outcrop coal was used in Britain during the Bronze Age (2000-3000 years BC), where it has been detected as forming part of the composition of funeral pyres.[4] It was also commonly used in the early period of the Roman occupation: Evidence of trade in coal (dated to about AD 200) has been found at the inland port of Heronbridge, near Chester, and in the Fenlands of East Anglia, where coal from the Midlands was transported via the Car Dyke for use in drying grain.[5] Coal cinders have been found in the hearths of villas and military forts, particularly in Northumberland, dated to around AD 400. In the west of England contemporary writers described the wonder of a permanent brazier of coal on the altar of Minerva at Aquae Sulis (modern day Bath) although in fact easily-accessible surface coal from what is now the Somerset coalfield was in common use in quite lowly dwellings locally.[6] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Shanxi (Chinese: å±±è¥¿; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Outcrop is a geological term referring to the appearance of bedrock exposed at the surface of the Earth. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... An Ubud cremation ceremony in 2005. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ... The Fens may also refer to the Back Bay Fens, a park in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Car Dyke was and to large extent still is, a ditch which runs along the western edge of The Fens in eastern England. ... A Roman villa is a villa that was built or lived in during the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ...

However, there is no evidence that the product was of great importance in Britain before the High Middle Ages, after about AD 1000. Mineral coal came to be referred to as "seacoal," probably because it came to many places in eastern England, including London, by sea. This is accepted as the more likely explanation for the name than that it was found on beaches, having fallen from the exposed coal seams above or washed out of underwater coal seam outcrops. These easily accessible sources had largely become exhausted (or could not meet the growing demand) by the 13th century, when underground mining from shafts or adits was developed.[4] In London there is still a Seacoal Lane (off the north side of Ludgate Hill) where the coal merchants used to conduct their business. An alternative name was "pitcoal," because it came from mines. It was, however, the development of the Industrial Revolution that led to the large-scale use of coal, as the steam engine took over from the water wheel. The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the extraction of coal from the Earth for use as fuel. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Abandoned mine shafts in Marl, Germany. ... Gated entrance of an abandoned adit An adit is a type of entrance to an underground mining operation in which the entrance shaft is horizontal or nearly horizontal. ... Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London, near the old Ludgate, a gate to the City that was taken down, with its attached jail, in 1780. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ...

## Uses today

Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio.

Download high resolution version (897x634, 202 KB)Coal cars in Ashtabula, Ohio (taken Sept. ... Download high resolution version (897x634, 202 KB)Coal cars in Ashtabula, Ohio (taken Sept. ... Railyard in the port of Ashtabula Hubbard House Projected primary nuclear strike targets for Ohio, circa 1990 (FEMA Image, with Ashtabula labeled) Ashtabula is a city in Ashtabula County, Ohio, United States, and the center of the Ashtabula Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the United States Census Bureau in...

### Coal as fuel

See also Clean coal technology and Fossil fuel power plant

Coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion. World coal consumption is about 6.2 billion tons annually, of which about 75% is used for the production of electricity.[citation needed]China produced 2.38 billion tonnes in 2006 and India produced about 447.3 million tonnes in 2006. 83.2% of China's electricity comes from coal. The USA consumes about 1.053 billion tonnes of coal each year, using 90% of it for generation of electricity. The world in total produced 6.19 billion tonnes of coal in 2006. Clean coal is the name attributed to coal chemically washed of minerals and impurities, sometimes gasified, burned and the resulting flue gases treated with steam, with the purpose of almost completely eradicating sulfur dioxide, and reburned so as to make the carbon dioxide in the flue gas economically recoverable. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...

When coal is used for electricity generation, it is usually pulverized and then burned in a furnace with a boiler. The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam, which is then used to spin turbines which turn generators and create electricity. The thermodynamic efficiency of this process has been improved over time. "Standard" steam turbines have topped out with some of the most advanced reaching about 35% thermodynamic efficiency for the entire process, which means 65% of the coal energy is rejected as waste heat into the surrounding environment. Old coal power plants, especially "grandfathered" plants, are significantly less efficient and reject higher levels of waste heat. World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... Thermodynamic efficiency (e) is defined as: where W is the absolute value of the work done in one thermodynamic cycle. ...

