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Encyclopedia > Cloud
Stratocumulus perlucidus clouds, as seen from an aircraft window.
Stratocumulus perlucidus clouds, as seen from an aircraft window.

A cloud is a visible mass of droplets or frozen crystals floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another planetary body. A cloud is also a visible mass attracted by gravity (clouds can also occur as masses of material in interstellar space, where they are called interstellar clouds and nebulae.) The branch of meteorology in which clouds are studied is nephology. Look up cloud in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1200 pixel, file size: 670 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions en:Image:Cloud From Plane Window. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1200 pixel, file size: 670 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions en:Image:Cloud From Plane Window. ... Water dropping from a faucet A drop is a small volume of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... Interstellar cloud is the generic name given to accumulations of gas and dust in our galaxy. ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Nephology (from the Greek word nephos for cloud) is the study of clouds and cloud formation. ...


On Earth the condensing substance is typically water vapor, which forms small droplets or ice crystals, typically 0.01 mm in diameter. When surrounded by billions of other droplets or crystals they become visible as clouds. Dense deep clouds exhibit a high reflectance (70% to 95%) throughout the visible range of wavelengths: they thus appear white, at least from the top. Cloud droplets tend to scatter light efficiently, so that the intensity of the solar radiation decreases with depth into the gases, hence the gray or even sometimes dark appearance of the clouds at their base. Thin clouds may appear to have acquired the color of their environment or background, and clouds illuminated by non-white light, such as during sunrise or sunset, may be colored accordingly. In the near-infrared range, clouds would appear darker because the water that constitutes the cloud droplets strongly absorbs solar radiation at those wavelengths. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... This article is about water ice. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Visible light redirects here. ... This article is about the color. ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ... Gray (Gy) is the derived SI unit for absorbed dose, specific energy and kerma (kinetic energy in matter). ... This article refers to meterology, for the airborne base of Captain Scarlet see Cloudbase. ... A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ...

Clouds can cast shadows
Clouds can cast shadows
Clouds and cloud bow above Pacific
Clouds and cloud bow above Pacific

Clouds are divided into two general categories: layered and convective. These are named stratus clouds (or stratiform, the Latin stratus means "layer") and cumulus clouds (or cumuliform; cumulus means "piled up"). These two cloud types are divided into four more groups that distinguish the cloud's altitude. Clouds are classified by the cloud base height, not the cloud top. This system was proposed by Luke Howard in 1802 in a presentation to the Askesian Society. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stratus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Luke Howard Luke Howard (November 28, 1772 – March 21, 1864) was a British meteorologist with broad interests in science. ... The Askesian Society was a social club for scientific thinkers, established in 1796 in London and lasting for about twenty years. ...

Contents

High clouds (Family A)

Cirrus Clouds over Golden Gate Bridge
Cirrus Clouds over Golden Gate Bridge

These generally form above 20,000 feet (6,000 m), in the cold region of the troposphere. In Polar regions, they may form as low as 16,500 ft (5,030 m); they are denoted by the prefix cirro- or cirrus. At this altitude, water frequently freezes so clouds are composed of ice crystals. The clouds tend to be wispy and are often transparent. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 5. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Earths polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles, north of the Arctic circle, or south of the Antarctic Circle. ... This article is about cirrus clouds. ... Icicles A natural ice block in Iceland Ice is the solid form of water. ...


Clouds in Family A include:

This article is about cirrus clouds. ... Cirrus uncinus is a type of cloud. ... A KHI on the planet Saturn, formed at the interaction of two bands of the planets atmosphere Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can occur when velocity shear is present within a continuous fluid or when there is sufficient velocity difference across the interface between two fluids. ... Cirrostratus showing an extremely large halo. ... ... Cumulonimbus with Pileus Pileus on a Cumulus cloud A pileus (Latin for cap) is a small, horizontal cloud that can appear above a cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud, giving the parent cloud a characteristic hoodlike appearance. ... Contrails are condensation trails (sometimes vapour trails): artificial cirrus clouds made by the exhaust of aircraft engines or wingtip vortices which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, frigid upper air. ...

