FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Closed communion
Part of the series on

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper" The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

Real Presence
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1211x1096, 178 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Real Presence is a doctrine of many Christian traditions that Jesus the Christ is present in the bread and wine of the Eucharist or Holy Communion. ... Transubstantiation is the belief held by the Roman Catholic Church that the Eucharistic elements of bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus during Consecration. ...

Theologies contrasted
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity centered in the comprehensive mystical idea of metousiosis, a great change of essence the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... St. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Saint John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 - March 21, 1556) was the protestant Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He wrote two prayerbooks and is considered to be the founder of the Church of England. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus, the Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice of the Roman Catholic Church in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in certain Lutheran parishes and provinces, such as the Church of Sweden which are largely High Church. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lord's Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. Though the meaning of the term varies slightly in different Christian theological traditions, it generally means a church or denomination limits participation either to members of their own church, members of their own denomination, or members of some specific class (e.g., baptized members of evangelical churches). See also intercommunion. The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... In a narrow sense, intercommunion is the same thing as open communion: the practice of serving communion to all Christians rather than only to those of ones own denomination. ...



A closed-communion church is one that (perhaps with exceptions in unusual circumstances) excludes non-members from receiving communion. The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

The Roman Catholic church (and all churches that are in full communion with the Holy See, including the Latin and Eastern rites) has partially-closed communion. Members of churches that do not share the same theology of the eucharist (such as the Protestant churches) are excluded from communion at a Catholic church, but members of churches that share the same eucharistic theology (such as the Orthodox churches) are invited to receive communion if the spiritual need for it is great and if they are unable to attend a service of their own communion. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (The Latin Rite), is a term by which documents of the Catholic Church designate the particular Church, distinct from the Eastern Rite Churches, that developed in western Europe and northern Africa, where Latin was the language of... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ...

The Eastern Orthodox Church, comprising 14 or 15 autocephalous Orthodox hierarchical churches, is another closed-communion church. Thus, a member of the Russian Orthodox Church attending the Divine Liturgy in a Greek Orthodox Church will be allowed to receive communion and vice versa, but a Protestant or a Roman Catholic attending a Greek Orthodox liturgy will be excluded from communion. In either case, non-Christians are also excluded. The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion Church of Greece, which has been autocephalous... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a splitting away from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ...

Among Baptist churches, closed communion is the practice of restricting communion (or The Lord's Supper) to only those who hold membership in the local church that is observing the ordinance. Thus, members from other churches, even other Baptist churches, will be excluded from participating in the communion service. This viewpoint is usually, though not exclusively, associated with Landmark ecclesiology. A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ... Though numerous churches and some organizations use the terms Landmark and Landmark Baptist in their name, there is no identifiable sub-group of Baptists known as the Landmark Baptist Church. ...

Confessional Lutherans, or those such as are found in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, Evangelical Lutheran Synod, and Protestant Conference practice closed communion. Failing to do so is condemned by confessional Lutherans as the sin of unionism. The Apostolic Christian Church, Church of God in Christ, Mennonite, some churches in the Reformed tradition and Primitive Baptists also practice closed communion. Other groups that practice closed communion are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. ... Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) is a United States religious denomination belonging to the Lutheran tradition within Christianity. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Synod or ELS is a US-based Protestant Christian denomination based in Mankato, Minnesota. ... The Apostolic Christian Church is a religious body in the United States and Canada that originates from the anabaptist movement. ... Church of God in Christ, Mennonite is a Christian group of Anabaptist heritage; a 19th century offshot of the Old Order Mennonite Church. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Primitive Baptists are a group of Baptists that have an historical connection to the missionary / anti-missionary controversy that divided Baptists of America in the early part of the 19th century. ... The temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located in Salt Lake City, Utah is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ...

The term close communion normally means the same thing as closed communion. However, some make a distinction, so the terms can be a source of confusion. The earliest use of close communion comes from a mistranslation of the Lutheran theologian Franz Otto August Pieper's Christian Dogmatics. The term has since spread, although later translations corrected the error to "closed communion."

Examples and applications

If a Roman Catholic marries a Syriac Orthodox Christian in a Syriac Orthodox church, the priests in both churches may allow the Roman Catholic to receive communion from the Orthodox priest at the wedding. [1] The Holy See recognizes the validity of Eastern Orthodox sacraments and poses conditions under which Catholics may receive them. [2] A Catholic priest would deny permission for a Catholic to receive communion in a Protestant church, since the Eucharist in Protestant churches is considered invalid because the minister was not properly ordained by a bishop in a line of succession dating back to the apostles, referred to as Apostolic Succession. A Catholic priest could give communion to a Protestant marrying a Catholic, provided the Catholic understanding of the Eucharist is not in any way contradicted. The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor of the Church of the Apostles. ...

Many Scottish Protestant churches used to give tokens to members passing a religious test prior to the day of communion, then required the token for entry. Some US and other churches also used communion tokens. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Token coins. ...

Usage note

  • When using the phrase closed communion as a noun phrase, it should not be hyphenated. For example: "The Eastern Orthodox Church practices closed communion."
  • When using it as a compound adjective, it should be hyphenated. For example: "The Eastern Orthodox Church is a closed-communion church."

A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ...

See also

Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...

External links

  • Closed Communion - Apostolic Christian Church view
  • The Biblical Practice of Closed Communion (PDF) - a Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod view
  • The Case for Closed Communion - a Baptist view
    • Covenant Communion - a variation of the Closed Communion emphasis
  • The Holy Eucharist - Greek Orthodox view
  • Why Does the Catholic Church have a Closed Communion? - Roman Catholic view

  Results from FactBites:
Should communion be open or closed? (454 words)
The practice of restricting communion to church members seems to be an attempt to make sure someone doesn't partake in an unworthy manner, which some assume to mean that person is not a true Christian.
However, the word is not “unworthy” but is “unworthily.” This is referring to the manner in which a person partakes of the bread and cup, not to his or her worthiness to participate in the first place.
If believers are irreverent in their attitude toward communion because of prejudice or appetite, they should voluntarily refuse to partake, or, in some extreme cases, should be counseled by church leadership not to partake.
Closed Communion Resources (353 words)
The Biblical Practice of Closed Communion in the Light of 1 Corinthians 11:17-34 by Rev. William P. Terjesen
The Difficulty With Closed Communion by Rev. James Roemke
The Sacrament of Unity in a Divided Christendom: Closed Communion in Contemporary Context, by the LCC Commission on Theology and Church Relations
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m