The emergence of the supercritical turbine concept envisions running a boiler at extremely high temperatures and pressures with projected efficiencies of 46%, with further theorized increases in temperature and pressure perhaps resulting in even higher efficiencies.[7] A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ...

Other efficient ways to use coal are combined cycle power plants, combined heat and power cogeneration, and an MHD topping cycle. A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. ... For other uses, see CHP. Cogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. ... // The MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator or dynamo transforms thermal energy or kinetic energy directly into electricity. ...

Approximately 40% of the world electricity production uses coal. The total known deposits recoverable by current technologies, including highly polluting, low energy content types of coal (i.e., lignite, bituminous), might be sufficient for 300 years' use at current consumption levels, although maximal production could be reached within decades (see World Coal Reserves, below). Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...

A more energy-efficient way of using coal for electricity production would be via solid-oxide fuel cells or molten-carbonate fuel cells (or any oxygen ion transport based fuel cells that do not discriminate between fuels, as long as they consume oxygen), which would be able to get 60%–85% combined efficiency (direct electricity + waste heat steam turbine).[citation needed] Currently these fuel cell technologies can only process gaseous fuels, and they are also sensitive to sulfur poisoning, issues which would first have to be worked out before large scale commercial success is possible with coal. As far as gaseous fuels go, one idea is pulverized coal in a gas carrier, such as nitrogen. Another option is coal gasification with water, which may lower fuel cell voltage by introducing oxygen to the fuel side of the electrolyte, but may also greatly simplify carbon sequestration. Solid oxide fuel cells, or SOFC, are intended mainly for stationary applications with an output of 1 kW and larger (power plants). ... Scheme of a molten-carbonate fuel cell Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells, in the range of 600ÂºC. They operate at the highest efficiencies of any type fuel cell, including solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells and phosphoric acid fuel cell and... Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal. ... Syngas (from synthesis gas) is the name given to gasses of varying composition that are generated in coal gasification and some types of waste-to-energy facilities. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ...

### Coking and use of coke

Main article: Coke (fuel)
Coke burning

Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1,000 °C (1,832 °F) so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused together. Metallurgic coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 24.8 million Btu/ton (29.6 MJ/kg). Byproducts of this conversion of coal to coke include coal tar, ammonia, light oils, and "coal gas". Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Syngas (from synthesis gas) is the name given to gasses of varying composition that are generated in coal gasification and some types of waste-to-energy facilities. ...

Petroleum coke is the solid residue obtained in oil refining, which resembles coke but contains too many impurities to be useful in metallurgical applications. Petroleum coke (often abbreviated petcoke) is a carbonaceous solid derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ...

#### Gasification

See also: Underground Coal Gasification.

High prices of oil and natural gas are leading to increased interest in "BTU Conversion" technologies such as gasification, methanation and liquefaction. Underground Coal Gasification (â€œUCGâ€) is a gasification process carried on in non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells drilled from the surface, which enables the coal to be converted into product gas. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ...

Coal gasification breaks down the coal into its components, usually by subjecting it to high temperature and pressure, using steam and measured amounts of oxygen. This leads to the production of syngas, a mixture mainly consisting of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). It has been suggested that Town gas be merged into this article or section. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

In the past, coal was converted to make coal gas, which was piped to customers to burn for illumination, heating, and cooking. At present, the safer natural gas is used instead. South Africa still uses gasification of coal for much of its petrochemical needs. Town gas is a generic term referring to manufactured gas produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...

The Synthetic Fuels Corporation was a U.S. government-funded corporation established in 1980 to create a market for alternatives to imported fossil fuels (such as coal gasification). The corporation was discontinued in 1985. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Gasification is also a possibility for future energy use, as the produced syngas can be cleaned-up relatively easily leading to cleaner burning than burning coal directly (the conventional way). The cleanliness of the cleaned-up syngas is comparable to natural gas enabling to burn it in a more efficient gas turbine rather than in a boiler used to drive a steam turbine. Syngas produced by gasification can be CO-shifted meaning that the combustible CO in the syngas is transferred into carbon dioxide (CO2) using water as a reactant. The CO-shift reaction also produces an amount of combustible hydrogen (H2) equal to the amount of CO converted into CO2. The CO2 concentrations (or rather CO2 partial pressures) obtained by using coal gasification followed by a CO-shift reaction are much higher than in case of direct combustion of coal in air (which is mostly nitrogen). These higher concentrations of carbon dioxide make carbon capture and storage much more economical than it otherwise would be. This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigating global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as power plants and subsequently storing it instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. ...

