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Encyclopedia > Clinton administration
President Clinton's Cabinet, circa 1993
President Clinton's Cabinet, circa 1993

Headed by President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Clinton Administation was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The executive in political science and constitutional law is the branch of the government which is responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... Obverse of the Great Seal of the United States. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This article is about the year 2001. ...

Contents

First Term (1993-1997)

Shortly after taking office, Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which required large employers to allow their employees to take unpaid leave because of pregnancy or serious medical condition. While this action was popular, Clinton's attempt to fulfill another campaign promise of allowing openly gay men and lesbians serving in the armed forces was the subject of criticism. His handling of the issue garnered criticism from both the left (for being too tentative in promoting gay rights) and the right (for being too insensitive to military life). After much debate, the Congress - which has sole power under the U.S. Constitution to regulate the armed forces - implemented the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy, stating that homosexual men and women may serve in the military as long as their sexuality is kept secret. By 1999, Clinton said what he would "like to do is focus on making the policy we announced back in 1993 work the way it's intended to, because it's out of whack now, and I don't think any serious person could say it's not."[1] Some gay rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and accused him of making his campaign promise simply to get votes and contributions.[2][3] These advocates felt Clinton should have integrated the military by executive order, noting that President Harry Truman ended segregation of the armed forces in that manner. Clinton's defenders argued that an executive order might have prompted the then-Democrat-controlled Senate to write the exclusion of gays into law, potentially making it even harder to integrate the military in the future. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Public Law 103-3, enacted February 5, 1993) is a United States labor law allowing an employee to take unpaid leave due to illness or to care for a sick family member. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Dont Ask, Dont tell is the common term for the U.S. military policy which implements Pub. ... For the victim of Mt. ...


Critics, however, said that the issue was one that should be experimented on in society as a whole, not in the military. The military's goal was not to be a "social Petri dish," but to defend the nation.[4]

Clinton and Vice President Gore talk while walking through the Colonnade at the White House.
Clinton and Vice President Gore talk while walking through the Colonnade at the White House.

Clinton promoted another controversial issue during this period: one regarding free trade. In 1993, Clinton supported the North American Free Trade Agreement for ratification by the U.S. Senate. Despite being negotiated by his Republican predecessor, Clinton (along with most of his Democratic Leadership Committee allies) strongly supported free trade measures. Opposition came from both anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of Ross Perot. Ultimately, the treaty was ratified. http://www. ... http://www. ... Map of NAFTA President Clinton signs the agreement. ...


Clinton signed the Brady Bill, which imposed a five-day waiting period on handgun purchases. He also expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit, which benefits working class families with dependent children. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as the Brady Bill, was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993. ... The United States federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit that reduces or eliminates the taxes that low-income working people pay (such as payroll taxes) and also frequently operates as a wage subsidy for low-income workers. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


One of the most prominent items on Clinton's legislative agenda, however, was a health care reform plan, the result of a taskforce headed by Hillary Clinton, aimed at achieving universal coverage via a national healthcare plan. Though initially well-received in political circles, it was ultimately doomed by well-organized opposition from conservatives, the American Medical Association, and the health insurance industry. Despite his party holding a majority in the House and Senate, the effort to create a national healthcare system ultimately died under heavy public pressure. It was the first major legislative defeat of Clinton's administration. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...


Two months later, after two years of Democratic party control under Clinton's leadership, the mid-term elections in 1994 proved disastrous for the Democrats. This was the first time the democratic party had lost control of both houses of Congress in 40 years The U.S. House election, 1994 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1994 which occurred in the middle of President Bill Clintons first term. ...


In August of 1993, Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 which passed Congress without a single Republican vote. It raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers, while cutting taxes on 15 million low-income families and making tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses.[5] Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years, and the implementation of spending restraints. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (or OBRA-93) was passed by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. ...


Second Term (1997-2001)

Clinton visiting the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1998.
Clinton visiting the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1998.

