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Encyclopedia > Cloning
For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. For other uses, see clone (disambiguation).

Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of something. In biology, it collectively refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. The term also encompasses situations whereby organisms reproduce asexually. Although genes are recognized as influencing [behavior] and [cognition], genetically identical does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with near identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and not altogether overlapping personalities. ... Look up clone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Etymology

The term clone is derived from κλών, the Greek word for "twig, branch", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. In horticulture, the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o"[citation needed]. Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively. Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


Molecular cloning

Main article: Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. Cloning is frequently employed to amplify DNA fragments containing genes, but it can be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is utilised in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications such as large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... for disambiguation of the term promoter, see the promoter Wiktionary article In genetics, a promoter is a DNA sequence that enables a gene to be transcribed. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ...


In essence, in order to amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replication, a sequence element capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence. In practice, however, a number of other features are desired and a variety of specialised cloning vectors exist that allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded RNA and DNA production and a host of other manipulations. The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular DNA sequence at which DNA replication is initiated. ... The pGEX-3x plasmid is a popular cloning vector. ... Left: An RNA strand, with its nitrogenous bases. ...


Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps: fragmentation, ligation, transfection, and screening/selection. Although these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number of alternative routes can be selected, these are summarised as a ‘cloning strategy’.


Initially, the DNA of interest needs to be isolated to provide a relevant DNA segment of suitable size. Subsequently, a ligation procedure is employed whereby the amplified fragment is inserted into a vector. The vector (which is frequently circular) is linearised by means of restriction enzymes, and incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions with an enzyme called DNA ligase. Following ligation the vector with the insert of interest is transfected into cells. A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, electroporation and biolistics. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers which provide blue/white screening (α-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. Nevertheless, these selection steps do not absolutely guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained. Further investigation of the resulting colonies is required to confirm that cloning was successful. This may be accomplished by means of PCR, restriction fragment analysis and/or DNA sequencing. In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a particular type of ligase (EC 6. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ...


Cellular cloning

Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings
Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings

Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and essentially only requires the inoculation of the appropriate medium. However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1840 KB) Human cell-line colony being cloned in vitro through use of cloning rings. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1840 KB) Human cell-line colony being cloned in vitro through use of cloning rings. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ...


A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings (cylinders). According to this technique, a single-cell suspension of cells which have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at high dilution to create isolated colonies; each arising from a single and potentially clonally distinct cell. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few of cells, sterile polystyrene rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of trypsin is added. Cloned cells are collected from inside the ring and transferred to a new vessel for further growth. In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... For other uses, see Selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Trypsin (EC 3. ...


Organism

Main article: Asexual reproduction

Organism cloning refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants (see vegetative reproduction) and some insects. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ...


Horticultural

The term clone is used in horticulture to mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. As an example, some European cultivars of grapes represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia. Other examples are potato and banana. Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation. Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ... In botany, apomixis is asexual reproduction, without fertilization. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...


Many trees, shrubs, vines, ferns and other herbaceous perennials form clonal colonies. Parts of a large clonal colony often become detached from the parent, termed fragmentation, to form separate individuals. Some plants also form seeds asexually, termed apomixis, e.g. dandelion. The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... A Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... A clonal colony is a group of plants (or fungi) that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a given single ancestor. ... For other uses, see fragmentation. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ...


Animals

Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as parthenogenesis. An example is the "Little Fire Ant" (Wasmannia auropunctata), which is native to Central and South America but has spread throughout many tropical environments. For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... Species More than 280 species and subspecies, see text Fire ants, sometimes referred to as simply red ants, are stinging ants of which there are over 280 species worldwide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Red imported fire ant. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