#### Liquefaction - Coal-To-Liquids (CTL)

Coals can also be converted into liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel by several different processes. The Fischer-Tropsch process of indirect synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons was used in Nazi Germany for many years and is today used by Sasol in South Africa. Coal would be gasified to make syngas (a balanced purified mixture of CO and H2 gas) and the syngas condensed using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to make light hydrocarbons which are further processed into gasoline and diesel. Syngas can also be converted to methanol, which can be used as a fuel, fuel additive, or further processed into gasoline via the Mobil M-gas process. Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas, or biomass. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Sasol (originally South African Steenkolen en Olie) is a South African company involved in mining, energy, chemicals and synfuels. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... It is the intention that Gasoline additives increase the fuels octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricators, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power, however some carry heavy environmental risks. ... Mobil gas station in the Loisaida section of the East Village of New York City Mobil was a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ...

A direct liquefaction process Bergius process [8] (liquefaction by hydrogenation) is also available but has not been used outside Germany, where such processes were operated both during World War I and World War II. SASOL in South Africa has experimented with direct hydrogenation. Several other direct liquefaction processes have been developed, among these being the SRC-I and SRC-II (Solvent Refined Coal) processes developed by Gulf Oil and implemented as pilot plants in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s.[9] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... â€œThe Great War â€ redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki TÅjÅ Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from the 1900s to the 1980s. ...

Another direct hydrogenation process was explored by the NUS Corporation in 1976 and patented by Wilburn C. Schroeder. The process involved dried, pulverized coal mixed with roughly 1wt% molybdenum catalysts. Hydrogenation occurred by use of high temperature and pressure synthesis gas produced in a separate gasifier. The process ultimately yielded a synthetic crude product, Naphtha, a limited amount of C3/C4 gas, light-medium weight liquids (C5-C10) suitable for use as fuels, small amounts of NH3 and significant amounts of CO2.[10] General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... It has been suggested that Town gas be merged into this article or section. ... Naphtha (CAS No. ...

Yet another process to manufacture liquid hydrocarbons from coal is low temperature carbonization (LTC). Coal is coked at temperatures between 450 and 700°C compared to 800 to 1000°C for metallurgical coke. These temperatures optimize the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar. The coal tar is then further processed into fuels. The Karrick process was developed by Lewis C. Karrick, an oil shale technologist at the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the 1920s. Carbonization is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue. ... Karrick Process, from U.S. Patent #1,958,918. ... For most of the 20th century, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) was the primary United States Government agency conducting scientific research and disseminating information on the extraction, processing, use, and conservation of mineral resources. ...

All of these liquid fuel production methods release carbon dioxide (CO2) in the conversion process, far more than is released in the extraction and refinement of liquid fuel production from petroleum. If these methods were adopted to replace declining petroleum supplies, carbon dioxide emissions would be greatly increased on a global scale. For future liquefaction projects, Carbon dioxide sequestration is proposed to avoid releasing it into the atmosphere, though no pilot projects have confirmed the feasibility of this approach on a wide scale. As CO2 is one of the process streams, sequestration is easier than from flue gases produced in combustion of coal with air, where CO2 is diluted by nitrogen and other gases. Sequestration will, however, add to the cost. Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Air redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...

Coal liquefaction is one of the backstop technologies that could potentially limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the effects of transportation energy shortage that some authors have suggested could occur under peak oil. This is contingent on liquefaction production capacity becoming large enough to satiate the very large and growing demand for petroleum. Estimates of the cost of producing liquid fuels from coal suggest that domestic U.S. production of fuel from coal becomes cost-competitive with oil priced at around 35 USD per barrel,[11] (break-even cost). This price, while above historical averages, is well below current oil prices. This makes coal a viable financial alternative to oil for the time being, although current production is small.[12] The theory of backstop resources is used by economic optimists to downplay fears about resource shortages, especially energy resources (see Peak oil). ... Mitigation consists of the activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks to persons or property or to lessen the actual or potential effects or consequences of an incident. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Oil price in 2003-2005 The price of light, sweet crude oil on NYMEX has been above \$40/barrel since late July 2004. ...

