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Encyclopedia > Clover
Clover
clover inflorescence
clover inflorescence
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Trifolieae
Genus: Trifolium
L.
Species

See text Clover may refer to: Clover, a genus of plants Clover, South Carolina, a town in York County Clover, Virginia, a place in Halifax County Clover (telescope), an astronomical telescope Clover (detector), a gamma ray detector Clover Studio, the now defunct Capcom funded game developer Clover (manga), a manga by CLAMP... Clover File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Fabaceae (legumes) Quillajaceae Polygalaceae (milkwort family) Surianaceae The Fabales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Tribes Abreae Adesmieae Aeschynomeneae Amorpheae Bossiaeeae Brongniartieae Carmichaelieae Cicereae Crotalarieae Dalbergieae Desmodieae Dipterygeae Euchresteae Galegeae Genisteae Hedysareae Indigofereae Liparieae Loteae Millettieae Mirbelieae Phaseoleae Podalyrieae Psoraleeae Robinieae Sophoreae Swartzieae Thermopsideae Trifolieae Vicieae Faboideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Clover (Trifolium), or trefoil, is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the pea family Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution; the highest diversity is found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but many species also occur in South America and Africa, including at high altitudes on mountains in the tropics. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... A cosmopolitan distribution is a term applied to a biological category of living things meaning that this category can be found anywhere around the world. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


They are small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herbaceous plants. The leaves are trifoliate (rarely 5- or 7-foliate), with stipules adnate to the leaf-stalk, and heads or dense spikes of small red, purple, white, or yellow flowers; the small, few-seeded pods are enclosed in the calyx. Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...


Other closely related genera often called clovers include Melilotus (sweet clover) and Medicago (alfalfa or 'calvary clover'). The "shamrock" of popular iconography is sometimes considered to be young clover. Species See text Clover (Trifolium) is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the pea family Fabaceae. ... Melilot, also known as Sweet Clover, Melilotus officinalis of the family Papilionaceae is a common grassland plant and as a weed of cultivated ground. ... Species Medicago arabica Medicago heldreichii Medicago hybrida Medicago laciniata Medicago littoralis Medicago lupulina Medicago minima Medicago monantha Medicago monspeliaca Medicago orbicularis Medicago polymorpha Medicago praecox Medicago rigidula Medicago rugosa Medicago ruthenica Medicago sativa Medicago scutellata Medicago secundiflora Medicago truncatula Medicago turbinata Ref: ITIS 183622 as of 2002-07-31 Alfalfa... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However...


The scientific name derives from the Latin tres, "three", and folium, "leaf", so called from the characteristic form of the leaf, which has three leaflets (trifoliate); hence the popular name trefoil. Clovers are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on clovers. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A leaflet in botany is a part of a compound leaf. ... Architecture Architectural Trefoil (also a Christian symbol) Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, three-leaved plant, French trèfle, German Dreiblatt and Dreiblattbogen) is a term in Gothic architecture given to the ornamental foliation or cusping introduced in the heads of window-lights, tracery, panellings, etc. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... For other uses, see Moths. ...

