FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Clovis culture

The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture[1]) is a prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological record of North America around 11,500 rcbp radiocarbon years ago, at the end of the last glacial period. Archaeologists' best guess at present suggests this is equal to roughly 13,000 calendar years ago. The Clovis culture is thought to have lasted from between 200 and 800 years, depending on the source consulted, with an average estimate of around 500 years, starting about 13,000 years ago. The Clovis culture seems to have ended at the time of the Younger Dryas cold climate period, hypothesized to be a result of the Younger Dryas impact event. Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... North American redirects here. ... Raw radiocarbon measurements are usually reported as years before present (BP). ... Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following... The Younger Dryas impact event is the name of a hypothesized impact event at the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold spell about 10,900 BCE. The impact seems to have occurred near the North American Great Lakes; the bolide may have disintegrated in the air. ...


The Clovis people, one of several Paleoindian groups, were long regarded as the first human inhabitants of the New World, and ancestors of all the indigenous cultures of North and South America. However, this view has been contested over the last thirty years by several archaeological discoveries, including sites like Cactus Hill in Virginia, Paisley Caves in the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, and Monte Verde, Chile. Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Cactus Hill is an archaeological site in the U.S. state of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Meadowcroft Rockshelter is an archaeological site located near Avella in Washington County, in southwestern Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Monte Verde is an archaeological site in south-central Chile, which is suspected to date 12,500 years before present, making it one of the earliest inhabited sites in the Americas. ...

Contents

Description

The culture is named for a small number of artifacts found in 1936 and 1937 at Blackwater Draw Locality #1, near Clovis, New Mexico. People began collecting artifacts at this site in the late 1920s but artifacts and animal remains that had not moved since the Pleistocene were not recovered until 1936. The in situ finds of 1936 and 1937 included stone Clovis points, two long bone points with impact damage, stone blades, a portion of a Clovis blade core, and several cutting tools made on stone flakes. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much, but not all, of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America, and even into Northern South America.[2] Location of Clovis, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Curry Incorporated 1909[1] Government  - Mayor David Lansford Area  - Total 22. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


A hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively-shaped fluted rock spear point, known as the Clovis point. The Clovis point is bifacial and typically fluted on both sides. Archaeologists do not agree on whether the widespread presence of these artifacts indicates the proliferation of a single people, or the adoption of a superior technology by diverse population groups. It is generally accepted that Clovis people hunted mammoth as Clovis points have repeatedly been found in sites containing mammoth remains. Mammoth is only a small part of the Clovis diet; extinct bison, mastodon, sloths, tapir, palaeolama, horse and a host of smaller animals have also been found in Clovis sites where they were killed and eaten. In total, more than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have been used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited. Clovis sites are known from most of North America, some parts of Central America, and even into northern South America in Venezuela (see Pearson and Ream 2005). Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... Examples of Clovis points. ... Flint biface from Saint-Acheul, France. ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ...


Disappearance of Clovis

Whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, and other species, to extinction via overhunting — the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis — is still an open, and controversial, question. The greater likelihood is that a combination of climate change, human predation, disease, and additional pressures from newly arrived herbivores (competition) and carnivores (predation) and isolation made it impossible for them to reproduce and survive. It has also been hypothesized that the Clovis culture saw its demise in the wake of the Younger Dryas cold phase. This 'cold shock' lasting roughly 1,500 years affected many parts of the world, including North America. It appears to have been triggered by a vast meltwater lake - Lake Agassiz - emptying into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline circulation. Some have suggested the Younger Dryas began when an extraterrestrial object exploded in Earth's atmosphere above North America's Great Lakes region about 12,900 years ago. The evidence supporting the theory was published in October, 2007, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [3] An apparent association of the last Clovis artifacts and an organic stratigraphic layer laid down during the Younger Dryas has been noted:[4] For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Introduction Eighteen thousand years ago at the height of the last ice age in North America the land not ice covered looks like a park with mixed trees and grass There are mastodons and mammoths whose young are being killed by massive lions and sabertooth cats. ... Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following... A map of the extent of Lake Agassiz Lake Agassiz was an immense lake—bigger than all of the present-day Great Lakes combined—in the center of North America, which was fed by glacial runoff at the end of the last ice age. ... A simplified summary of the path of the Thermohaline Circulation. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...