In the 1996 presidential election a few months later, Clinton was re-elected, receiving 49.2% of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7% of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4% of the popular vote), becoming the first Democrat to win reelection to the presidency since Franklin Roosevelt. The Republicans lost a few seats in the House and gained a few in the Senate, but overall retained control of the Congress. Although he did not win a clear majority of the popular vote, Clinton received over 70% of the electoral college vote. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (922x1067, 129 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bill Clinton ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (922x1067, 129 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bill Clinton ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Bob Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican presidential nominee in the 1996 presidential election, in which he was defeated by then-incumbent President Bill Clinton. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital... Ross Perot speaking to U.S. Army infantry in 2006 Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930), is a billionaire American businessman from Texas best known as an outsider candidate for the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ...


Throughout 1998, there was a controversy over Clinton's relationship with a young White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Clinton initially denied the affair while testifying in the Paula Jones sexual harassment lawsuit. The opposing lawyers asked the president about it during his deposition. He stated "I have never had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky. I've never had an affair with her." Four days later he also said, "There is not a sexual relationship, an improper sexual relationship, or any other kind of improper relationship."[2] Monica Lewinsky on her U.S. Government ID Monica Samille Lewinsky (born July 23, 1973 in San Francisco) is an American woman who had an affair with President Bill Clinton, while she was working at the White House in 1995-1996. ...


Clinton then appeared on national television on January 26 and stated: "Listen to me, I'm going to say this again. I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky." However, after it was revealed that investigators had obtained a semen-stained dress as well as testimony from Lewinsky, Clinton changed tactics and admitted that an improper relationship with Lewinsky had taken place: "Indeed I did have a relationship with Miss Lewinsky that was not appropriate. In fact, it was wrong. It constituted a critical lapse in judgment and a personal failure on my part for which I am solely and completely responsible." January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Faced with overwhelming evidence, he apologized to the nation, agreed to pay a $25,000 court fine, settled his sexual harassment lawsuit with Paula Jones for $850,000 and was temporarily disbarred, for a period of five years, from practicing law in Arkansas and before the U.S. Supreme Court. He was not tried for perjury in a court. However, he did admit to "testifying falsely" in a carefully worded statement as part of a deal to avoid indictment for perjury. Paula Corbin Jones (born Paula Rosalee Corbin on September 17, 1966, in Lonoke, Arkansas) was a former Arkansas state employee who sued President Bill Clinton for sexual harassment and eschewal. ...


In a lame duck session after the 1998 elections, the Republican-controlled House voted to impeach Clinton. The next year, the Senate voted to acquit Clinton, and he remained in office. A lame duck is a bird which has trouble walking, usually due to astraxaphysis, a crippling leg condition affecting waterfowl. ...


In the closing year of his Administration, Clinton attempted to address the Arab-Israeli conflict. After initial successes such as the Oslo accords of the early 90's, the situation had quietly deteriorated, breaking down completely with the start of the Second Intifada. Clinton brought Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat together at Camp David. However, these negotiations proved unsuccessful. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz [1], then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (Arabic: محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني; August 1929 - November 11, 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat () and by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004) and President[1] of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) (1993–2004). ... Main Lodge at Camp David during Nixon administration, February 9, 1971. ...


Clinton remained popular with the public throughout his two terms as President, ending his presidential career with a 65% approval rating, the highest end-of-term approval rating of any President since Eisenhower.[6] In addition to his political skills, Clinton also benefited from a boom of the US economy. Under Clinton, the United States had a projected federal budget surplus for the first time since 1969.[7] Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