Contents

Selected Species

Red clover (Trifolium pratense)
Red clover (Trifolium pratense)
  • Trifolium africanum
  • Trifolium albopurpureum
  • Trifolium alexandrinum
  • Trifolium amabile
  • Trifolium ambiguum
  • Trifolium amoenum
  • Trifolium andersonii
  • Trifolium andinum
  • Trifolium angustifolium
  • Trifolium arvense
  • Trifolium attenuatum
  • Trifolium aureum
  • Trifolium barbigerum
  • Trifolium beckwithii
  • Trifolium bejariense
  • Trifolium bifidum
  • Trifolium bolanderi
  • Trifolium brandegeei
  • Trifolium breweri
  • Trifolium buckwestiorum
  • Trifolium calcaricum
  • Trifolium campestre
  • Trifolium carolinianum
  • Trifolium cernuum
  • Trifolium ciliolatum
  • Trifolium cyathiferum
  • Trifolium dalmaticum
  • Trifolium dasyphyllum
  • Trifolium dedeckerae
  • Trifolium depauperatum
  • Trifolium dichotomum
  • Trifolium douglasii
  • Trifolium dubium
  • Trifolium echinatum
  • Trifolium eriocephalum
  • Trifolium fragiferum
  • Trifolium friscanum
  • Trifolium fucatum
  • Trifolium glomeratum
  • Trifolium gracilentum
  • Trifolium gymnocarpon
  • Trifolium haydenii
  • Trifolium hirtum
  • Trifolium howellii
  • Trifolium hybridum
  • Trifolium incarnatum
  • Trifolium jokerstii
  • Trifolium kingii
  • Trifolium lappaceum
  • Trifolium latifolium
  • Trifolium leibergii
  • Trifolium lemmonii
  • Trifolium longipes
  • Trifolium lupinaster
  • Trifolium macraei
  • Trifolium macrocephalum
  • Trifolium medium
  • Trifolium michelianum
  • Trifolium microcephalum
  • Trifolium microdon
  • Trifolium minutissimum
  • Trifolium monanthum
  • Trifolium mucronatum
  • Trifolium nanum
  • Trifolium neurophyllum
  • Trifolium nigrescens
  • Trifolium obtusiflorum
  • Trifolium oliganthum
  • Trifolium olivaceum
  • Trifolium ornithopodioides
  • Trifolium owyheense
  • Trifolium parryi
  • Trifolium pinetorum
  • Trifolium plumosum
  • Trifolium polymorphum
  • Trifolium pratense
  • Trifolium productum
  • Trifolium purpureum
  • Trifolium pygmaeum
  • Trifolium reflexum
  • Trifolium repens
  • Trifolium resupinatum
  • Trifolium rollinsii
  • Trifolium rueppellianum
  • Trifolium scabrum
  • Trifolium semipilosum
  • Trifolium siskiyouense
  • Trifolium spumosum
  • Trifolium squamosum
  • Trifolium stoloniferum
  • Trifolium striatum
  • Trifolium subterraneum
  • Trifolium suffocatum
  • Trifolium thompsonii
  • Trifolium tomentosum
  • Trifolium trichocalyx
  • Trifolium uniflorum
  • Trifolium variegatum
  • Trifolium vesiculosum
  • Trifolium virginicum
  • Trifolium willdenowii
  • Trifolium wormskioldii

Binomial name Trifolium amoenum Greene Trifolium amoenum, known by the common name Showy Indian clover is an endangered[1] annual herb that subsists in wetland areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and the California Coast Ranges. ... Binomial name Trifolium arvense L. Hares-foot clover is a common name for the plant Trifolium arvense. ... Binomial name Trifolium aureum Pollich The Large Hop Trefoil (Trifolium aureum), also sometimes known as Golden clover or Hop clover, is a species of clover native to much of central and southern Europe. ... Species See text Trifolium campestre or hop trefoil, is a species of clover native to Europe and introduced into North America, growing in most areas, bust speficially thriving in the Pacific and Southern states. ... Binomial name Sibth. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trifolium hybridum Trifolium hybridum or Alsike Clover is a plant species of the genus Trifolium. ... Binomial name Trifolium incarnatum L. Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), also known as Italian clover, is a species of clover in the family Fabaceae, native to most of Europe. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trifolium medium Trifolium medium or Zigzag Clover is a plant species of the genus Trifolium. ... Binomial name Viv. ... Binomial name Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is a species of clover, native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa. ... Binomial name L. White Clover (Trifolium repens) is a species of clover native to Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. ... Binomial name Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trifolium striatum Trifolium striatum or Knotted Clover is a plant species of the genus Trifolium. ... Binomial name Lehm. ...

Cultivation

White Clover flower-head and leaves
White Clover flower-head and leaves

Several species are extensively cultivated as fodder-plants. The most widely cultivated clovers are White clover Trifolium repens and Red clover Trifolium pratense. Clover, either sown alone or in mixture with ryegrass, has for a long time formed a staple crop for soiling, for several reasons: it grows freely, shooting up again after repeated mowings; it produces an abundant crop; it is palatable to and nutritious for livestock; it grows in a great range of soils and climates; and it is appropriate for either pasturage or green composting. White clover, photographed in England by Heron 16:46, 20 Jun 2004 (UTC). ... White clover, photographed in England by Heron 16:46, 20 Jun 2004 (UTC). ... Binomial name L. White Clover (Trifolium repens) is a species of clover native to Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. ... Binomial name Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is a species of clover, native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa. ... Species See text Ryegrass (Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted grasses, family Poaceae. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ...


