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Encyclopedia > Clique

A clique (IPA:/'klɪk/ in America, /'kliːk/ elsewhere) is an exclusive group of people who share common interests, views, purposes, or patterns of behavior. A clique is a subset of individuals from a larger group, who are more closely identified with one another than the remaining members of the group, and who exchange something among themselves, such as friendship, affection, or information.[1] Clique may refer to: clique in society ruling clique in politics clique in graph theory The Clique, a famous 1990s group of professional wrestlers The Clique, a group of Victorian artists The Clique: A Novel in The Clique Series by Lisi Harrison Château Clique, a group of wealthy families... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ...


A clique has an informal structure, and it is composed of more than two people. All the members of the group have some type of relationship with one another, and thus the group is tightly knit together as a type of social network. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ...

Contents

Clique Formation

According to some sociologists, one reason for the formation of a clique relates to the desire of individuals to compare themselves with other individuals who are of the same social status.[2] Another word for clique is reference group, or a group of individuals which is used as a standard by which to evaluate attitudes, abilities, or current situations.[3] A clique as a reference group can be either normative or comparative.


A normative clique or reference group is the source of values and beliefs for the individual. The comparative clique or reference group is a standard of comparison by which individuals evaluate themselves and others.[4] Individuals of a clique can view other individuals in their clique as the norm, while they tend to use other status groups or cliques as a frame of reference by which they compare themselves. Thus, cliques are formed in order for people to join with other individuals and establish a norm based on values, characteristics, or common interests, and to also use other groups of people as a frame of comparison for themselves. In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... In grammar the comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another. ...


A clique can exist in the workplace, in a community, in the classroom, in a business, or any other area of social interaction. Cliques tend to form within the boundaries of a larger group where opportunities to interact are great.[5] Cliques are often associated with children and teenagers in a classroom setting. Schools are a prime place where peer network exist and can easily be accentuated through the differentiation of various cliques, and through the processes of inclusion and exclusion that characterize a clique.[6]


Effects of Cliques

Members of a clique give one another a type of social support, and that social support can take the form of social development, especially in the case of children and adolescents. Inclusion in a clique can give individuals peer acceptance, whereas exclusion from a clique can hinder peer acceptance and damage an individual’s self-image and self-confidence.[5] Much of the existing research on cliques focuses on elementary-age children and their social networks, and emphasizes the popularity individuals gain from inclusion vs. and being in a high-status clique vs. a low-status clique.[6][7] Look up popularity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Films and Literature

Angus is a 1995 film based on the short story A Brief Moment In The Life of Angus Bethune by Chris Crutcher. ... Bratz (also known as Bratz: The Movie) is a forthcoming live-action feature film based on the popular Bratz fashion doll line by MGA Entertainment. ... Pretty Persuasion is a 2005 comedy / drama / teen film directed by Marcos Siega and written by Skander Halim. ... What looks and sounds like typical 70s drive-in fodder, comes off as. ... Look up grease in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mean Girls is a 2004 film directed by Mark Waters (Freaky Friday), written by (and co-starring) Tina Fey and stars Lindsay Lohan with Rachel McAdams, Amanda Seyfried and Lacey Chabert and featured several Saturday Night Live cast members, including not only Tina Fey but also Tim Meadows, Ana Gasteyer... This article is about the 1985 film. ... Carrie is a 1976 American horror film directed by Brian De Palma based on the novel by Stephen King, with a screenplay written by Lawrence D. Cohen. ... Clueless is a 1995 comedy film loosely based on Emma by Jane Austen, but set in a Beverly Hills high school. ... This article is about the film Heathers. ... For other uses, see High School Musical (disambiguation). ... Jawbreaker can refer to the following: A hard, usually round, candy that one sucks on. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Odd Girl Out is a 2005 drama telefilm starring Alexa Vega (Vanessa), Lisa Vidal (Barbara), Elizabeth Rice (Nikki), Alicia Morton (Tiffany), Leah Pipes (Stacy), Shari Dyon Perry (Emily), Joey Nappo (Ezra) and Chad Biagini (Tony). ... The Outsiders is a film adaptation of the novel of the same name by S. E. Hinton, and was made in 1983 by Francis Ford Coppola. ... Pretty Woman is a 1990 American romantic comedy motion picture. ... Romy and Micheles High School Reunion is a 1997 comedy film starring Lisa Kudrow, Mira Sorvino, Janeane Garofalo, Camryn Manheim, and Alan Cumming. ... Superbad is a 2007 comedy written by Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. ...