Middle clouds (Family B)

These develop between 6,500 and 20,000 feet (between 2,000 and 6,000 m) and are denoted by the prefix alto-. They are made of water droplets and are frequently supercooled. Supercooling is the process of chilling a liquid below its freezing point, without its becoming solid. ...


Clouds in Family B include:

Altostratus is a cloud belonging to a class characterized by a generally uniform gray sheet or layer, lighter in color than nimbostratus and darker than cirrostratus. ... Image provided by Simon Eugster The altostratus undulatus is a type of low altocumulus cloud with signature undulations within it. ... An Altocumulus is a cloud belonging to a class characterized by globular masses or rolls in layers or patches, the individual elements being larger and darker than those of cirrocumulus and smaller than those of stratocumulus. ... The altocumulus undulatus is a mid-level cloud (about 8000 - 20,000 ft or 2400 - 6100 m), usually white or grey with layers or patches containing undulations that resemble waves or ripples in water. ... A mackerel sky is an indicator of moisture (the cloud) and instability (the cumulus form) at intermediate levels (2400-6100 m, 8000-20,000 ft). ... Altocumulus Castellanus are Altocumulus clouds with a turreted appearance. ... Lenticular clouds, technically known as altocumulus standing lenticularis, are stationary lens-shaped clouds that form at high altitudes, normally aligned at right-angles to the wind direction. ...

Low clouds (Family C)

These are found up to 6,500 feet (2,000 m) and include the stratus (dense and grey). When stratus clouds contact the ground, they are called fog. For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...


Clouds in Family C include:

A cumulus cloudscape over Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia
A cumulus cloudscape over Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia

For other uses, see Stratus. ... Nimbostratus has very few features. ... Cumulus humilis is what is commonly referred to as fair weather cumulus. In hot countries and over mountainous terrain these clouds occur at up to 6000 meters altitude, though elsewhere they are typically found lower. ... Cumulus mediocris is a cloud form of the cumulus family, slightly larger in vertical development than Cumulus humilis. ... A stratocumulus cloud belongs to a class characterized by large dark, rounded masses, usually in groups, lines, or waves, the individual elements being larger than those in altocumuli, and the whole being at a lower altitude, usually below 2,400 m (8,000 ft). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3568x1067, 466 KB) Cumulus Clouds, taken at Swifts Creek, in the Great Alps of East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3568x1067, 466 KB) Cumulus Clouds, taken at Swifts Creek, in the Great Alps of East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... Swifts Creek is located between Omeo and Ensay on the Great Alpine Road of Victoria Categories: Australia-related stubs ...

Vertical clouds (Family D)

A typical anvil shaped Cumulonimbus incus
A typical anvil shaped Cumulonimbus incus

These clouds can have strong up-currents, rise far above their bases and form at many heights. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Anvil shaped cumulus, February 2007 If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Anvil shaped cumulus, February 2007 If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an...


Clouds in Family D include:

Mammatus cloud formations

Cumulonimbus (Cb) is a type of cloud that is tall, dense, and involved in thunderstorms and other intense weather. ... A cumulonimbus incus cloud has a characteristic anvil-top shape. ... Cumulonimbus calvus is an moderately tall cumulonimbus cloud which is capable of precipitation, but has not yet reached the height where it forms into a cumulonimbus incus (anvil-top). ... Mammatus (also known as mamma or mammatocumulus, meaning breast-cloud) is a meteorological term applied to a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud. ... Cumulus congestus clouds are characteristic of unstable areas of the atmosphere which are undergoing convection. ... Pyrocumulus, or fire cumulus, is a dense cumuliform cloud usually found at an altitude of 1500 m. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x941, 236 KB) Panorama of mammatus clouds If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the...

Other clouds

Lenticular cloud over Wyoming.
Lenticular cloud over Wyoming.