At sites stretching from California to the Carolinas and as far north as Alberta and Saskatchewan, researchers have long noted an enigmatic layer of carbon-rich sediment that was laid down nearly 13 millennia ago. "Clovis artifacts are never found above this black mat," says Allen West, a geophysicist with Geoscience Consulting in Dewey, Ariz. The layer, typically a few millimeters thick, lies between older, underlying strata that are chock-full of mammoth bones and younger, fossilfree sediments immediately above.

The occurrence of the black mat was documented by C. Vance Haynes at two-thirds of 97 North American geoarchaeological sites dating to the termination of the Clovis people and the Pleistocene-Holocene transition[5].


Discovery

A cowboy and former slave, George McJunkin, found an Ancient Bison (an extinct relative of the American Bison) skeleton with an associated Folsom point in about 1908 after a massive flood. It was first excavated in 1926, near Folsom, New Mexico under the direction of Harold Cook and Jesse Figgins. In 1929, 19-year-old James Ridgley Whiteman, discovered the Clovis Man Site in the Blackwater Draw in Eastern New Mexico. Despite earlier legitimate Paleoindian discoveries, the best understood evidence of the Clovis tool complex was excavated in 1932-1937 in Clovis, New Mexico, by a crew under the direction of Edgar Billings Howard from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences/University of Pennsylvania. Howard's crew left their excavation in Burnet Cave, New Mexico (truly the first professionally excavated Clovis site) in August and visited Whiteman and his Blackwater Draw site. In November, Howard was back at Blackwater Draw to investigate additional finds by Whiteman. Binomial name Bison antiquus Leidy, 1852 The Ancient Bison, Bison antiquus, was the most common large herbivore of the North American continent and is a direct ancestor of the living North American bison. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Folsom points are a distinct form of chipped stone projectile points associated with the Folsom Tradition of North America. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Folsom is a village located in Union County, New Mexico. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Location of Clovis, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Curry Incorporated 1909[1] Government  - Mayor David Lansford Area  - Total 22. ...


There may be earlier reports of the Paleoindian layers of the dig in Burnet Cave, but it seems likely that the first report of professional work at a Clovis site concerns the Blackwater Draw site in the November 25, 1932 issue of Science. This directly contradicts statements by some authors (Haynes 2002:56 The Early Settlement of North America) that Dent, Colorado was the first excavated Clovis site. The Dent Site, in Weld County, Colorado, was simply a fossil mammoth excavation in 1932. The first Dent Clovis point was found July 7, 1933. The in situ Clovis point from Burnet Cave was excavated in late August, 1931 and E. B. Howard brought it to the 3rd Pecos Conference and showed it around (see Woodbury 1983). Weld County is the third most extensive and the ninth most populous of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado of the United States. ...


Clovis First

The predominant hypothesis (known as "Clovis First") among archaeologists in the latter half of the 20th century was that the Clovis people were the first inhabitants of the Americas. The primary support for this was that no solid evidence of pre-Clovis human inhabitation had been found. According to the standard accepted theory, the Clovis people crossed the Beringia land bridge over the Bering Strait from Siberia to Alaska during the period of lowered sea levels during the ice age, then made their way southward through an ice-free corridor east of the Rocky Mountains in present-day western Canada as the glaciers retreated. The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ...


Alternative hypotheses

Archaeologists have long debated the possible existence of a culture older than Clovis in North and South America.


Predecessors of the Clovis people may have migrated south along the North American coastline. According to researchers Michael Waters and Thomas Stafford of Texas A&M University, new radiocarbon dates place Clovis remains from the continental United States in a shorter time window (13,050 to 12,800 years ago)[6], while radiocarbon dating of the Monte Verde site in Chile place Clovis like culture there as early as 13,500 years ago and remains found at the Channel Islands of California place coastal Paleoindians there 12,500 years ago. This suggests that the Paleoindian migration could have spread more quickly along the coastline south, and that populations that settled along that route could have then began migrations eastward into the continent. Texas A&M University redirects here. ... The Channel Islands of California, also called the Santa Barbara Islands, are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. ...