Legislation and Programs

Major legislation signed

Major legislation vetoed

Proposals not passed by Congress

Initiatives

1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Public Law 103-3, enacted February 5, 1993) was one of the first major new laws enacted by United States President Bill Clinton in his first term, fulfilling a campaign promise. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (or OBRA-93) was passed by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. ... An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income of persons, corporations or other legal entities. ... Corporate tax refers to a direct tax levied by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... the AmeriCorps logo In the United States, AmeriCorps is a network of more than 2,100 non-profit organizations, public agencies, and faith-based organizations. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as the Brady Bill, was passed by the United States Congress, signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993, and went into effect on February 28, 1994. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994) is a piece of legislation, passed by the US Congress, which expanded Federal law in several ways. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... In law, an offense is a violation of the penal law. ... The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) was a provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a federal law of the United States that included a prohibition on the sale of semiautomatic assault weapons manufactured after the date of the bans enactment. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Communications Decency Act (CDA) was arguably the first attempt by the United States Congress to regulate pornographic material on the Internet, in response to public concerns in 1996. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... On January 3, 1996, the 104th Congress of the United States amended or repealed sections of the the Communications Act of 1934 with the new Telecommunications Act of 1996. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Welfare reform is the name for a political movement in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to institute changes in that system, generally in a more conservative direction. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... The Line Item Veto Act of 1996 enacted a line-item veto for the Federal Government of the United States, but its effect was brief due to judicial review. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (also known as AEDPA) is a series of laws in the US signed into law[1] on April 24, 1996 to deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... The Defense of Marriage Act, or DOMA, is the commonly-used name of a federal law of the United States that is officially known as Pub. ... Same-sex marriage is the legal union of two people who are of the same biological sex or gender. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 reduced several federal taxes in the United States. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which criminalizes production and dissemination of technology that can circumvent measures taken to protect copyright, not merely infringement of copyright itself, and heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... The Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) [1] (codified in a note to 22 USCS § 2151) is an United States Congressional statement of policy calling for regime change in Iraq. ... The process of creating the budget for the United States Government is known as the budget process. ... The phrase partial-birth abortion is a controversial one used primarily by abortion opponents in the United States. ... Welfare reform is the name for a political movement in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to institute changes in that system, generally in a more conservative direction. ... The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (PSLRA) implemented several significant substantive changes affecting certain cases brought under the federal securities laws, including changes related to pleading, discovery, liability, and awards fees and expenses. ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Campaign finance. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz [1], then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (Arabic: محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني; August 1929 - November 11, 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat () and by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004) and President[1] of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) (1993–2004). ... It has been suggested that Palestinian government of March 2006 be merged into this article or section. ... The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a part of the greater Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Palestinian people (or state). ... Dont Ask, Dont tell is the common term for the U.S. military policy which implements Pub. ... For other articles with similar names, see Gay (disambiguation). ... Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish) is a name used by a series of Irish political movements of the 20th century, each of which claimed sole descent from the original party established by Arthur Griffith in 1905. ... One America Initiative See also External links Categories: | | | | ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ...

Cabinet

OFFICE OFFICER TERM
President Bill Clinton 1993-2001
Vice President Al Gore 1993-2001
State Warren M. Christopher 1993-1997
Madeleine K. Albright 1997-2001
Treasury Lloyd Bentsen 1993-1994
Robert E. Rubin 1995-1999
Lawrence H. Summers 1999-2001
Defense Les Aspin 1993-1994
William J. Perry 1994-1997
William S. Cohen 1997-2001
Justice Janet Reno 1993-2001
Interior Bruce Babbitt 1993-2001
Agriculture Mike Espy 1993-1994
Daniel R. Glickman 1994-2001
Commerce Ronald H. Brown 1993-1996
Mickey Kantor 1996-1997
William M. Daley 1997-2000
Norman Y. Mineta 2000-2001
Labor Robert B. Reich 1993-1997
Alexis M. Herman 1997-2001
Health and
Human Services
Donna E. Shalala 1993-2001
Education Richard Riley 1993-2001
Housing and
Urban Development
Henry G. Cisneros 1993-1997
Andrew Cuomo 1997-2001
Transportation Federico F. Peña 1993-1997
Rodney E. Slater 1997-2001
Energy Hazel O'Leary 1993-1997
Federico F. Peña 1997-1998
Bill Richardson 1998-2001
Veterans Affairs Jesse Brown 1993-1997
Togo D. West, Jr. 1998-2000