A few clouds can be found above the troposphere; these include noctilucent and polar stratospheric clouds (or nacreous clouds), which occur in the mesosphere and stratosphere respectively. Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Noctilucent clouds (also known as polar mesospheric clouds) are rare bright cloudlike atmospheric phenomena visible in a deep twilight (the name means roughly night shining). They are most commonly observed in the summer months at latitudes between 50° and 60° (north and south). ... Categories: Stub | Clouds ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sphaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... This article is about the stratosphere layer; for the hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, see Stratosphere Las Vegas. ...


Some clouds form as a consequence of interactions with specific geographical features. Perhaps the strangest geographically-specific cloud in the world is Morning Glory, a rolling cylindrical cloud which appears unpredictably over the Gulf of Carpentaria in Northern Australia. Associated with a powerful "ripple" in the atmosphere, the cloud may be "surfed" in unpowered glider aircraft. Map of Australia, the Gulf of Carpentaria can be found in northern Australia Satellite photo of a morning glory cloud over the Gulf of Carpentaria The Morning Glory cloud is a rare meteorological phenomena observed in Northern Australias Gulf of Carpentaria. ... A roll cloud is a low, horizontal tube-shaped arcus cloud associated with a thunderstorm gust front (or sometimes with a cold front). ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ...


Cloud fields

A cloud field is simply a group of clouds but sometimes cloud fields can take on certain shapes that have their own characteristics and are specially classified. Stratocumulus clouds can often be found in the following forms:

  • Open cell, which resembles a honeycomb, with clouds around the edges and clear, open space in the middle.
  • Closed cell, which is cloudy in the center and clear on the edges, similar to a filled honeycomb.
  • Actinoform, which resembles a leaf or a spoked wheel.

For other uses, see Honeycomb (disambiguation). ... Actinoform over the tropical central Pacific. ...

Colors

Rain clouds over the North Sea taken from the coast of Herne Bay, Kent
Rain clouds over the North Sea taken from the coast of Herne Bay, Kent
Sunset in Lynnwood, Washington
Sunset in Lynnwood, Washington

The color of a cloud tells much about what is going on inside the cloud. Clouds form when relatively warm air containing water vapor is lighter than its surrounding air and this causes it to rise. As it rises it cools and the vapor condenses out of the air as micro-droplets. These tiny particles of water are relatively densely packed and sunlight cannot penetrate far into the cloud before it is reflected out, giving a cloud its characteristic white color. As a cloud matures, the droplets may combine to produce larger droplets, which may combine to form droplets large enough to fall as rain. In this process of accumulation, the space between droplets becomes larger and larger, permitting light to penetrate much farther into the cloud. If the cloud is sufficiently large and the droplets within are spaced far enough apart, it may be that a percentage of the light which enters the cloud is not reflected back out before it is absorbed (Think of how much farther one can see in a heavy rain as opposed to how far one can see in a heavy fog). This process of reflection/absorption is what leads to the range of cloud color from white through grey through black. For the same reason, the undersides of large clouds and heavy overcasts appear various degrees of grey; little light is being reflected or transmitted back to the observer. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... , Herne Bay is a seaside town in Kent, South East England, with a population of 35,188. ... Lynnwood is the name of several places in the United States of America: Lynnwood, Pennsylvania (two places): in Fayette County in Luzerne County Lynnwood, Virginia (two places): in Rockingham County a neighborhood in the independent city of Virginia Beach Lynnwood, Washington This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... This article is about precipitation. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. ...


Other colours occur naturally in clouds. Bluish-grey is the result of light scattering within the cloud. In the visible spectrum, blue and green are at the short end of light's visible wavelengths, while red and yellow are at the long end. The short rays are more easily scattered by water droplets, and the long rays are more likely to be absorbed. The bluish color is evidence that such scattering is being produced by rain-sized droplets in the cloud.


A greenish tinge to a cloud is produced when sunlight is scattered by ice. A cumulonimbus cloud which shows green is an imminent sign of heavy rain, hail, strong winds and possible tornadoes. This article is about the precipitation. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ...