First cloned buffalo

On September 15, 2007, the Philippines announced its development of Southeast Asia’s first cloned water buffalo. The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), under the Department of Science and Technology in Los Baños, Laguna approved this project. The Department of Agriculture’s Philippine Carabao Center (PCC) will implement “Cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer as a tool for genetic improvement in water buffaloes.” “Super buffalo calves” will be produced. There will be no modification or alteration of the genetic materials, as in GMOs (genetically modified organisms).[1] is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Los Banos may refer to: Los Banos, California, United States Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Laguna may refer to more than one article: Laguna, a Philipine province; Laguna, Santa Catarina, a city located in southern Brazil; Laguna de Cameros, a municipality in La Rioja, Spain San Cristóbal de La Laguna (also La Laguna), a municipality in the island of Tenerife, province of Santa Cruz... A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service[1]. // The word project comes from the Latin word projectum from projicere, to throw something forwards which in turn comes from pro-, which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... GMO is an abbreviation with several meanings: Genetically modified organism, an organism the genetic material of which has been altered using recombinant DNA technology Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad (AAR reporting mark GMO), an American railroad carrier This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ...


Therapeutic cloning

Therapeutic cloning refers to a procedure which produces cells, specific body parts, and organs to be utilized for medical purposes. Although this has only been realized with parts of bladders[2], early cleavage-stage human embryos have been cloned[3][4] and this is the subject of much active research. Currently, patients subjected to transplantation are administered immunosuppressive drugs to prevent recognition of the foreign transplant by their immune system and its subsequent rejection. The ability to clonally derive tissues and organs from the patients' own cells would abolish the need for immunosuppressive drugs and would allow the patients to live a life without the potentially serious side-effects of immunosuppressive drugs. More importantly, the ability to clonally derive organs would alleviate the current shortage of transplants and would possibly reduce waiting times for transplants to become available. For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... “Transplant” redirects here. ...


Reproductive cloning

Reproductive cloning uses "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg which has no nucleus. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below) . It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as therapeutic cloning. ...


Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the mitochondria in the cytoplasm also contains DNA and during SCNT this DNA is wholly from the donor egg, thus the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death. Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Cross section of cell with cytoplasm labeled at center right. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ...


Species cloned

The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. Landmark experiments in chronological order: Process Nuclear Transfer is a form of cloning. ...

  • Tadpole: (1952) Many scientists questioned whether cloning had actually occurred and unpublished experiments by other labs were not able to reproduce the reported results.
  • Carp: (1963) In China, embryologist Tong Dizhou cloned a fish. He published the findings in an obscure Chinese science journal which was never translated into English.[5]
  • Sheep: (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. Megan and Morag cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and Dolly the sheep from a somatic cell in 1997.
  • Rhesus Monkey: Tetra (female, January 2000) from embryo splitting
  • Cattle: Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) and (2005) Brazil[6]
  • Cat: CopyCat "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky, 2004, was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons
  • Mule: Idaho Gem, a john mule born 2003-05-04, was the first horse-family clone.
  • Horse: Prometea, a Haflinger female born 2003-05-28, was the first horse clone.

For a complete list see: List of animals that have been cloned. For other uses, see Tadpole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carp (disambiguation). ... ... Categories: Chinese scientists | 1902 births | 1979 deaths | Cloning | People stubs ... Sheep redirects here. ... Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Tetra is a macaque that was created through a cloning technique called embryo splitting. http://archives. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... CC at age 2 with her human companion CC for Carbon Copy (born December 22, 2001), is a brown tabby and white domestic shorthair and the first cloned pet. ... Little Nicky (born October 17, 2004) is the first commercially-produced cat clone. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... The mule Idaho Gem became the first clone born in the horse family. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Prometea (born May 28, 2003) is a Haflinger foal, the first cloned horse and the first to be born from and carried by its cloning mother. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Health aspects

The success rate of cloning has been low: Dolly the sheep was born after 277 eggs were used to create 29 embryos, which only produced three lambs at birth, only one of which lived. Seventy calves have been created from 9,000 attempts and one third of them died young; Prometea took 328 attempts. Notably, although the first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell. Prometea (born May 28, 2003) is a Haflinger foal, the first cloned horse and the first to be born from and carried by its cloning mother. ...