The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... This article is about the former United States Vice President. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937 in Prague, Czechoslovakia), American diplomat, served as the 64th United States Secretary of State. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Robert Edward Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is an American financier and businessman who served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during President Clintons administration. ... Larry Summers Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist, politician, and academic. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Leslie Aspin, Jr. ... Alternative meaning: William Perry (football) William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) was the U.S. Secretary of Defense under President Bill Clinton from February 3, 1994 to January 23, 1997. ... William Sebastian Cohen (born August 28, 1940) is an American Republican politician from Maine. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Janet Reno (born July 21, 1938) was the 78th Attorney General of the United States (1993–2001), and was the first woman to hold that post. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Bruce Edward Babbitt (born June 27, 1938), a Democrat, served as United States Secretary of the Interior and as Governor of Arizona. ... Alphonso Michael Espy, called Mike Espy, (born November 30, 1953) was a U.S. political figure. ... Dan Glickman Daniel Robert Glickman (born November 24, 1944) is a United States politician. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Ronald Harmon Brown (August 1, 1941 - April 3, 1996), was the first black United States Secretary of Commerce, serving during the first term of President Bill Clinton. ... Michael Mickey Kantor (born August 7, 1939 in Nashville, Tennessee) is an American politician and lawyer. ... William Daley was United States Secretary of Commerce under President Bill Clinton. ... Norman Yoshio Mineta Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is an American politician and member of the Democratic party. ... Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) was the 22nd United States Secretary of Labor, serving under President Bill Clinton from 1993 - 1997. ... DOL portrait Alexis Margaret Herman (born July 16, 1947) served as the 23rd U.S. Secretary of Labor under President Bill Clinton. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Donna Edna Shalala (born February 14, 1941) served as the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services under President Bill Clinton. ... Richard Wilson Riley (born January 2, 1933), American politician, was the United States Secretary of Education under President Bill Clinton as well as the Governor of South Carolina, is a member of the Democratic Party. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Henry Gabriel Cisneros (born June 11, 1947) is a prominent American politician and community leader. ... Andrew Mark Cuomo (born December 6, 1957, in New York City) is the New York State Attorney General-elect. ... Federico Fabian Peña Federico Fabian Peña (born March 15, 1947) was United States Secretary of Transportation from 1993 to 1997, during the presidency of Bill Clinton. ... Rodney Earl Slater (born in Marianna, Arkansas February 23, 1955) was the United States Secretary of Transportation under U. S. President Bill Clinton. ... Hazel OLeary Hazel Rollins OLeary (born May 17, 1937) was the seventh United States Secretary of Energy from 1993 to 1997. ... Federico Fabian Peña Federico Fabian Peña (born March 15, 1947) was United States Secretary of Transportation from 1993 to 1997, during the presidency of Bill Clinton. ... William Blaine Bill Richardson (born November 15, 1947) is an American politician and a member of the Democratic Party. ... The United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs is the head of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the department concerned with veterans benefits and related matters. ... Jesse Brown was the United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs, appointed in 1993 by Bill Clinton. ... Categories: U.S. Secretaries of Veterans Affairs | 1942 births ...

Supreme Court appointments

Clinton appointed the following justices to the Supreme Court: The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ...

Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933) has served as an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court since 1993. ... Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney, political figure, and jurist. ...