Yellowish clouds are rare but may occur in the late spring through early fall months during forest fire season. The yellow color is due to the presence of smoke. Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Red, orange and pink clouds occur almost entirely at sunrise/sunset and are the result of the scattering of sunlight by the atmosphere. The clouds are not that color; they are reflecting the long (and unscattered) rays of sunlight which are predominant at those hours. The effect is much the same as if one were to shine a red spotlight on a white sheet. In combination with large, mature thunderheads this can produce blood-red clouds. The evening before the Edmonton, Alberta tornado in 1987, Edmontonians observed such clouds — deep black on their dark side and intense red on their sunward side. In this case the adage "red sky at night, sailor's delight" was wrong.The cloud was white because the reflection of the sun Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ...

Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Cloud feedback is the coupling between cloudiness and surface air temperature in which a change in surface temperature could lead to a change in clouds, which could then amplify or diminish the initial temperature perturbation. ...

Global dimming

The recently recognized phenomenon of global dimming is thought to be caused by changes to the reflectivity of clouds due to the increased presence of aerosols and other particulates in the atmosphere. Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ...


Global brightening

In mountainous areas one often finds the peaks above the clouds as here for the Pico Ruivo seen from Pico do Arieiro, Portugal.
In mountainous areas one often finds the peaks above the clouds as here for the Pico Ruivo seen from Pico do Arieiro, Portugal.

New research From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface by Martin Wild et al. (Science 6 May 2005; 308: 847-850) indicates global brightening trend. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 313 KB) View from Pico Do Areiro to Pico Ruivo, Madeira File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cloud Pico Ruivo Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 313 KB) View from Pico Do Areiro to Pico Ruivo, Madeira File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cloud Pico Ruivo Metadata This file contains additional information... View of Pico Ruivo from Pico do Arieiro Its a peak located on the Madeira Islands, it can be reached from Pico do Arieiro (3rd highest) or from Santana. ... View of Pico Ruivo from Pico Do Arieiro To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... NASA photograph showing aircraft contrails and natural clouds. ...


Global brightening is caused by decreased amounts of particulate matter in the atmosphere. With less particulate matter there is less surface area for condensation to occur. Since there's less condensation in the atmosphere and increased evaporation caused by increasing amounts of sunlight striking the water's surface there is more moisture, causing fewer but thicker clouds. For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ...


Clouds on other planets

Main article: Extraterrestrial atmospheres

Within our solar system, any planet or moon with an atmosphere also has clouds. Venus' clouds are composed entirely of sulfuric acid droplets. Mars has high, thin clouds of water ice. Both Jupiter and Saturn have an outer cloud deck composed of ammonia clouds, an intermediate deck of ammonium hydrosulfide clouds and an inner deck of water clouds. Uranus and Neptune have atmospheres dominated by methane clouds. Major features of the Solar System (not to scale) The study of extraterrestrial atmospheres is an active field of research,[1] both as an aspect of astronomy and to gain insight into Earths atmosphere. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Ammonium sulfide, (NH4)2S, is obtained, in the form of micaceous crystals, by passing hydrogen sulfide mixed with a slight excess of ammonia through a well-cooled vessel; the hydrosulfide NH4·HS is formed at the same time. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


Saturn's moon Titan has clouds which are believed to be composed largely of droplets of liquid methane. The Cassini-Huygens Saturn mission has uncovered evidence of a fluid cycle on Titan, including lakes near the poles and fluvial channels on the surface of the moon. Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ...