In 2004, worked stone tools were found at Topper in South Carolina, that have been dated by radiocarbon techniques to 50,000 years ago[7], although there is significant dispute regarding these dates.[8] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topper is an archaeological site located along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ...


The Tlapacoya site on the shore of the former Lake Chalco reveals bones, hearths, middens, and a curved obsidian blade, presumed to date to over 21,700 years BP[citation needed], although the dating has been disputed. Clay Bowl, pigmented, 1200–900 BC, from the Raymond and Laura Wielgus Collection, Indiana University Art Museum. ... Lake Chalco is a lake that was located in the mexican basin. ... A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... Obsidian was an important part of the material culture of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


Coastal migration route

Recent studies of the mitochondrial DNA of First Nations/Native Americans suggest that the people of the New World may have diverged genetically from Siberians as early as 20,000 years ago, far earlier than the standard theory would suggest. According to one alternative theory, the Pacific coast of North America may have been free of ice such as to allow the first peoples in North America to come down this route prior to the formation of the ice-free corridor in the continental interior. No solid evidence has yet been found to support this hypothesis except that genetic analysis of coastal marine life indicates diverse fauna persisting in refugia throughout the Pleistocene ice ages along the coasts of Alaska and British Columbia; these refugia include common food sources of coastal aboriginal peoples, suggesting that a migration along the coastline was feasible at the time. Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Pacific redirects here. ...


Solutrean hypothesis

The controversial Solutrean hypothesis proposed in 1999 by Smithsonian archaeologist Dennis Stanford and colleague Bruce Bradley (Stanford and Bradley 2002), suggests that the Clovis people could have inherited technology from the Solutrean people who lived in southern Europe 21,000-15,000 years ago, and who created the first Stone Age artwork in present-day southern France. The link is suggested by the similarity in technology between the projectile points of the Solutreans and those of the Clovis people. Such a theory would require that the Solutreans crossed via the edge of the pack ice in the North Atlantic Ocean that then extended to the Atlantic coast of France. They could have done this using survival skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people. Supporters of this hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia), that are knapped in a style between Clovis and Solutrean. Other scholars such as Emerson F. Greenman and Remy Cottevieille-Giraudet have also suggested a Northern Atlantic point of entry, citing toolmaking similarities between Clovis and Solutrean-era artifacts. The Solutrean hypothesis contends that stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Dennis Stanford is the head of the Archaeology Division and Director of the Paleo-Indian Program at the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. ... The Solutrean industry was an advanced flint tool making style of the Upper Palaeolithic. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Cactus Hill is an archaeological site in the U.S. state of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Mitochondrial DNA analysis (see Map in Single-origin hypothesis) has found that some members of some native North American tribes have a maternal ancestry (called haplogroup X) (Schurr 2000) linked to the maternal ancestors of some present day individuals in western Asia and Europe, albeit distantly. In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... // In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ...


University of New Mexico anthropologist Lawrence G. Straus, a primary critic of the Solutrean hypothesis, points to the theoretical difficulty of the ocean crossing, a lack of Solutrean-specific features in pre-Clovis artifacts, as well as the lack of art (such as that found at Lascaux in France) among the Clovis people, as major deficiencies in the Solutrean hypothesis. The 3,000 to 5,000 radiocarbon year gap between the Solutrean period of France and Spain and the Clovis of the New World also makes such a connection problematic (Straus 2000). In response, defenders of the hypothesis state that the Solutreans introduced a tool-making innovation and not necessarily cultural or artistic practices. The University of New Mexico (UNM) is a public university in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ...


Recent genetic studies

An article in the American Journal of Human Genetics states "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models." The study also argues for a Beringian isolation and subsequent coastal migration.[9] Since its inception in 1948, The American Journal of Human Genetics has provided a record of research and review relating to heredity in humans and to the application of genetic principles in medicine and public policy, as well as in related areas of molecular and cell biology. ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... // In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ...