Circuit appointments

Kermit Victor Lipez (born 1941) is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: District of Maine District of Massachusetts District of New Hampshire District of Puerto Rico District of Rhode Island The court is based at the John Joseph... Sandra Lea Lynch (b. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: District of Maine District of Massachusetts District of New Hampshire District of Puerto Rico District of Rhode Island The court is based at the John Joseph... Chester J. Straub (born 1937) is a Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit headquartered in New York City. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Connecticut Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Districts of New York District of Vermont The Second Circuit hears argument at the Thurgood Marshall U... Fred I. Parker (February 2, 1938 - August 12, 2003) was a federal judge in the United States. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Connecticut Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Districts of New York District of Vermont The Second Circuit hears argument at the Thurgood Marshall U... Thomas L. Ambro (born 1949 in Cambridge, Ohio) is a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: District of Delaware District of New Jersey Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Pennsylvania District of the United States Virgin Islands The court is based at... Maryanne Trump Barry (born 1937) is a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: District of Delaware District of New Jersey Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Pennsylvania District of the United States Virgin Islands The court is based at... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Maryland Eastern District of North Carolina Middle District of North Carolina Western District of North Carolina District of South Carolina Eastern District of... See also Richard Leonard (disambiguation) J. Rich Leonard was 46 years old at the time of his nomination by President Bill Clinton to the judicial vacancy in the Eastern District of North Carolina, 4th Circuit in December 1995. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Maryland Eastern District of North Carolina Middle District of North Carolina Western District of North Carolina District of South Carolina Eastern District of... Roger L. Gregory is a federal judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. ... A recess appointment occurs when the President of the United States fills a vacant Federal position during a recess of the United States Senate. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Maryland Eastern District of North Carolina Middle District of North Carolina Western District of North Carolina District of South Carolina Eastern District of... M. Blane Michael (born February 17, 1943 in Charleston, South Carolina) is a Circuit Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Maryland Eastern District of North Carolina Middle District of North Carolina Western District of North Carolina District of South Carolina Eastern District of... Fortunato Pedro Pete Benavides (born 1947), is a U.S. circuit judge sitting on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Louisiana Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi Western, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of Texas The court is based at... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: Western and Eastern Districts of Kentucky Western and Eastern Districts of Michigan Northern and Southern Districts of Ohio Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Tennessee... Roland Lee Gilman (born 1942) is a judge and a member of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: Western and Eastern Districts of Kentucky Western and Eastern Districts of Michigan Northern and Southern Districts of Ohio Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Tennessee... Diane Pamela Wood (born in 1950 in Plainfield, NJ) is a federal appeals judge who has served on the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals since 1995. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts: Central District of Illinois Northern District of Illinois Southern District of Illinois Northern District of Indiana Southern District of Indiana Eastern District of Wisconsin Western District... Michael Daly Hawkins (born February 12, 1945) serves on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... Judge Sidney Runyan Thomas (born August 14, 1953, in Bozeman, Montana, is a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... Judge M. Margaret McKeown (born May 11, 1951, in Casper, Wyoming) is a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... Richard Paez was confirmed by the Senate to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in March 2000. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... Ronald Murray Gould (born in 1946 in St. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... Judge Richard Tallman is a judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... Robert Harlan Henry (born 1953) is a U.S. judge and politician. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts: District of Colorado District of Kansas District of New Mexico Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma District of Utah District of Wyoming These districts were...

District appointments

Barrington Daniels Parker, Jr. ... The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (SDNY) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the following counties: New York, Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Connecticut Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Districts of New York District of Vermont The Second Circuit hears argument at the Thurgood Marshall U... Tucker L. Melancon was born in 1946 in Bryan, Texas. ... The United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana is a Federal Court of the 5th Circuit with courts in Alexandria, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Monroe and Shreveport. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Louisiana Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi Western, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of Texas The court is based at... The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana is a federal court in the Fifth Circuit with facilities in New Orleans and Houma. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Louisiana Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi Western, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of Texas The court is based at... The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas is part of the Fifth Circuit, which includes Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Louisiana Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi Western, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of Texas The court is based at... The United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio is one of two United States district courts in Ohio and includes forty-eight of the states eighty-eight counties. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: Western and Eastern Districts of Kentucky Western and Eastern Districts of Michigan Northern and Southern Districts of Ohio Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Tennessee... The U.S. District Court for the Central District of California (commonly referred to as the CDCA or CACD) is the U.S. district court serving some 17 million people in southern and central California, making it the largest federal judicial district by population. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central, Eastern, Northern, and Southern Districts of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of... The United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ...