Among commercially mature technologies, advantage for indirect coal liquefaction over direct coal liquefaction are reported by Williams and Larson (2003). Estimates are reported for sites in China where break-even cost for coal liquefaction may be in the range between 25 to 35 USD/barrel of oil.[citation needed]'

Intensive research and project developments have been implemented from 2001. The World CTL Award is granted to personalities having brought eminent contribution to the understanding and development of Coal liquefaction. The 2008 presentation ceremony took place at the World CTL 2008 Conference (3 & 4 April, 2008).

### Coal as a traded commodity

The price of coal has gone up from around \$30 per short ton in 2000 to around \$130 per short ton in 2008. The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...

In North America, a Central Appalachian coal futures contract is currently traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (trading symbol QL). The trading unit is 1,550 short tons per contract, and is quoted in U.S. dollars and cents per ton. Since coal is the principal fuel for generating electricity in the United States, the futures contract provides coal producers and the electric power industry an important tool for hedging and risk management.[13] The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... In finance, a futures contract is a standardized contract, traded on a futures exchange, to buy or sell a certain underlying instrument at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. ... The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is the worlds largest physical commodity futures exchange located in New York City. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hedge (finance). ...

In addition to the NYMEX contract, the IntercontinentalExchange (ICE) has European (Rotterdam) and South African (Richards Bay) coal futures available for trading. The trading unit for these contracts is 5,000 tonnes,[vague] and are also quoted in U.S. dollars and cents per tonne.[14] IntercontinentalExchangeÂ® (NYSE: ICE) operates the leading global, electronic marketplace for trading both futures and OTC energy contracts. ...

### Cultural usage

Coal is the official state mineral of Kentucky and the official state rock of Utah. Both U.S. states have a historic link to coal mining. // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 kmÂ²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...

Some cultures uphold that children who misbehave will receive coal from Santa Claus for Christmas in their stockings instead of presents. A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Stockings on a fireplace mantel. ...

It is also customary and lucky in Scotland to give coal as a gift on New Year's Day. It happens as part of First-Footing and represents warmth for the year to come. First-Foot, in British folklore, especially that of the north and Scotland, the first person who crosses the threshold on Christmas or New Years Eve. ...

## Environmental effects

Main article: Environmental effects of coal

There are a number of adverse environmental effects of coal mining and burning.

These effects include:

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Background radiation is the ionizing radiation emitted from a variety of natural and artificial radiation sources: sources in the Earth and from those sources that are incorporated in our food and water, which are incorporated in our body, and in building materials and other products that incorporate those radioactive sources...

## Energy density

Main article: Energy value of coal

The energy density of coal, i.e. its heating value, is roughly 24 megajoules per kilogram.[15] The energy value of coal, or the fuel content, is the amount of potential energy in coal that can be converted into actual heating ability. ... Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ... The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. ... Kg redirects here. ...

The energy density of coal can also be expressed in kilowatt-hours for some unit of mass, the units that electricity is most commonly sold in, to estimate how much coal is required to power electrical appliances. The energy density of coal is 6.67 kW·h/kg and the typical thermodynamic efficiency of coal power plants is about 30%. Of the 6.67 kW·h of energy per kilogram of coal, about 30% of that can successfully be turned into electricity—the rest is waste heat. Coal power plants obtain approximately 2.0 kW·h per kg of burned coal. The watt-hour (symbol WÂ·h) is a unit of energy. ... Thermodynamic efficiency (e) is defined as: where W is the absolute value of the work done in one thermodynamic cycle. ...