Other possible pre-Clovis sites

In approximate reverse chronological order:

  • The Big Eddy Site in southwestern Missouri contains several claimed pre-Clovis artifacts or geofacts. In situ artifacts have been found in this well-stratified site in association with charcoal. Five different samples have been AMS dated to between 11,300 to 12,675 BP (Before Present).[citation needed]
  • Monte Verde II, a site in Chile, was occupied from 11,800 to 12,000 to years BP.
  • Taima Taima, Venezuela has cultural material very similar to Monte Verde II, dating to 12,000 years BP.[citation needed]
  • The Schaefer and Hebior mammoth sites in Kenosha County, Wisconsin indicate exploitation of this animal by humans. The Schaefer Mammoth site has over 13 highly purified collagen AMS dates and 17 dates on associated wood dating it to 12,300-12,500 radiocarbon years before the present. Hebior has two AMS dates in the same range. Both animals show conclusive butchering marks and associated non-diagnostic tools. [12]
  • A site in Walker, Minnesota with stone tools, alleged to be from 13,000 to 15,000 years old based on surrounding geology, was discovered in 2006. [13]
  • Human coprolites have been found in a cave in Oregon, carbon dated at 14,300 years ago. Genetic analysis revealed that the coprolites contained mtDNA haplogroups A2 and B2, two of the five major Native American mtDNA haplogroups. [14][15]
  • The Mud Lake site, in Kenosha County, Wisconsin consists of the foreleg of a juvenile mammoth recovered in the 1930s. Over 100 stone tool butchering marks are found on the bones. Several purified collegen AMS dates show the animal to be 13,450 rcybp with a range of plus or minus 1,500 rcybp variance. [16]
  • Meadowcroft Rockshelter in southwestern Pennsylvania, excavated 1973-78, with evidence of occupancy dating back from 16,000 to 19,000 years ago.[17]
  • Cactus Hill in southern Virginia, with artifacts such as unfluted bifacial stone tools with dates ranging from c. 15,000 to 17,000 years ago.[18]

Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... The Solutrean hypothesis contends that stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. ... The Big Eddy site (23CE426) is a unique archaeological site located in southwestern Missouri where the western edge of the Ozarks meet the prairie-forest border (Chandler 2001a; Ray et al 1998:68, 2000:73). ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Monte Verde is an archaeological site in south-central Chile, which is suspected to date 12,500 years before present, making it one of the earliest inhabited sites in the Americas. ... Monte Verde is an archaeological site in south-central Chile, which is suspected to date 12,500 years before present, making it one of the earliest inhabited sites in the Americas. ... This article is about the prehistoric elephant-like animal. ... Jefferson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... The Aucilla River arises close to Thomasville, Georgia and passes through the Big Bend region of Florida, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachee Bay. ... In situ is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. ... Kenosha County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ... Walker is a city in Cass County, Minnesota, USA. The population was 1,069 at the 2000 census. ... Meadowcroft Rockshelter is an archaeological site located near Avella in Washington County, in southwestern Pennsylvania, United States. ... Cactus Hill is an archaeological site in the U.S. state of Virginia. ...

See also

The Archeology of the Americas is the study of the archeology of North America, Central America (or Mesoamerica), South America and the Caribbean, which is to say, the pre-history and Pre-Columbian history of Native American peoples. ... There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community. ...

References

Specific references:

