FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Clove" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Clove
Clove

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. aromaticum
Binomial name
Syzygium aromaticum
(L.) Merrill & Perry
A single dried clove flower bud

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. It is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisine all over the world. The name derives from French clou, a nail, as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Cloves are harvested primarily in Zanzibar, Indonesia and Madagascar; it is also grown in India, and Sri Lanka. Image File history File links Koeh-030. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text. ... Genera 130; see list The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of dicotyledon plants, placed within the order Myrtales. ... Species About 500; see text Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants, belonging to the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 124 KB) Dried Clove Close Up Photograph by Brian Arthur and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 124 KB) Dried Clove Close Up Photograph by Brian Arthur and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Genera 130; see list The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of dicotyledon plants, placed within the order Myrtales. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...


The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 10-20 m, having large oval leaves and crimson flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green, after which they develop into a bright red, when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1.5-2 cm long, and consist of a long calyx, terminating in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... The word calyx has several possible meanings: Look up calyx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ...

Contents

Uses

Dried cloves
Clove output in 2005
Clove output in 2005

According to FAO, Indonesia produced almost 80% of the world's clove output in 2005 followed at a distance by Madagascar and Tanzania. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (941x627, 183 KB) Dried Clove Buds Photograph by Brian Arthur and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (941x627, 183 KB) Dried Clove Buds Photograph by Brian Arthur and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia - 110,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of clove output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Indonesia - 110,500 tonnes). ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form, but as they are extremely strong, they are used sparingly. The spice is used throughout Europe and Asia and is smoked in a type of cigarettes locally known as kretek in Indonesia and in occasional coffee bars in the West, mixed with marijuana to create marijuana spliffs (zigzags). Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Small Text For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Two unlit filtered cigarettes. ... A popular brand of kreteks. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... A spliff. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ...


Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian). In the north Indian cuisine, it is used in almost every sauce or side dish made, mostly ground up along with other spices. They are also a key ingredient in tea along with green cardamoms. In the south Indian cuisine, it finds extensive use in the biryani dish (similar to the pilaf, but with the addition of local spice taste), and is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Indian cuisine is distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Iraqi Biryani (as served in Amman, Jordan) The name biryani or biriani (Urdu بریانی ;Hindi बिरयानी) is derived[1] from the Persian word beryā(n) (بریان) which means fried or roasted. Biryani is a family of Middle Eastern, Southern Asian dishes made from a mixture of spices, rice (usually basmati), meat/vegetables and... Chicken Tikka Jalfrezi, pulao rice, and cucumber raita Pilaf, (Turkish pilav, Azeri plov, Bosnian pilav, Serbian pilav, Armenian pilav, Romanian pilaf, Persian polow, Afghanistan palow, Greek πιλάφι, India/Pakistan pulav/ pulao, Uzbek and Russian plov, Kazakh palaw) also spelled pilau, perloo, perlau, plaw, pilaw, and pilaff is a Middle Eastern and...


Medicinal Uses

Cloves are used in Ayurveda, Chinese medicine and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne for dental emergencies. Cloves are used as a carminitive, to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Cloves are also said to be a natural anthelmintic.[1] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming is needed, especially for digestive problems. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen will warm the digestive tract. Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Dioscorides’ Materia Medica, c. ... A Dentist and Dental Assistant perform surgery on a patient. ... An anodyne (Greek αν, loss, and οδυνη, pain: a cause which relieves pain) is a medicine or other thing that relieves or soothes pain, by lessening the sensibility of the brain or nervous system, also called an analgesic (or colloquially a painkiller). The term has been applied incorrectly to various medications, such... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ...


In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid, warm and aromatic, entering the Kidney, Spleen and Stomach channels, and are notable in their ability to warm the middle, direct Stomach qi downward, to treat hiccough and to fortify the Kidney yang. [2] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency, for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli, or for vomiting and diarrhea due to Spleen and Stomach coldness.[3] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. (Note that capitalized organ names refer to the Chinese meridians named after them.) Qi, also commonly spelled chi (in Wade-Giles romanization) or ki (in romanized Japanese), is a fundamental concept of traditional Chinese culture. ... A hiccup is an involuntary spasm of the diaphragm. ... Look up yang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species Subgenus Panax Section Panax Series Notoginseng Panax notoginseng Series Panax Panax bipinnatifidus Panax ginseng Panax japonicus Panax quinquefolius Panax vietnamensis Panax wangianus Panax zingiberensis Section Pseudoginseng Panax pseudoginseng Panax stipuleanatus Subgenus Trifolius Panax trifolius Panax is a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots... Binomial name Pogostemon cablin Benth. ...