The Economy

Clinton's presidency included the longest period of economic growth in America's history, credited in large part to budget reforms as well as the peace dividend following the demise of the Soviet Union. After numerous reports revealed that the federal budget deficit would be far greater than expected, Clinton quickly made cutting the deficit a high priority. Clinton submitted a budget that would cut the deficit by $500 billion over five years by reducing $255 billion of spending and raising taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of Americans.[8] It also imposed a new energy tax on all Americans and subjected about a quarter of those receiving Social Security payments to higher taxes on their benefits.[9] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Republican Congressional leaders launched an aggressive opposition against the bill, claiming that the tax increase would only make matters worse. Republicans were united in this opposition, as it were, and every Republican in both houses of Congress voted against the proposal. In fact, it took Vice President Gore's tie-breaking vote in the Senate to pass the bill.[10] After extensive lobbying by the Clinton Administration, the House narrowly voted in favor of the bill by a vote of 218 to 216.[11] The budget package expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) as relief to low-income families. It reduced the amount they paid in federal income and FICA taxes, providing $21 billion in relief for 15 million low-income families. Improved economic conditions and policies served to encourage investors in the bond market, leading to a decline in long-term interest rates. The bill contributed to dramatic decline of the budget deficit in the years following its enactment–in 1998, for the first time since 1969, the nation achieved a budget surplus.[12] The surplus money was used to pay down the national debt, which had risen to $5.4 trillion by 1997. The economy continued to grow, and in February 2000 it broke the record for the longest uninterrupted economic expansion in U.S. history—lasting ten years. In the year 2000, the nation was on track to be debt free for the first time in history by 2008. The United States federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit that reduces or eliminates the taxes that low-income working people pay (such as payroll taxes) and also frequently operates as a wage subsidy for low-income workers. ... Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax is a United States tax levied in an equal amount on employees and employers to fund old-age, survivors, and disability insurance portion of the Social Security system and the hospital insurance portion ( Medicare). ...


After Republicans won control of Congress in 1994, Clinton vehemently fought their proposed tax cuts, believing that they favored the wealthy and would weaken economic growth. In August 1997, however, Clinton and Congressional Republicans were finally able to reach a compromise on a bill that reduced capital gain and estate taxes and gave taxpayers a credit of $500 per child and tax credits for college tuition and expenses. The bill also called for a new individual retirement account (IRA) called the Roth IRA to allow people to invest taxed income for retirement without having to pay taxes upon withdrawal. Additionally, the law raised the national minimum for cigarette taxes. The next year, Congress approved Clinton’s proposal to make college more affordable by expanding the financial-aid program known as Pell grants and lowering interest rates on student loans. A Roth IRA is an individual retirement account (IRA) in the United States. ...


Clinton also battled Congress nearly every session on the federal budget, in an attempt to secure spending on education, government entitlements, the environment, and AmeriCorps–the national service program that was passed by the Democratic Congress in the early days of the Clinton administration. The two sides, however, could not find a compromise and the budget battle came to a stalemate in 1995 over proposed cuts in Medicare, Medicaid, education, and the environment. After Clinton vetoed numerous Republican spending bills, Republicans in Congress twice refused to pass temporary spending authorizations, forcing the federal government to partially shut down because agencies had no budget on which to operate.[13] the AmeriCorps logo In the United States, AmeriCorps is a network of more than 2,100 non-profit organizations, public agencies, and faith-based organizations. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ...


In April 1996 Clinton and Congress finally agreed on a budget that provided money for government agencies until the end of the fiscal year in October. The budget included some of the spending cuts that the Republicans supported (decreasing the cost of cultural, labor, and housing programs) but also preserved many programs that Clinton wanted, including educational and environmental ones.

President Clinton's Latino Appointees in 1998

The Clinton presidency left America with record economic growth and prosperity: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x865, 725 KB) Summary Summary Uploaded by Eagleapex Information from source Appearing in the photo: en:Maria Echaveste, Assistant to the President and Deputy Chief of Staff Carmen B. Fowler, Director of Presidential Messages Suzanne Moreno, Paralegal, Office of Counsel to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x865, 725 KB) Summary Summary Uploaded by Eagleapex Information from source Appearing in the photo: en:Maria Echaveste, Assistant to the President and Deputy Chief of Staff Carmen B. Fowler, Director of Presidential Messages Suzanne Moreno, Paralegal, Office of Counsel to...