  1. ^ History of the Mark Twain National Forest from the website of the Mark Twain National Forest
  2. ^ Pearson, Georges and Joshua Ream, Clovis on the Caribbean Coast of Venezuela. Current Research in the Pleistocene, Volume 22:28-31 2005 (issn 8755-898X).
  3. ^ Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling. The National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  4. ^ Ice Age Ends Smashingly: Did a comet blow up over eastern Canada?: Science News Online, June 2, 2007
  5. ^ Younger Dryas ‘‘black mats’’ and the Rancholabrean termination in North America C. Vance Haynes Jr., Proc. Nad. Acad. Sci. USA. Vol. 105, number 18,. pp. 6520-6525, May 6, 2008
  6. ^ A&M University Press Article
  7. ^ New Evidence Puts Man In North America 50,000 Years Ago from the ScienceDaily website
  8. ^ Scientist: Man in Americas earlier than thought, a CNN article on the South Carolina discoveries
  9. ^ http://www.ajhg.org/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00139-0# "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas" Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.S.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.B.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L. American journal of human genetics(volume 82 issue 3 pp.583 - 592)
  10. ^ Walter A. Neves and Mark Hubbe: Cranial morphology of early Americans from Lagoa Santa, Brazil: Implications for the settlement of the New World. Laboratorio de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos, Departamento de Genetica e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo.
  11. ^ Webb et al 2006 First Floridians and Last Mastodons, Springer
  12. ^ Schafer from the website of the "Friends of the Ice Age" in Kenosha County, Wisconsin
  13. ^ Ancient Stone "Tools" Found; May Be Among Americas' Oldest from the National Geographic website
  14. ^ DNA from Fossil Feces breaks Clovis Barrier
  15. ^ New Scientist 12/4/08 pg 15
  16. ^ Mud Lake Site from the website of the "Friends of the Ice Age" in Kenosha County, Wisconsin
  17. ^ "The Greatest Journey," James Shreeve, National Geographic, March 2006, pg. 64
  18. ^ Pre-Clovis Occupation on the Nottoway River in Virginia Pre-Clovis Occupation on the Nottoway River in Virginia from the website of the Athena Review, Vol.2, no.3

General references: Mark Twain National Forest (MTNF) is a national forest located in the southern half of Missouri. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science Daily is an online news source. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Kenosha County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Kenosha County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ...

  • Dixon, E. James (1999). Bones, Boats and Bison: Archeology and the First Colonization of Western North America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-826-32057-0. OCLC 42022335. 
  • Schurr, Theodore G. (2000). "Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World". American Scientist 88 (3): pp.246–253. doi:10.1511/2000.3.246. ISSN 0003-0996. 
  • Stanford, Dennis; and Bruce Bradley (2002). "Ocean Trails and Prairie Paths? Thoughts About Clovis Origins." in edited proceedings of The Fourth Wattis Symposium, 'The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World,' October 2, 1999. Nina G. Jablonski (ed.) The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World (Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 27.): pp.255–271, San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-940-22849-1. 
  • Straus, Lawrence G. (April 2000). "Solutrean Settlement of North America? A Review of Reality". American Antiquity 65 (2): pp.219–226. doi:10.2307/2694056. ISSN 00027316. 

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The University of New Mexico Press, founded in 1929, is a university press that is part of the University of New Mexico. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... American Scientist (ISSN 0003-0996) is an illustrated bimonthly magazine about science and technology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Dennis Stanford is the head of the Archaeology Division and Director of the Paleo-Indian Program at the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. ... The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... The professional journal American Antiquity is published by the Society for American Archaeology, the largest organization of professional archaeologists of the Americas in the world. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

External links

Nova is a popular science television series from the USA produced by WGBH and can be seen on PBS and in more than 100 countries. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Clovis culture - Encyclopedia.com (985 words)
Clovis culture a group of Paleo-Indians (see Americas, antiquity and prehistory of the) known through artifacts first excavated in the early 1930s near Clovis, N.Mex. The artifacts, including chipped flint points known as Clovis points and a variety of additional stone tools, were found along with remains of large mammals, particularly extinct mammoths.
Like Folsom points (see Folsom culture), Clovis points show a distinct lengthwise groove (known as fluting) on each face that served to enhance the hafting to spear shafts.
Clovis groups are the earliest definitively dated human populations in the Americas, and the earliest known big-game hunters.
Clovis culture Information (925 words)
The Clovis culture (also Llano culture) is a prehistoric Native American culture that first appears in the archaeological record of North America around 13,500 years ago, at the end of the last ice age.
The Clovis people, also known as Paleo-Indians, and are generally regarded as the first human inhabitants of the New World, and ancestors of all the indigenous cultures of North and South America.
A hallmark of Clovis culture is the use of a distinctively-shaped fluted rock spear point, known as the Clovis point.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m