See also

Weather Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1754x2646, 2231 KB) Rooster Weather Vane photographer: Arne Koehler File links The following pages link to this file: Weather vane ... The Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program uses state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instrumentation to study the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere. ... The CLAW hypothesis proposes a feedback loop that operates between ocean ecosystems and the Earths climate[1]. The hypothesis specifically proposes that particular phytoplankton that produce dimethyl sulfide are responsive to variations in climate forcing, and that these responses lead to a negative feedback loop that acts to stabilise... Cloud albedo is a measure of the reflectivity of a cloud - higher values mean that the cloud can reflect more solar radiation. ... The Cloud Appreciation Society is a society founded by Gavin Pretor-Pinney from the United Kingdom in January 2005. ... This article refers to meterology, for the airborne base of Captain Scarlet see Cloudbase. ... Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - NASA Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles (typically 0. ... Cloud feedback is the coupling between cloudiness and surface air temperature in which a change in surface temperature could lead to a change in clouds, which could then amplify or diminish the initial temperature perturbation. ... Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing) is the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions. ... Cessna 210 with cloud seeding equipment Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. ... // High-level clouds Cirrus Clouds (from above) Abbreviation: Ci Cirrus clouds form above 16,500 feet (5,000 m), in the cold region of the troposphere. ... A cloudscape by Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruysdael. ... An example of cloudscape photography Cloudscape photography is photography showing a view of clouds and sky. ... Look up coalescence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The sky of a world refers to the view of the heavens from its surface. ... A flight ceiling is the upper altitudinal limit of which any aircraft may fly given its mechanical abilities. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Fractus clouds, also commonly known as Scud, are clouds which have broken off a larger cloud, usually sheared from the latter by strong winds. ... // An iridescent Cloud is a rare phenomenon when a cloud shows vivid unusual colors or an entire spectrum at once. ... Mammatus clouds in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1973 Cumulonimbus with mammatus formed after Hurricane Catarina in Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004 Another view of the post-Catarina mammatus formation Mammatus (also known as mamma or mammatocumulus) is a meteorological term applied to a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a... Dramatic morning mist Mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... This wave cloud pattern formed off of the ÃŽle Amsterdam in the far southern Indian Ocean, due to orographic lift of an airmass by the island, producing alternating bands of condensed and invisible humidity downwind of the island as the moist air moves in vertical waves and the moisture successively... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Cumulus humilis indicates a good day ahead. ...

References

  • Hamblyn, Richard The Invention of Clouds — How an Amateur Meteorologist Forged the Language of the Skies Picador; Reprint edition (August 3, 2002). ISBN 0312420013
  • http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/news/2006/04_14_06.htm Could Reducing Global Dimming Mean a Hotter, Dryer World?