There were early claims that Dolly the Sheep had accelerated aging. Aging of this type is thought to be due to the shortening of telomeres, regions at the tips of chromosomes which prevent genetic threads from fraying every time a cell divides. Over time telomeres get worn down until cell-division is no longer possible — this is thought to be a cause of aging. Dolly died in the year 2003. Ian Wilmut said that Dolly's early death had nothing to do with cloning but with a respiratory infection common to lambs raised like Dolly. Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... A telomere is a region of highly repetitive DNA at the end of a linear chromosome that functions as a disposable buffer. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ian Wilmut (born July 7, 1944) is an English embryologist and is currently one of the leaders of the Queens Medical Research Institute at the University of Edinburgh. ...


Analysis of telomeres from cloned cows showed that they were longer than noncloned calves. This suggests clones could live longer life spans although many died young after excessive growth. Researchers think that this could eventually be developed to reverse aging in humans, provided that aging is based chiefly on the shortening of telomeres. Although some work has been performed on telomeres and aging in nuclear transfer clones, the evidence is at an early stage.[7]


Dolly the Sheep

Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie
Main article: Dolly the Sheep

Dolly (1996-07-052003-02-14), a Finn Dorsett ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there until her death when she was six. On 2003-04-09 her stuffed remains were placed at Edinburgh's Royal Museum, part of the National Museums of Scotland. Thumbnail photo of Dolly the sheep and her first-born lamb Bonnie owned by Roslin Institute obtained from http://www. ... Thumbnail photo of Dolly the sheep and her first-born lamb Bonnie owned by Roslin Institute obtained from http://www. ... Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up ewe, Ewe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Roslin Institute is a government research institute near Edinburgh that is sponsored by the UKs Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). ... This article is about the country. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A mounted snow leopard. ... The main hall of the Royal Museum of Scotland The Royal Museum is a museum on Chambers Street, in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The National Museums of Scotland are: The Royal Museum of Scotland - a general museum encompassing geology, archaeology, natural history, science, technology and art. ...


Dolly was publically significant because the effort showed that the genetic material from a specific adult cell, programmed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, could be reprogrammed to grow an entire new organism. Before this demonstration, there was no proof for the widely spread hypothesis that differentiated animal cells can give rise to entire new organisms.


Human cloning

Main article: Human cloning

Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing or previously existing human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. There are two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. A third type of cloning called replacement cloning exists in theory, and is a combination of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Replacement cloning entails the replacement of an extensively damaged, failed, or failing body through cloning followed by whole or partial brain transplant. It has been proposed as a way to greatly extend lifespan. Although genes are recognized as influencing [behavior] and [cognition], genetically identical does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with near identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and not altogether overlapping personalities. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ... A whole-body transplant, or brain transplant, moves the brain of one being into the body of another. ...


Human cloning is among the most controversial forms of the practice.[8] There have been numerous demands for all progress in the human cloning field to be halted. Some people and groups oppose therapeutic cloning but many more oppose reproductive cloning. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and other scientific organizations have made public statements suggesting that human reproductive cloning be banned until safety issues are resolved [9]. Serious ethical issues have arisen in discussions of harvesting of organs from clones. Some people have considered the idea of growing organs separately from a human organism - in doing this, a new organ supply could be established without the moral implications of harvesting them from human organisms. Research is also being done on the idea of growing organs that are biologically acceptable to the human body inside of other organisms, such as pigs or cows, then transplanting them to humans. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...


Ethical issues of cloning

Main article: Ethics of cloning

Although the practice of cloning organisms has been widespread for several thousands of years in the form of horticultural cloning, the recent technological advancements that have allowed for cloning of animals (and potentially humans) have been highly controversial. Some believe[citation needed] it is unethical to use a human clone to save the life of another. Others have countered that people who exist today and have interpersonal relationships and personal histories should take precedence over never-conscious life at any stage of developmental maturity. The Catholic Church and various traditionalist religious groups oppose all forms of cloning, on the grounds that life begins at conception. Conversely, Judaism does not equate life with conception and, though some question the wisdom of cloning, Orthodox rabbis generally find no firm reason in Jewish law and ethics to object to cloning.[10] From the standpoint of classical liberalism, concerns also exist regarding the protection of the identity of the individual and the right to protect one's genetic identity. Roman Catholicism and many conservative Christian groups have opposed human cloning and the cloning of human embryos, believing that life begins at the moment of conception. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


The social implications of an artificial human production scheme were famously explored in the novel Brave New World and also in the movie The Island. These fictional works explore the prejudices that could develop against clones with respect to a kind of slavery or caste system. For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... The Island is a 2005 science fiction film directed by Michael Bay and starring Ewan McGregor and Scarlett Johansson. ...