Literature

The Clique Series is a young adult book series, written by Lisi Harrison. ... Lisi Harrison was born on July 29, 1970 in Toronto, Ontario. ... The Outsiders is a novel by S. E. Hinton, first published in 1967 by Viking Press. ... Susan Eloise Hinton (born July 22, 1948) is an American author of novels for young adults. ... The cover of Wisemans Queen Bees and Wannabes Queen Bees and Wannabes: Helping Your Daughter Survive Cliques, Gossip, Boyfriends, and Other Realities of Adolescence is a 2002 book by Rosalind Wiseman. ... Rosalind Wiseman is an author most famous for her 2002 book Queen Bees and Wannabes: Helping Your Daughter Survive Cliques, Gossip, Boyfriends, and Other Realities of Adolescence, on which a large part of the plot of the hit comedy film Mean Girls (2004) was based. ...

See also

Teen redirects here. ... Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... Main articles: Youth culture and High school A high school subculture is a group of preteen or adolescent students in a secondary education setting — junior high school, high school — which acts as a subculture. ... Crowd psychology is a branch of social psychology. ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... Elite may refer to Elitism - the concept of social stratification by innate or social qualities Elite - computer software game Elite - a skilled hacker Leet - an online culture or attitude sometimes identified by frequent use of leetspeak Elite Systems, a UK video game developer. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... K5, a complete graph. ...

References

  1. ^ Tichy, Noel (June 1973). "An Analysis of Clique Formation and Structure in Organizations". Administrative Science Quarterly 18 (2): 194–208.
  2. ^ Deutsch, Morton, and Robert Krauss (1965). Theories in Social Psychology. New York: Basic Books. 
  3. ^ Jones, Edward, and Harold Gerrard (1965). Foundations of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley Books. 
  4. ^ Kelley, Harold H. (1952). "Two functions of reference groups", in G. Swanson, T.M. Newcomb, and E. Hartley: Readings in Social Psychology. New York: Henry Holt, 410–414. 
  5. ^ a b (June 1989) "Classroom Characteristics and Student Friendship Cliques". Social Forces 67 (4): 898–919.
  6. ^ a b Adler, Patricia A., Steven J. Kless, and Peter Adler (1992). "Socialization to Gender Roles: Popularity among Elementary School Boys and Girls". Sociology of Education 65 (3): 169–187.
  7. ^ Asher, Steven R. and Peter D. Renshaw (1981). "Children without Friends: Social Knowledge and Social Skill Training", in Steven Asher and John Gottman: The Development of Children’s Friendships. New York: Cambridge University Press, 273–296. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Clique - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (983 words)
Cliques are commonly found amongst groups of teenagers, primarily in high schools and colleges, but also in similar social environments, such as the workplace.
Clique members may be influenced through peer pressure to engage in actions perceived by some as negative or damaging, such as tobacco smoking or drug use.
Cliques may also be a source of distraction from studies, both for clique members and for the outcasts they victimize; outcasts may suffer long-term psychological damage resulting from the bullying they suffer.
Clique problem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (421 words)
A clique in a graph is a set of pairwise adjacent vertices, or in other words, an induced subgraph which is a complete graph.
The NP-completeness of the clique problem follows trivially from the NP-completeness of the independent set problem, because there is a clique of size at least k if and only if there is an independent set of size at least k in the complement graph.
A brute force algorithm to find a clique in a graph is to examine each subgraph with at least k vertices and check to see if it forms a clique.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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