As an example, running one 100 watt computer for one year requires 876 kW·h (100 W × 24 h/day × 365 {days in a year} = 876000 W·h = 876 kW·h). Converting this power usage into physical coal consumption:

$frac{876 mathrm{kW cdot h}}{2.0 mathrm{kW} cdot mathrm{h/kg}} = 438 mathrm{kg of coal} = 966 mathrm{pounds of coal}$

It takes 438 kg (966 pounds) of coal to power a computer for one full year.[16] One should also take into account transmission and distribution losses caused by resistance and heating in the power lines, which is in the order of 5–10%, depending on distance from the power station and other factors. Power Line is a neoconservative blog run by three lawyers: John H. Hinderaker (Hindrocket), Scott W. Johnson (The Big Trunk) and Paul Mirengoff (Deacon). Power Line covers political and social issues from a conservative viewpoint. ...

## Relative carbon cost

Because coal is at least 50% carbon (by mass), then 1 kg of coal contains at least 0.5 kg of carbon, which is

$frac{0.5 mathrm{kg}}{mathrm{12} cdot mathrm{kg/kmol}} = frac{1}{24} mathrm{kmol}$ where 1 mol is equal to NA (Avogadro Number) particles.

This combines with oxygen in the atmosphere during combustion, producing carbon dioxide, with an atomic weight of (12 + 16 × 2 = mass(CO2) = 44 kg/kmol), so 124 kmol of CO2 is produced from the 124 kmol present in every kilogram of coal, which once trapped in CO2 weighs approximately The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...

$frac{1}{24} mathrm{kmol} cdot frac{44 mathrm{kg}}{mathrm{kmol}} = frac{11}{6} mathrm{kg} approx 1.83 mathrm{kg}$.

This can be used to put a carbon-cost of energy on the use of coal power. Since the useful energy output of coal is about 30% of the 6.67 kW·h/kg(coal), we can say about 2 kW·h/kg(coal) of energy is produced. Since 1 kg coal roughly translates as 1.83 kg of CO2, we can say that using electricity from coal produces CO2 at a rate of about 0.915 kg/(kW·h), or about 0.254 kg/MJ.

This estimate compares favourably with the U.S. Energy Information Agency's 1999 report on CO2 emissions for energy generation[17], which quotes a specific emission rate of 950 g CO2/(kW·h). By comparison, generation from oil in the U.S. was 890 g CO2/(kW·h), while natural gas was 600 g CO2/(kW·h). Estimates for specific emission from nuclear power, hydro, and wind energy vary, but are about 100 times lower. See environmental effects of nuclear power for estimates. Nuclear power processes involving the environment; mining, enrichment, waste heat, and geological disposal. ...

## Coal fires

There are hundreds of coal fires burning around the world.[18] Those burning underground can be difficult to locate and many cannot be extinguished. Fires can cause the ground above to subside, their combustion gases are dangerous to life, and breaking out to the surface can initiate surface wildfires. Coal seams can be set on fire by spontaneous combustion or contact with a mine fire or surface fire. A grass fire in a coal area can set dozens of coal seams on fire.[19][20] Coal fires in China burn 109 million tonnes of coal a year, emitting 200 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. This amounts to 2-3% of the annual worldwide production of CO2 from fossil fuels, or as much as emitted from all of the cars and light trucks in the United States.[21][22] In Centralia, Pennsylvania (a borough located in the Coal Region of the United States) an exposed vein of coal ignited in 1962 due to a trash fire in the borough landfill, located in an abandoned anthracite strip mine pit. Attempts to extinguish the fire were unsuccessful, and it continues to burn underground to this day. The Australian Burning Mountain was originally believed to be a volcano, but the smoke and ash comes from a coal fire which may have been burning for over 5,500 years.[23] Spontaneous combustion is a type of combustion which occurs without an external ignition source. ... A mine fire is a fire that starts in a coal mine and burns underground. ... Centralia is a borough in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Î‘Î½Î¸ÏÎ±ÎºÎ¯Ï„Î·Ï‚, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Î†Î½Î¸ÏÎ±Î¾], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... Burning Mountain is a feature near Wingen, New South Wales, Australia, approximately 300km north of Sydney. ...

At Kuh i Malik in Yagnob Valley, Tajikistan, coal deposits have been burning for thousands of years, creating vast underground labyrinths full of unique minerals, some of them very beautiful. Local people once used this method to mine ammoniac. This place has been well-known since the time of Herodotus, but European geographers mis-interpreted the Ancient Greek descriptions as the evidence of active volcanism in Turkestan (up to the 19th century, when Russian army invaded the area). The Yaghnob River is a tributary of the Zeravshan River of Sughd (at ca. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rÃ³dotos HalikarnÄsseÃºs) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For the town in southern Kazakhstan, see Hazrat-e Turkestan. ...