Ayurvedic herbalist K.P. Khalsa, RH (AHG), uses cloves internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles, including for multiple sclerosis. This is also found in Tibetan medicine. [4]Ayurvedic herbalist Alan Tilotson, RH (AHG) suggests avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases. [5] Pitta may stand for: Pitta is a genus of tropical birds Pitta is one of the three dosas in ajurvedic medicine Pitta bread -- see pita (alternate spelling) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Toxicity

Large amounts should be avoided in pregnancy. Cloves can be irritating to the GI tract, and should be avoided by people with gastric ulcers, colitis, or IBS. In overdoses, cloves can cause vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and upper GI hemorrhage. Severe cases can lead to changes in liver function, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, hallucination, and even death.[6] The internal use of the essential oil should be restricted to 3 drops per day for an adult as excessive use can cause severe kidney damage.


History

Until modern times, cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands), including Bacan, Makian, Moti, Ternate, and Tidore.[7] Nevertheless, they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the time of Christ. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.[7] The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands or simply Maluku) are an archipelago in Indonesia, and part of the larger Malay Archipelago. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... Bacan (formerly Bachian or Bachan, Dutch Batjan) is an island in Indonesia. ... Makian (also Machian) is one of the Maluku Islands in Indonesia. ... Moti may refer to: Moti Island Julian Moti Category: ... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... Tidore is an island and town in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Cloves, along with nutmeg and pepper, were highly prized in Roman times, and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces". Cloves were traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade. In the late fifteenth century, Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade, including cloves, due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe, mainly from the Maluku Islands. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices, a kg costing around 7 g of gold[citation needed]. It has been suggested that Legal drugs#Nutmeg be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the world outside of Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km) west of... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands or simply Maluku) are an archipelago in Indonesia, and part of the larger Malay Archipelago. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ...


The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770; subsequently their cultivation was introduced into Guiana, Brazil, most of the West Indies, and Zanzibar, where the majority of cloves are grown today. Guiana (also known as the Guiana highlands or the Guiana shield) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...


In Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, cloves were worth at least their weight in gold, due to the high price of importing them.[citation needed]


The clove has become a commercial 'success', with products including clove drops being released and enjoyed by die-hard clove fans.


Active compounds

The compound responsible for the cloves' aroma is eugenol. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves, comprising 72-90%. Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Other important constituents include essential oils acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophylline and vanillin; crategolic acid; tannins, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate (painkiller); the flavanoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin; triterpenoids like oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and campesterol; and several sesquiterpenes. [8] Eugenol (C10H12O2), is an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol, i. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Vanillin, methyl vanillin, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... Chemical structure of methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate (chemical formula C6H4(HO)COOCH3; also known as salicylic acid methyl ester, oil of wintergreen, betula oil, methyl ester) is a natural product of many species of plants. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... β-sitosterol Phytosterols (also called plant sterols) are a group of steroid alcohol, phytochemicals naturally occuring in plants. ... β-sitosterol Phytosterols (also called plant sterols) are a group of steroid alcohol, phytochemicals naturally occurring in plants. ... Sesquiterpenes consist of three isoprene units and have the molecular formula C15H24. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Balch, Phyllis and Balch, James. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 3rd ed., Avery Publishing, ©2000, pg. 94.
  2. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble 2004
  3. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble 2004
  4. ^ http://www.tibetmed.org/questions/question_44.htm
  5. ^ http://oneearthherbs.squarespace.com/diseases/special-diets-for-illness.html Tilotson, Alan. Special Diets for Illness
  6. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble 2004
  7. ^ a b Turner, Jack (2004). Spice: The History of a Temptation. Vintage Books, p. xv. ISBN 0-375-70705-0. 
  8. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble. 2004

  Results from FactBites:
 
Clove - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (590 words)
Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia (Banda Islands, known as the "Spice Islands") and Madagascar; it is also grown in Zanzibar, India, and Sri Lanka.
Cloves are harvested when 1.5-2 cm long, and consist of a long calyx, terminating in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the centre.
Clove essential oil is used in aromatherapy and oil of cloves is widely used to treat toothache in dental emergencies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m