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Encyclopedia > Clinical depression
Depression
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 F32., F33.
ICD-9 296
OMIM 608516
DiseasesDB 3589
MedlinePlus 003213
eMedicine med/532 
On the Threshold of Eternity. In 1890, Vincent van Gogh painted this picture seen by some as symbolizing the despair and hopelessness felt in depression. Van Gogh himself suffered from depression and committed suicide later that same year.
On the Threshold of Eternity. In 1890, Vincent van Gogh painted this picture seen by some as symbolizing the despair and hopelessness felt in depression. Van Gogh himself suffered from depression and committed suicide later that same year.

Clinical depression (also called major-depressive disorder or unipolar depression) is a common psychiatric disorder, characterized by a pervasive low mood, loss of interest in usual activities and diminished ability to experience pleasure. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1611, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Clinical depression ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1611, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Clinical depression ... van Gogh redirects here. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Although the term "depression" is commonly used to describe a temporary depressed mood when one "feels blue", clinical depression is a serious and often disabling condition that can significantly affect a person's work, family and school life, sleeping and eating habits, general health and ability to enjoy life.[1] The course of clinical depression varies widely: depression can be a once in a life-time event or have multiple recurrences, it can appear either gradually or suddenly, and either last for a few months or be a life-long disorder. Having depression is a major risk factor for suicide; in addition, people with depression suffer from higher mortality from other causes.[2] In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Clinical depression may be isolated or be a secondary result of a primary condition such as bipolar disorder or chronic pain. When specific treatment is indicated, this is usually psychotherapy and/or antidepressants. For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Clinical depression can present with a variety of symptoms, however almost all patients display a marked change in mood, a deep feeling of sadness, and a noticeable loss of interest or pleasure in favorite activities. Other symptoms include: In psychology, anhedonia is a patients inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events such as eating, exercise, and social/sexual interactions. ...

  • Persistent sad, anxious or "empty" mood
  • Loss of appetite and/or weight loss or conversely overeating and weight gain
  • Insomnia, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
  • Restlessness or irritability
  • Feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt, helplessness
  • Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism
  • Difficulty thinking, concentrating, remembering or making decisions
  • Thoughts of death or suicide or attempts at suicide
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed
  • Decreased energy, fatigue, feeling "slowed down" or sluggish
  • Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain

Not all patients will present every symptom, and the severity of symptoms will vary widely among individuals. Symptoms must, however, persist for at least two weeks before being considered a potential sign of depression, with the exception of suicidal thoughts or attempts.[3][1] This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ...


Diagnosis of clinical depression in children is more difficult than in adults and is often left undiagnosed, and thus untreated, because the symptoms in children are often written off as normal childhood moodiness. Diagnosis is also made difficult because children are more likely than adults to show different symptoms depending on the situation.[4]


While some children still function reasonably well, most who are suffering depression will suffer from a noticeable change in their social activities and life, a loss of interest in school and poor academic performance, and possibly drastic changes in appearance. They may also begin abusing drugs and/or alcohol, particularly past the age of 12. Although much rarer than in adults, children with major depression may attempt suicide or have suicidal thoughts even before the age of twelve.[4]


Diagnosis

Before a diagnosis of depression is made, a physician should perform a complete medical exam to rule out any possible physical cause for the suspected depression. If no such cause is found, a psychological evaluation should be done by the physician or by referral to a psychiatrist or psychologist.[1] The evaluation will include a complete history of symptoms, a discussion of alcohol and drug use, and whether the patient has had or is having suicidal thoughts or thinking about death. The evaluation will also include a family medical history to see if other family members suffer from any form of depression or similar mood disorder.[1] For other uses, see Doctor. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ...


There are several criteria lists and diagnostic tools that can also aid in the diagnosis of depression. Most are based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which is a book published by the American Psychiatric Association that defines the criteria used to diagnose various mental disorders, including depression. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ...


The Beck Depression Inventory, originally created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck in 1961, is a 21-question patient completed survey that covers items related to the basic symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness and irritability, cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished, as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and lack of interest in sex.[5] The Beck Inventory is one of the most widely used diagnostic tools for self-diagnosis of depression, although its primary purpose is not the diagnosis of depression, but determining the severity and presence of symptoms.[6] The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, is a twenty-one question multiple choice self-report inventory that is one of the widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression. ... A Self-report inventory is a type of psychological test in which a patient fills out a survey or questionaire with or without the help of a mental health professional. ... Self diagnosis is the process of diagnosing medical conditions in oneself. ...


There are also two Patient Health Questionnaires available that are also self-administered questionnaires. The PHQ-2 has only two questions that asks about the frequency of depressed mood and a loss of interest in doing things, with a positive to either question indicating the need for further testing.[7] The PHQ-9 is a slightly more detailed nine question survey covering some of the major symptoms of depression and the frequency a person has experienced them. It is based directly on the diagnostic criteria listed in the DSM-IV and often used as a follow up to a positive PHQ-2 test.[8]


Epidemiology

Clinical depression affects about 8–17% of the population on at least one occasion in their lives, before the age of 40. In some countries, such as Australia, one in four women and one in six men will suffer from depression. In Canada, major depression affects approximately 1.35 million people[citation needed], and in the USA approximately 14 million adults per year.[9] An estimated 121 million people worldwide currently suffer from depression.[10]


People who have had one episode of depression may be more than normally likely to have more episodes in the future, so the first time a young person becomes depressed is important both as a personal and public health concern.[citation needed]


About twice as many females as males report or receive treatment for clinical depression, though this imbalance is shrinking over the course of recent history; this difference seems to completely disappear after the age of 50–55. Clinical depression is currently the leading cause of disability in North America, and is expected to become the second leading cause of disability worldwide (after heart disease) by the year 2020, according to the World Health Organization.[11] Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Recent studies suggest that the diagnostic criteria for depression are far too broad, resulting in diagnosis of clinical depression in people who are not truly clinically depressed and who have shown normal responses to negative events.[12]


Types

The diagnostic category major depressive disorder appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. The term is generally not used in countries which instead use the ICD-10 system, but the diagnosis of depressive episode is very similar to an episode of major depression. Clinical depression also usually refers to acute or chronic depression severe enough to need treatment. Minor depression is a less-used term for a subclinical depression that does not meet criteria for major depression but where there are at least two symptoms present for two weeks. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ...