The reddish siltstone rock that caps many ridges and buttes in the Powder River Basin (Wyoming), and in western North Dakota is called porcelanite, which also may resemble the coal burning waste "clinker" or volcanic "scoria".[24] Clinker is rock that has been fused by the natural burning of coal. In the Powder River Basin approximately 27 to 54 billion tonnes of coal burned within the past three million years.[25] Wild coal fires in the area were reported by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as well as explorers and settlers in the area.[26] The Powder River Basin spanning the Montana â€” Wyoming border is the single largest source of coal mined in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 kmÂ²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 kmÂ²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Scoria Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular volcanic rock ejecta. ... Lewis and Clark redirects here. ...

## Production trends

Coal output in 2005

In 2006, China was the top producer of coal with 38% share followed by the USA and India, reports the British Geological Survey. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 Ã— 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of coal output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 2,190,000,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 Ã— 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of coal output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 2,190,000,000 tonnes). ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...

### World coal reserves

At the end of 2006 the recoverable coal reserves amounted around 800 or 900 gigatonnes. The United States Energy Information Administration gives world reserves as 998 billion short tons[27] (equal to 905 gigatonnes), approximately half of it being hard coal. At the current production rate, this would last 164 years.[28] At the current global total energy consumption of 15 terawatt,[29] there is enough coal to provide the entire planet with all of its energy for 57 years.[original research?] A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a metric unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a metric unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ...

The 998 billion tons of recoverable coal reserves estimated by the Energy Information Administration are equal to about 4,417 BBOE (billion barrels of oil equivalent).[citation needed] The amount of coal burned during 2001 was calculated as 2.337 GTOE (gigatonnes of oil equivalent), which is about 46 million barrels of oil equivalent per day.[citation needed] Were consumption to continue at that rate those reserves would last about 263 years. As a comparison, natural gas provided 51 million barrels (oil equivalent), and oil 76 million barrels, per day during 2001. The barrel of oil equivalent (bboe, sometimes BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel of crude oil. ... Gtoe is an abbreviation for giga tonne oil equivalent, a common measure of global energy. ...

British Petroleum, in its annual report 2007, estimated at 2006 end, there were 909,064 million tons of proven coal reserves worldwide, or 147 years reserves to production ratio. This figure only includes reserves classified as "proven"; exploration drilling programs by mining companies, particularly in under-explored areas, are continually providing new reserves. In many cases, companies are aware of coal deposits that have not been sufficiently drilled to qualify as "proven". However, some nations haven't updated their information and assume reserves remain at the same levels even with withdrawals.

US coal regions

Of the three fossil fuels coal has the most widely distributed reserves; coal is mined in over 100 countries, and on all continents except Antarctica. The largest reserves are found in the USA, Russia, Australia, China, India and South Africa. Download high resolution version (1283x798, 47 KB)United States coal regions with provinces shown. ... Download high resolution version (1283x798, 47 KB)United States coal regions with provinces shown. ...

Note the table below.

Proved recoverable coal reserves at end-2006 (million tonnes (teragrams))[30]
Country Bituminous & anthracite SubBituminous & lignite TOTAL Share
United States of America 111,338 135,305 246,643 27.1
Russia 49,088 107,922 157,010 17.3
China 62,200 52,300 114,500 12.6
India 90,085 2,360 92,445 10.2
Australia 38,600 39,900 78,500 8.6
South Africa 48,750 0 48,750 5.4
Ukraine 16,274 17,879 34,153 3.8
Kazakhstan 28,151 3,128 31,279 3.4
Poland 14,000 0 14,000 1.5
Brazil 0 10,113 10,113 1.1
Germany 183 6,556 6,739 0.7
Colombia 6,230 381 6,611 0.7
Canada 3,471 3,107 6,578 0.7
Czech Republic 2,094 3,458 5,552 0.6
Indonesia 740 4,228 4,968 0.5
Turkey 278 3,908 4,186 0.5
Greece 0 3,900 3,900 0.4
Hungary 198 3,159 3,357 0.4
Pakistan 0 3,050 3,050 0.3
Bulgaria 4 2,183 2,187 0.2
Thailand 0 1,354 1,354 0.1
North Korea 300 300 600 0.1
New Zealand 33 538 571 0.1
Spain 200 330 530 0.1
Zimbabwe 502 0 502 0.1
Romania 22 472 494 0.1
Venezuela 479 0 479 0.1
TOTAL 478,771 430,293 909,064 100.0