  • Average economic growth of 4.0 percent per year, compared to average growth of 2.8 percent during the previous years. The economy grew for 116 consecutive months, the most in history.[14]
  • Creation of more than 22.5 million jobs—the most jobs ever created under a single administration, and more than were created in the previous 12 years. Of the total new jobs, 20.7 million, or 92 percent, were in the private sector.[15]
  • Economic gains spurred an increase in family incomes for all Americans. Since 1993, real median family income increased by $6,338, from $42,612 in 1993 to $48,950 in 1999 (in 1999 dollars).[16]
  • Overall unemployment dropped to the lowest level in more than 30 years, down from 6.9 percent in 1993 to just 4.0 percent in January 2001. The unemployment rate was below 5 percent for 40 consecutive months. Unemployment for African Americans fell from 14.2 percent in 1992 to 7.3 percent in 2000, the lowest rate on record. Unemployment for Hispanics fell from 11.8 percent in October 1992 to 5.0 percent in 2000, also the lowest rate on record.[15]
  • Inflation dropped to its lowest rate since the Kennedy Administration, averaging 2.5 percent, and fell from 4.7 percent during the previous administration.[17]
  • The homeownership rate reached 67.7 percent near the end of the Clinton administration, the highest rate on record. In contrast, the homeownership rate fell from 65.6 percent in the first quarter of 1981 to 63.7 percent in the first quarter of 1993.[18]
  • The poverty rate also declined from 15.1 percent in 1993 to 11.8 percent in 1999, the largest six-year drop in poverty in nearly 30 years. This left 7 million fewer people in poverty than there were in 1993.[19]
  • The surplus in fiscal year 2000 was $237 billion—the third consecutive surplus and the largest surplus ever.[18]
  • Clinton worked with the Republican-led Congress to enact welfare reform. As a result, welfare rolls dropped dramatically and were the lowest since 1969. Between January 1993 and September of 1999, the number of welfare recipients dropped by 7.5 million (a 53 percent decline) to 6.6 million. In comparison, between 1981-1992, the number of welfare recipients increased by 2.5 million (a 22 percent increase) to 13.6 million people.[20]

Trade

President Clinton signs NAFTA.
President Clinton signs NAFTA.

Clinton made it one of his goals as president to pass trade legislation that lowered the barriers to trade with other nations. He broke with many of his supporters, including labor unions, and those in his own party to support free-trade legislation.[21] Opponents argued that lowering tariffs and relaxing rules on imports would cost American jobs because people would buy cheaper products from other countries. Clinton countered that free trade would help America because it would allow the U.S. to boost its exports and grow the economy. Clinton also believed that free trade could help move foreign nations to economic and political reform. Image File history File links NAFTA_signing. ... Image File history File links NAFTA_signing. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ...


Clinton’s first trade proposal was the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which would gradually reduce tariffs and create a free-trading bloc of North American countries–the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Opponents of NAFTA, led by Ross Perot, claimed it would force American companies to move their workforces to Mexico, where they could produce goods with cheaper labor and ship them back to the United States at lower prices. Clinton, however, argued that NAFTA would increase U.S. exports and create new jobs. He convinced many Democrats to join most Republicans in supporting trade agreement and in 1993 the Congress passed the treaty.[22] Map of NAFTA President Clinton signs the agreement. ...


Clinton also held meetings with leaders of Pacific Rim nations to discuss lowering trade barriers. In November 1993 he hosted a meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Seattle, Washington, which was attended by the leaders of 12 Pacific Rim nations. In 1994, Clinton arranged an agreement in Indonesia with Pacific Rim nations to gradually remove trade barriers and open their markets. The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ... The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries that meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King Incorporated December 2 1869 Mayor Greg Nickels (D) Area    - City 369. ... Official language(s) None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,824 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ...


Officials in the Clinton administration also participated in the final round of trade negotiations sponsored by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), an international trade organization. The negotiations had been ongoing since 1986. In a rare move, Clinton convened Congress to ratify the trade agreement in the winter of 1994, during which the treaty was approved. As part of the GATT agreement, a new international trade body, the World Trade Organization (WTO), replaced GATT in 1995. The new WTO had stronger authority to enforce trade agreements and covered a wider range of trade than did GATT. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATTs main purpose was to reduce barriers to international trade. ... The World Trade Organization (WTO, French: Organisation mondiale du commerce, Spanish: Organización Mundial del Comercio, German: Welthandelsorganisation) is an international, multilateral organization, which sets the rules for the global trading system and resolves disputes between its member states; all of whom are signatories to its approximately 30 agreements. ...