In many areas, particularly on acidic soil, clover is short-lived because of a combination of insect pests, diseases and nutrient balance; this is known as "clover sickness". When crop rotations are managed so that clover does not recur at shorter intervals than eight years, it grows with much of its pristine vigour. Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ...


Clover sickness in more recent times may also be linked to pollinator decline; clovers are most efficiently pollinated by bumblebees, which have declined as a result of agricultural intensification. Honeybees can also pollinate clover, and beekeepers are often in heavy demand from farmers with clover pastures. Farmers enjoy the benefits of increased reseeding that occurs with increased bee activity, which means that future clover yields remain abundant. Beekeepers benefit from the clover bloom as clover is one of the main nectar sources for honeybees. Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ... This article is about the flying insect. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... A commercial beekeeper working in an apiary. ... The nectar source in a given area depends on the type of vegetation present and the length of their bloom period. ...

Red Clover flowers
Red Clover flowers

T. repens, White or Dutch clover, is a perennial abundant in meadows and good pastures. The flowers are white or pinkish, becoming brown and deflexed as the corolla fades. T. hybridum, Alsike or Swedish clover, is a perennial which was introduced early in the 19th century and has now become naturalized in Britain. The flowers are white or rosy, and resemble those of the last species. T. medium, meadow or zigzag clover, a perennial with straggling flexuous stems and rose-purple flowers, is of little agricultural value. Download high resolution version (800x1019, 177 KB)Red clover (Trifolium pratense). ... Download high resolution version (800x1019, 177 KB)Red clover (Trifolium pratense). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

White Clover flower
White Clover flower

Other British species are: T. arvense, Hare's-foot trefoil; found in fields and dry pastures, a soft hairy plant with minute white or pale pink flowers and feathery sepals; T. fragiferum, Strawberry clover, with densely-flowered, globose, rose-purple heads and swollen calyxes; T. procumbens, Hop trefoil, on dry pastures and roadsides, the heads of pale yellow flowers suggesting miniature hops; and the somewhat similar T. minus, common in pastures and roadsides, with smaller heads and small yellow flowers turning dark brown. The last named is often called Shamrock. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 659 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 659 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However...


Clovers are a valuable survival food, as they are high in protein, widespread, and abundant. They are not easy to digest raw, but this can be easily fixed by juicing them or boiling them for 5-10 minutes. Dried flowerheads and seedpods can also be ground up into a nutritious flour and mixed with other foods. Dried flowerheads can also be steeped in hot water for a healthy, tasty tea. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Symbolism and mythology

A four-leaf clover
A four-leaf clover

Shamrock, the traditional Irish symbol coined by Saint Patrick for the Holy Trinity, is commonly associated with clover, though also sometimes with Oxalis species, which are also trifoliate (i.e. they have three leaves). Download high resolution version (1024x768, 123 KB)Photograph of Oxalis in Deerpark. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 123 KB)Photograph of Oxalis in Deerpark. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However... St Patrick redirects here, for other uses, see St. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... Binomial name See text Species See text. ...


Clovers occasionally have leaves with four leaflets, instead of the usual three. These four-leaf clovers, like other rarities, are considered lucky. Clovers can also have 5, 6, or more leaves, but these are more rare. The world record, according to Guinness, is eighteen.[1] A four-leaf clover The four-leaf clover is an uncommon variation of the common three-leaf clover. ...


A common idiom is "to be in clover", meaning to be living a carefree life of ease, comfort, or prosperity. An idiom is an expression (i. ...


The cloverleaf interchange is named for the resemblance to the leaves of a (four-leafed) clover when viewed from the air. A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in which right turns (in countries that drive on the left) are handled by loop ramps. ...


In the late 1970's and 80's drug tests became very accurate and could detect the tiniest traces of morphine. Clover has a small amount of morphine which is eaten by Cattle Cows and ends up in bottled milk. Eating Clover can set off Morphine Blood and urine analysis drug tests. This article is about the drug. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Quattrofolium
Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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Crimson clover is used principally as a winter annual for pasture and as a soil-improving crop from the latitude of the Ohio River southward, and along the West Coast.
Clovers are highly palatable to livestock and high in protein, phosphorus, and calcium, thus providing valuable nourishment in the form of hay, pasture, and silage.
Clovers are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Clovers.
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