### Major coal producers

Production of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes)[30]
Country 2003 2004 2005 2006
PR China 1722.0 1992.3 2204.7 2380.0
United States 972.3 1008.9 1026.5 1053.6
India 375.4 407.7 428.4 447.3
Australia 351.5 366.1 378.8 373.8
Russian Federation 276.7 281.7 298.5 309.2
South Africa 237.9 243.4 244.4 256.9
Germany 204.9 207.8 202.8 197.2
Indonesia 114.3 132.4 146.9 195.0
Poland 163.8 162.4 159.5 156.1
Total World 5187.6 5585.3 5886.7 6195.1

### Major coal exporters

Exports of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes)[31][32]
Country 2003 2004 2005
Australia 238.1 247.6 257.6
United States 43.0 48.0 49.9
South Africa 78.7 74.9 77.5
CIS (Former Soviet Union 41.0 55.7 62.3
Poland 16.4 16.3 16.4
Canada 27.7 28.8 31.0
China 103.4 95.5 79.0
South America 57.8 65.9 68.8
Indonesia 107.8 131.4 147.6
Vietnam N/A 10.3 14.1
Total 713.9 764.0 804.2

CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

## See also

 Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ... Americans for Balanced Energy Choices (ABEC) is a U.S. special interest non-profit organization dealing primarily with U.S. energy policy. ... Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturated hydrocarbons. ... Australian Coal Alliance [Web site http://australiancoalalliance. ... Carbochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of coals (bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, graphite, and charcoal) into useful products and raw materials. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Clean coal is the name attributed to coal chemically washed of minerals and impurities, sometimes gasified, burned and the resulting flue gases treated with steam and reburned so as to make the carbon dioxide in the flue gas economically recoverable. ... Coal assay techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals. ... Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal. ... The economies of the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau are administered separately from the rest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A coal measure (stratigraphic unit) is the name given to any rock sequence that occurs in the upper part of the Carboniferous System in Europe. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... A coal mining proposal in the Central Coast, Australia, has generated debates in the community // Korea Resources Corporation (Kores), owned by Korean Government, has lodged application for an underground coal mine near Wyong, Australia, known as Wallarah 2 Coal Project (W2CP), beneath the drinking water catchment valleys of Dooralong and... In response to concerns about pollution caused by coal power plants, a policy of coal phase-out may be appropriate. ... Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... The energy value of coal, or the fuel content, is the amount of potential energy in coal that can be converted into actual heating ability. ... Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion technology used in power plants. ... FutureGen is a project of the US government to build a zero-emissions coal-fired power plant that produces hydrogen and electricity while using carbon dioxide sequestration. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu Ming Dynasty encyclopedia, published in 1637 by Song Yingxing. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... World coal producers and consumers. ... Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a relatively new form of coal mining which takes the mountain off the coal. ... The Udston mining disaster occurred in Hamilton, Scotland on Saturday, 28 May 1887 when 73 miners died in a firedamp explosion at Udston Colliery. ... Underground Coal Gasification (â€œUCGâ€) is a gasification process carried on in non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells drilled from the surface, which enables the coal to be converted into product gas. ... The World Coal Institute works on a global basis on behalf of the coal industry. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ...