Clinton faced his first defeat on trade legislation during his second term. In November 1997, the Republican-controlled Congress delayed voting on a bill to restore a presidential trade authority that had expired in 1994. The bill would have given the president the authority to negotiate trade agreements which the Congress was not authorized to modify–known as "fast-track negotiating" because it streamlines the treaty process. Clinton was unable to generate sufficient support for the legislation, even among the Democratic Party.


Clinton faced yet another trade setback in December 1999, when the WTO met in Seattle for a new round of trade negotiations. Clinton hoped that new agreements on issues such as agriculture and intellectual property could be proposed at the meeting, but the talks fell through. Anti-WTO protesters in the streets of Seattle disrupted the meetings[23] and the international delegates attending the meetings were unable to compromise mainly because delegates from smaller, poorer countries resisted Clinton’s efforts to discuss labor and environmental standards.[24]


That same year, Clinton signed a landmark trade agreement with the People's Republic of China. The agreement–the result of more than a decade of negotiations–would lower many trade barriers between the two countries, making it easier to export U.S. products such as automobiles, banking services, and motion pictures. However, the agreement could only take effect if China was accepted into the WTO and was granted permanent “normal trade relations” status by the U.S. Congress. Under the pact, the United States would support China’s membership in the WTO. Many Democrats as well as Republicans were reluctant to grant permanent status to China because they were concerned about human rights in the country and the impact of Chinese imports on U.S. industries and jobs. Congress, however, voted in 2000 to grant permanent normal trade relations with China.


The Clinton administration negotiated a total of about 300 trade agreements with other countries.[25] Clinton’s last treasury secretary, Lawrence Summers, stated that the lowered tariffs that resulted from Clinton's trade policies, which reduced prices to consumers and kept inflation low, were technically “the largest tax cut in the history of the world.”[26] Lawrence Henry (Larry) Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. ...


Foreign policy

Clinton embraces British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ...

References

  1. ^ President seeks better implementation of 'don't ask, don't tell' - CNN, 1999-12-11
  2. ^ Stranger Among Friends. - book reviews - John Cloud, Washington Monthly, November 1996
  3. ^ Washington Blade Editorial: Bush Has Mandate to Let Gays Serve - Kevin Naff, Center for the Study of Sexual Minorities in the Military, 2003-01-10
  4. ^ Patterson, Robert, Lt. Colonel, USAF (Ret) (2003). Dereliction of Duty: The Eyewitness Account of How Bill Clinton Endangered America's Long-Term National Security. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing Company, 101. ISBN 0-89526-140-5.
  5. ^ Presidential Press Conference - 08/03/1993
  6. ^ Historical Presidential Approval Ratings, abcnews.go.com, accessed February 27, 2006
  7. ^ http://www.cbo.gov/budget/historical.pdf
  8. ^ Speech by President Address to Joint Session of Congress 2/17/1993
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ U.S. Senate Roll Call Vote - H.R. 2264 (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993)
  11. ^ U.S. House Recorded Vote - H.R. 2264 (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993)
  12. ^ Citizen's Guide to the Federal Budget - GPO
  13. ^ "Government Shutdown Battle" - PBS
  14. ^ National Economic Council, 6/26/00
  15. ^ a b Bureau of Labor Statistics
  16. ^ National Economic Council, June 2000
  17. ^ National Performance Review, Accomplishments fact sheet
  18. ^ a b Office of Management! and Budget; National Economic Council, 9/27/00
  19. ^ Bureau of the Census, 7/26/00
  20. ^ HHS Administration for Children and Families, December 1999 and August 2000; White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 8/22/00
  21. ^ AFL CIO on Trade
  22. ^ Roll Call Vote - H.R. 3450
  23. ^ Security Increased for WTO Protests - PBS
  24. ^ Wrapping Up the WTO - PBS
  25. ^ Clinton on Foreign Policy at University of Nebraska
  26. ^ Address by Lawrence H. Summers, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury

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