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Encyclopedia > Cloture

In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. A parliamentary procedure is the individual process used for decision making by a deliberative assembly. ... A motion is a formal step to introduce a matter for consideration by a group. ... Debate or debating is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ...


The procedure originated in the French National Assembly, from which the name (originally clĂ´ture) in French is taken. It was introduced into the United Kingdom Parliament by William Gladstone to overcome the obstruction of the Irish nationalist party and was made permanent in 1887. It was subsequently adopted by the United States Senate and other legislatures. The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... William Ewart Gladstone (December 29, 1809 - May 19, 1898) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886 and 1892-1894). ... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ...


United Kingdom

A motion for closure may be adopted in both the House of Commons and in the House of Lords by a simple majority of those voting. In the House of Commons, at least one hundred Members must vote in favour of the motion for closure to be adopted; the Speaker of the House of Commons may choose to deny the closure motion if he feels that insufficient debate has occurred, or that the procedure is being used to violate the rights of the minority. The government often impose a timetable on legislation in advance by way of a programme motion, under which debate automatically ceases when the alloted time expires. In the House of Lords, the Lord Chancellor does not possess an equivalent power. Closure motions are often referred to as "guillotines". The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... A simple majority is the most common requirement in voting for a measure to pass, especially in deliberative bodies and small organizations. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


United States

A similar procedure was adopted in the United States Senate in 1917 in response to the actions of isolationist senators who attempted to talk out, or filibuster a bill to arm U.S. merchant ships. President Woodrow Wilson urged the Senate to change its rules to thwart what he called a "little group of willful men", to which the Senate responded by introducing cloture in the form of Rule 22. [1] Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... A filibuster is a process, typically an extremely long speech, that is used primarily to stall the legislative process and thus derail a particular piece of legislation, rather than to make a particular point in the content of the diversion per se. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ...


This originally required a supermajority of two-thirds of all senators (i.e. 67 out of 100). However, it proved very difficult to achieve this; the Senate tried eleven times between 1927 and 1962 to invoke cloture but failed each time. Filibuster was particularly heavily used by senators from Southern states to block civil rights legislation. A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


In 1975, the Democratic Senate majority, having achieved a net gain of four seats in the 1974 Senate elections to a strength of 61 (with an additional Independent caucusing with them for a total of 62), reduced the necessary supermajority to three-fifths (60 out of 100). This allowed the Senate majority to invoke cloture, provided that party discipline held. This considerably strengthed the power of the majority, and allowed it to pass many bills that would otherwise have been filibustered. (The Democratic Party had held a two-thirds majority in the 89th Congress of 1965, but regional divisions among Democrats meant that many filibusters were invoked by Southern Democrats against civil rights bills supported by the Northern wing of the party.) Some senators wanted to reduce it to a simple majority (51 out of 100) but this was rejected, as it would greatly diminish the ability of the minority to check the majority. 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Ninety-fourth United States Congress was in session from 1975 to 1977. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1974 was an election for the United States Senate held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixons resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Fords subsequent pardon of Nixon. ... // 1965-1966 The first session of this Congress took place in Washington, DC from January 4, 1965 to October 23, 1965. ...


The procedure for "invoking cloture," or ending a filibuster, is as follows: A filibuster is a process, typically an extremely long speech, that is used primarily to stall the legislative process and thus derail a particular piece of legislation, rather than to make a particular point in the content of the diversion per se. ...

  • A minimum of sixteen senators must sign a petition for cloture.
  • The petition may be presented by interrupting another Senator's speech.
  • The clerk reads the petition.
  • The cloture petition is ignored for one full day during which the Senate is sitting (If the petition is filed on a Friday, it is ignored until Tuesday, assuming that the Senate did not sit on Saturday or Sunday.)
  • On the second calendar day during which the Senate sits after the presentation of the petition, after the Senate has been sitting for one hour, a "quorum call" is undertaken to ensure that a majority of the Senators are present.
  • The President of the Senate or President pro tempore presents the petition.
  • The Senate votes on the petition; three-fifths of the whole number of Senators (sixty with no vacancies) is the required majority; however, when cloture is invoked on a question of changing the rules of the Senate, two-thirds of the Senators voting (not necessarily two-thirds of all Senators) is the requisite majority.

After cloture has been invoked, the following restrictions apply: A quorum call or call to quorum is a parliamentary procedure used to delay a vote or otherwise slow down the deliberations of a parliamentary body. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Minor parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal • • The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska, the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ...

  • No more than thirty hours of debate may occur.
  • No Senator may speak for more than one hour.
  • No amendments may be moved unless they were filed on the day in between the presentation of the petition and the actual cloture vote.
  • All amendments must be relevant to the debate.
  • Certain debates on procedure are not permissible.
  • The presiding officer gains additional power in controlling debate.
  • No other matters may be considered until the question upon which cloture was invoked is disposed of.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cloture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (647 words)
In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end.
The procedure for "invoking cloture," or ending a filibuster, is as follows:
No amendments may be moved unless they were filed on the day in between the presentation of the petition and the actual cloture vote.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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