## References

1. ^ The EIA reports the following emissions in million metric tons of carbon dioxide:
• Nat gas: 5,840.07
• Petroleum: 10,995.47
• Coal: 11,357.19
For 2005 as the official energy statistics of the US Government.[1]
2. ^ Eberhard Lindner; Chemie für Ingenieure; Lindner Verlag Karlsruhe, S. 258
3. ^ Around the Markets: Future for coal brighter Herald Tribune 2007-04-16 accessed 2007-11-29
4. ^ a b Britannica 2004: Coal mining: ancient use of outcropping coal.
5. ^ Salway, Peter (2001): A History of Roman Britain. Oxford University Press.
6. ^ Forbes, R J (1966): Studies in Ancient Technology. Brill Academic Publishers, Boston.
7. ^ Balancing economics and environmental friendliness - the challenge for supercritical coal-fired power plants with highest steam parameters in the future (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
8. ^ Robert Haul: Friedrich Bergius (1884-1949), p. 62 in 'Chemie in unserer Zeit', VCH-Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 19. Jahrgang, April 1985, Weinheim Germany
9. ^ Cleaner Coal Technology Programme (October 1999). "Technology Status Report 010: Coal Liquefaction". Department of Trade and Industry (UK). Retrieved on November 23.
10. ^ Phillip A. Lowe, Wilburn C. Schroeder, Anthony L. Liccardi (1976). "Technical Economies, Synfuels and Coal Energy Symposium, Solid-Phase Catalytic Coal Liquefaction Process". The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
11. ^ Diesel Fuel News: Ultra-clean fuels from coal liquefaction: China about to launch big projects - Brief Article. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
12. ^ Welcome to Coal People Magazine. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
13. ^ NYMEX.com: Coal. Retrieved on January 16, 2008.
14. ^ ICE: Coal Futures. Retrieved on January 16, 2008.
15. ^ Fisher, Juliya (2003). Energy Density of Coal. The Physics Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
16. ^ A similar result, using a light bulb instead, see
How much coal is required to run a 100-watt light bulb 24 hours a day for a year?. Howstuffworks. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
17. ^ CO2 Emissions Report
18. ^ Sino German Coal fire project. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
19. ^ Committee on Resources-Index. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
20. ^ http://www.fire.blm.gov/textdocuments/6-27-03.pdf. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
21. ^ EHP 110-5, 2002: Forum. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
22. ^ Overview about ITC's activities in China. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
23. ^ Burning Mountain Nature Reserve. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
24. ^ North Dakota's Clinker. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
25. ^ BLM-Environmental Education- The High Plains. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
26. ^ http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/Coal/CR01-1.pdf. Retrieved on September 9, 2005.
27. ^ International Energy Annual 2005: Reserves. Retrieved on March 22, 2008.
28. ^ International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 5 Coal
29. ^ BP2006 energy report, and US EIA 2006 overview
30. ^ a b BP Statistical review of world energy June 2007 (XLS). British Petroleum (June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
31. ^ World Steam Coal Flows
32. ^ World Coal Flows by Importing and Exporting Regions

Herald Tribune may refer to: The International Herald Tribune The Sarasota Herald-Tribune The now defunct New York Herald Tribune Category: ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

## Further reading

• (2005) The Face of Decline: The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8473-1.
• Long, Priscilla (1991). Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry. New York, NY: Paragon House. ISBN 1557784655.
• Rottenberg, Dan (2003). In the Kingdom of Coal; An American Family and the Rock That Changed the World. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93522-9.
• Robert H. Williams and Eric D. Larson (December 2003). "A comparison of direct and indirect liquefaction technologies for making fluid fuels from coal" (PDF). Energy for Sustainable Development VII: 103-129.
• Outwater, Alice (1996). Water: A Natural History. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03780-1.
• Smith, Duane A. (May 1993). Mining America: The Industry and the Environment, 1800-1980 (in English). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 210. ISBN 0870813064.

Results from FactBites:

 Coal Energy (1747 words) Coal is a combustible fl or brownish-fl sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. Coal is mainly found in three large regions, the Appalachian Coal Region, the Interior Coal Region, and Western Coal Region (includes the Powder River Basin). Coal is baked in hot furnaces to make coke, which is used to smelt iron ore into iron needed for making steel.
 Coal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3570 words) Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). Coal composition is determined by specific coal assay techniques, and is performed to quantify the physical, chemical and mechanical behaviour of the coal, including whether it is a good candidate for coking coal. Coal liquefaction is one of the backstop technologies that will limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the alleged effects of peak oil, provided that the extra carbon dioxide released in the process does not catastrophically accelerate global warming/adverse climate effects.
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