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In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ... The lapse rate is defined as the negative of the rate of change in an atmospheric variable, usually temperature, with height observed while moving upwards through an atmosphere. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... A surface weather analysis for the United States on October 21, 2006. ... In Meteorology, ability is a measure of the nothingness at which an object or light can be seen. ... Vorticity is a mathematical concept used in fluid dynamics. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - NASA Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles (typically 0. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... In meteorology, convective available potential energy (CAPE) is the amount of energy a parcel of air would have if lifted a certain distance vertically through the atmosphere. ... Convective inhibition (CIN or CINH) is a meteorlogic parameter that measures the amount of energy that will prevent an air parcel from rising from the surface to the level of free convection. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The convective temperature (CT or Tc) is the approximate temperature that air near the surface much reach for cloud formation without mechanical lift. ... The lifted index (LI) is the temperature difference between an air parcel lifted adiabatically and the temperature of the environment at a pressure height in the atmosphere, usually 500 hPa (mb). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The dew point (or dewpoint) is the temperature which a given parcel of air must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to condense into water. ... Equivalent temperature is the temperature of an air parcel from which we would have completely extracted its water vapor content by an adiabatic process. ... The heat index (HI) or humidex is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ... Heat Index (HI) is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... The potential temperature of a parcel of air at pressure is the temperature that the parcel would acquire if adiabatically brought to a standard reference pressure , usually 1 bar. ... Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as Theta-e , is a measure of the instability of air at a given pressure, humidity, and temperature. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Wet-bulb temperature ... Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Density lines and isobars cross in a baroclinic fluid (top). ... Clouds (from above) Clouds form when the dewpoint of water is reached in the presence of condensation nuclei in the troposphere. ... This article is about cirrus clouds. ... Cirrus uncinus is a type of cirrus cloud. ... A KHI on the planet Saturn, formed at the interaction of two bands of the planets atmosphere A KH instability rendered visible by clouds over Mount Duval in Australia Kelvin–Helmholtz instability can occur when velocity shear is present within a continuous fluid or when there is sufficient velocity... {{Infobox Cloud | name = Cirrostratus cloud | image location = Cirrostratus02. ... A cirrocumulus is a high-altitude cloud, usually occurring at 20,000-40,000 ft (6,000-12,000 m). ... Cumulonimbus with Pileus Pileus on a Cumulus cloud A pileus (Latin for cap) is a small, horizontal cloud that can appear above a cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud, giving the parent cloud a characteristic hoodlike appearance. ... Contrails are condensation trails (sometimes vapour trails): artificial cirrus clouds made by the exhaust of aircraft engines or wingtip vortices which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, frigid upper air. ... Altostratus is a cloud belonging to a class characterized by a generally uniform gray sheet or layer, lighter in color than nimbostratus and darker than cirrostratus. ... Image provided by Simon Eugster The altostratus undulatus is a type of low altocumulus cloud with signature undulations within it. ... ... The altocumulus undulatus is a mid-level cloud (about 8000 - 20,000 ft or 2400 - 6100 m), usually white or grey with layers or patches containing undulations that resemble waves or ripples in water. ... A mackerel sky is an indicator of moisture (the cloud) and instability (the cumulus form) at intermediate levels (2400-6100 m, 8000-20,000 ft). ... Altocumulus Castellanus is a family B type cloud. ... Lenticular clouds, technically known as altocumulus standing lenticularis, are stationary lens-shaped clouds that form at high altitudes, normally aligned at right-angles to the wind direction. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stratus. ... Nimbostratus has very few features. ... Cumulus humilis is what is commonly referred to as fair weather cumulus. In hot countries and over mountainous terrain these clouds occur at up to 6000 meters altitude, though elsewhere they are typically found lower. ... Cumulus mediocris is a cloud form of the cumulus family, slightly larger in vertical development than Cumulus humilis. ... A stratocumulus cloud belongs to a class characterized by large dark, rounded masses, usually in groups, lines, or waves, the individual elements being larger than those in altocumuli, and the whole being at a lower altitude, usually below 2,400 m (8,000 ft). ... An arcus cloud is a low, horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of thunderstorm outflow (i. ... Fractus clouds, also commonly known as Scud, are clouds which have broken off a larger cloud, usually sheared from the latter by strong winds. ... A funnel cloud. ... A roll cloud is a low, horizontal tube-shaped arcus cloud associated with a thunderstorm gust front (or sometimes with a cold front). ... Underside of a shelf cloud in Minnesota which brought a temperature drop of 20° Fahrenheit (11° C) from 85° F to 65° F as it passed. ... A wall cloud with tail cloud A wall cloud is a cloud formation. ... Cumulonimbus (Cb) is a type of cloud that is tall, dense, and involved in thunderstorms and other intense weather. ... A cumulonimbus incus cloud has a characteristic anvil-top shape. ... Cumulonimbus calvus is an moderately tall cumulonimbus cloud which is capable of precipitation, but has not yet reached the height where it forms into a cumulonimbus incus (anvil-top). ... Mammatus (also known as mamma or mammatocumulus, meaning breast-cloud) is a meteorological term applied to a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud. ... Cumulus congestus clouds are characteristic of unstable areas of the atmosphere which are undergoing convection. ... Cumulus castellanus (from Latin castellanus, castle) is a type of cumulus cloud that is distinctive because it displays multiple towers arising from its top, indicating significant vertical air movement. ... Pyrocumulus, or fire cumulus, is a dense cumuliform cloud usually found at an altitude of 1500 m. ... The pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) is a type of cloud formed above a source of heat such as a wildfire or industrial plant. ... An overshooting top protruding above the anvil at the top of a thunderstorm An overshooting top is a domed structure shooting out of the anvil of a thunderstorm, sometimes into the stratosphere. ... An accessory cloud is a cloud which is dependent on a larger cloud system for development and continuance. ... Noctilucent clouds (also known as polar mesospheric clouds) are rare bright cloudlike atmospheric phenomena visible in a deep twilight (the name means roughly night shining). They are most commonly observed in the summer months at latitudes between 50° and 60° (north and south). ... Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), also known as nacreous clouds, are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of 15,000–25,000 metres (50,000–80,000 ft). ...


 
 

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