Cloning extinct and endangered species

Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The possible implications of this were dramatized in the best-selling novel by Michael Crichton and high budget Hollywood thriller Jurassic Park. In real life, one of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the Woolly Mammoth, but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal.[11] In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Jurassic Park, a book by Michael Crichton, with a film version directed by Steven Spielberg, revolves around the resurrection of dinosaurs via genetic engineering. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... Binomial name Blumenbach, 1799 For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ...


In 2001, a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur, an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In 2003, a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species. Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo (Pyrenean Ibex) were frozen immediately after it died. Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda, ocelot, and cheetah. The "Frozen Zoo" at the San Diego Zoo now stores frozen tissue from the world's rarest and most endangered species.[12][13] Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Bos javanicus dAlton, 1823 The Banteng (Bos javanicus) is an ox that is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, and Bali. ... Trinomial name Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica (Schinz, 1838) The Pyrenean Ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) is an ibex, one of the two extinct subspecies of Spanish Ibex. ... Modern policies of the zoo associations and zoos around the world have changed to putting extreme importance on keeping and breeding wild sourced pure species and subspecies of animals and birds in their registered endangered species breeding programs which will have a chance to be reintroduced and survive in the... The world-famous San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California is one of the largest, most progressive zoos in the world with over 4,000 animals of more than 800 species. ...


In 2002, geneticists at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA of the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger), extinct about 65 years previous, using polymerase chain reaction.[14] However, on 2005-02-15 the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed the specimens' DNA had been too badly degraded by the (ethanol) preservative. Most recently, on 2005-05-15, it was announced that the Thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria. Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, centering on natural history and anthropology, with collections centering on vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, as well as minerology, palaeontology, and anthropology. ... Binomial name (Harris, 1808) The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NSW redirects here. ... VIC redirects here. ...


One of the continuing obstacles in the attempt to clone extinct species is the need for nearly perfect DNA. Cloning from a single specimen could not create a viable breeding population in sexually reproducing animals. Furthermore, even if males and females were cloned, the question would remain open if they would be viable at all in the absence of parents that could teach or show them their natural behavior. Essentially, if cloning an extinct species succeeded — it must be considered that cloning still is an experimental technology that succeeds only by chance — it is far more likely than not that any resulting animals, even if they were healthy, would be little more than curios or museum pieces.


Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many conservation biologists and environmentalists vehemently oppose cloning endangered species — not because they think it won't work but because they think it may deter donations to help preserve natural habitat and wild animal populations. The "rule-of-thumb" in animal conservation is that, if it is still feasible to conserve habitat and viable wild populations, breeding in captivity should not be undertaken in isolation. Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Bold textHello ... Look up Rule of thumb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In a 2006 review, David Ehrenfeld concludes that cloning in animal conservation is an experimental technology that, at its present state, cannot be expected to work except by pure chance and utterly fails a cost-benefit analysis.[15] Furthermore, he says, it is likely to siphon funds from established and working projects and does not address any of the issues underlying animal extinction (such as habitat destruction, hunting or other overexploitation, and an impoverished gene pool). While cloning technologies are well-established and used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity. He concludes: Cost-benefit analysis is an important technique for project appraisal: the process of weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits of one or more actions in order to choose the best or most profitable option. ...

Vertebrate cloning poses little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce conservation resources, and its chances of success in preserving species seem poor. To date, the conservation benefits of transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation biologists should devote their research and energies to the established methods of conservation, none of which require transgenics or vertebrate cloning.[15]

Embryo

Somatic cell nuclear transfer can also be used to create a clonal embryo. The most likely scenario for this is to produce embryos for use in research, particularly stem cell research. This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning." In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below) . It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as therapeutic cloning. ... In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below) . It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as therapeutic cloning. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ...


Therapeutic cloning, also called "embryo cloning," is the production of human embryos for use in research. The goal of this process is not to create cloned human beings, but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease. Stem cells are important to biomedical researchers because they can be used to generate virtually any type of specialized cell in the human body. Stem cells are extracted from the egg after it has divided for 5 days. The egg at this stage of development is called a blastocyst. Many researchers hope that one day stem cells can be used to serve as replacement cells to treat heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer, and other diseases. The blastocyst is an early stage of the human (or any other mammal) development early in pregnancy. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Alzheimers disease (AD), also known simply as Alzheimers, is a neurodegenerative disease that, in its most common form, is found in people over age 65. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Scientists believe that cloning may be used to create stem cells genetically compatible with the somatic cell donor. Cloning in stem cell research, called research cloning or therapeutic cloning, has not yet been successful: no embryonic stem cell lines have been derived from clonal embryos. The process might provide a way to grow organs in host carriers, so that organs could be produced which would be completely compatible with the original tissue donor. Host carrier growing poses a risk of trans-species diseases if the host is of a different species (e.g., a pig). Mouse embryonic stem cells. ...


In human beings, this is a highly controversial issue for several reasons. It involves creating human embryos in vitro and then destroying them during the process of attempting to obtain embryonic stem cells. But proposals to use cloning techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of the embryo. These have led a number of individuals and organizations, who are not opposed in principle to human embryonic stem cell research, to be concerned about or opposed to, human research cloning. One concern is that cloning in human stem cell research will lead to the reproductive cloning of humans. A second concern relates to the appropriate sourcing of the eggs that are needed. Research cloning requires a large number of human eggs, which can only be obtained from women. A third concern is the feasibility of developing stem cell therapies from cloning. In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... A human ovum An ovum (loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ...


References

  1. ^ Manila Times, RP to produce Southeast Asia’s first cloned buffalo
  2. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/tech/columnist/aprilholladay/2006-05-15-cloning_x.htm
  3. ^ http://sciam.com/print_version.cfm?articleID=0008B8F9-AC62-1C75-9B81809EC588EF21
  4. ^ http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.01/clones.html
  5. ^ BLOODLINES. Timeline
  6. ^ Wikinews: Endangered cow cloned in Brazil, 2005-05-22
  7. ^ Vogel, Gretchen (2000). "In Contrast to Dolly, Cloning Resets Telomere Clock in Cattle". Science 288: 641. “analyses indicated that the telomeres were also extended beyond those of newborn” 
  8. ^ Pence, Gregory E. (1998). Who’s Afraid of Human Cloning?. Rowman & Littlefield. paperback ISBN 0-8476-8782-1 and hardcover ISBN 0-8476-8781-3. 
  9. ^ AAAS Statement on Human Cloning.
  10. ^ Michael Brody. Avraham Steinberg.
  11. ^ "Scientists 'to clone mammoth'", BBC News, 2003-08-18. 
  12. ^ Heidi B. Perlman. "Scientists Close on Extinct Cloning", Associated Press, 2000-10-08. 
  13. ^ Pence, Gregory E. (2005). Cloning After Dolly: Who's Still Afraid?. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3408-1. 
  14. ^ Holloway, Grant. "Cloning to revive extinct species", CNN.com, 2002-05-28. 
  15. ^ a b Ehrenfeld, David (2006). "Transgenics and Vertebrate Cloning as Tools for Species Conservation". Conservation Biology 20 (3): 723-732. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00399.x. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Brody (born 1954) is a Hungarian linguist, and Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at University College London. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
Embryo cloning, adult DNA cloning and therapeutic cloning (845 words)
For cloning's advocates, this is an opportunity to remake mankind in an image of health, prosperity, and nobility; it is the ultimate expression of man's unlimited potential.
The cloned organ would be based on the recipient’s genetic material and would not require the use of debilitating immunosuppressive therapies.
The goal of therapeutic cloning is to produce a healthy copy of a sick person's tissue or organ for transplant.
Cloning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3141 words)
Frequently, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest.
Thus, nuclear transfer clones from different maternal lineages are not clones in the strictest sense because the mitochondrial genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced.
Megan and Morag cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and Dolly the sheep in 1997.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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