Major depression

Major depression is a severely depressed mood that persists for at least two weeks. Episodes may be isolated or recurrent and categorized as mild, major or severe. If the patient has already had an episode of mania or markedly elevated mood, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder is usually made instead. Depression without periods of elation or mania is therefore sometimes referred to as unipolar depression because the mood remains at one emotional state or "pole". The diagnosis usually excludes cases where the symptoms are a normal result of bereavement (though it is possible for normal bereavement to turn into a depressive episode). This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Sad redirects here; for the three letter acronym, see SAD. Suffering is any unwanted condition and the corresponding negative emotion. ...


Diagnosticians recognize several possible subtypes of major depression:

  • Depression with melancholic features – melancholia is characterized by a loss of pleasure (anhedonia) in most or all activities, a failure of reactivity to pleasurable stimuli, a quality of depressed mood more pronounced than that of grief or loss, a worsening of symptoms in the morning hours, early morning waking, psychomotor retardation, anorexia (excessive weight loss, not to be confused with Anorexia Nervosa), or excessive guilt.
  • Depression with atypical features – atypical depression is characterized by mood reactivity (paradoxical anhedonia) and positivity, significant weight gain or increased appetite ("comfort eating"),[13] excessive sleep or somnolence (hypersomnia), leaden paralysis, or significant social impairment as a consequence of hypersensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection. Contrary to its name, atypical depression is the most common form of depression.[14]
  • Depression with Psychotic Features – Some people with major depressive or manic episodes may experience psychotic features. They may be presented with hallucinations or delusions that are either mood-congruent (content coincident with depressive themes) or non-mood-congruent (content not coincident with depressive themes). It is clinically more common to encounter a delusional system as an adjunct to depression than to encounter hallucinations, whether visual or auditory.

It is possible for a person to have a combination of these subtypes. For instance someone may experience loss of pleasure in activities as seen in melancholic depression in addition to over-eating and weight gain common to atypical depression. Melancholic Depression, or depression with melancholic features is a subtype of depression characterized by the inability to find pleasure in positive things combined with physical agitation, insomnia, or decreased appetite. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Atypical Depression (AD) is a subtype of Dysthymia and Major Depression characterized by mood reactivity — being able to experience improved mood in response to positive events. ... This article or section should be merged with Birth control pill Weight Gain When Taking The Pill When starting to take the birth contol pill some people may expierence slight weight gain. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... Silent treatment redirects here. ... Psychotic depression is one of the most severe forms of the general depressive diseases in which the person experiences moments of delusional or paranoid being. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ...


Other disorders featuring depressed mood

  • Dysthymia is a chronic, mild depression in which a person suffers from a depressive mood almost daily over a span of at least two years without episodes of major depression. The symptoms are not as severe as those for major depression, although people with dysthymia are vulnerable to co-occurring episodes of major depression (sometimes referred to as "double depression").[citation needed]
  • Bipolar disorder is an episodic illness characterized by alternating states of mania, hypomania and depression. In the United States, bipolar disorder was previously called "manic depression", however this term is no longer favored by the medical community.
  • Postnatal depression or postpartum depression is a form of clinical depression that occurs after childbirth. Postnatal depression primarily occurs in women, less commonly in men, with similar symptoms and treatment methods as clinical depression, however postnatal depression generally lasts only a few weeks with proper diagnosis and treatment.
  • Recurrent brief depression (RBD) is distinguished from clinical depression primarily by differences in duration. Patients with RBD have depressive episodes about once per month, with individual episodes lasting less than two weeks and typically less than 2–3 days. Diagnosis of RBD requires that the episodes occur over the span of at least one year and, in female patients, independently of the menstrual cycle. People with clinical depression can develop RBD, and vice versa, with both illnesses having similar risks.[15]

Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. ... Postnatal Depression (also called Postpartum Depression and referred throughout this article by the acronym PPD) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive age females of several mammals, including human beings and other apes. ...

Overlapping psychological features

Anxiety

The different types of depression and anxiety are classified separately by the DSM-IV-TR, with the exception of hypomania, which is included in the bipolar disorder category. Despite the different categories, depression and anxiety can indeed be co-occurring (occurring together), independently (without mood congruence), or comorbid (occurring together, with overlapping symptoms, and with mood congruence). In an effort to bridge the gap between the DSM-IV-TR categories and what clinicians actually encounter, experts such as Herman Van Praag of Maastricht University have proposed ideas such as anxiety/aggression-driven depression.[16] This idea refers to an anxiety/depression spectrum for these two disorders, which differs from the mainstream perspective of discrete diagnostic categories. Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... Mood congruence is a psychiatric term that refers to the congruence between feeling, or the emotion that a person is experiencing, and affect, or the manner in which that emotion is presenting, or being expressed. ... In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... Universiteit Maastricht (Maastricht University), founded in 1976, is the second youngest university in the Netherlands. ...


Although there is no specific diagnostic category for the comorbidity of depression and anxiety in the DSM or ICD, the National Comorbidity Survey (US) reports that 58 percent of those with major depression also suffer from lifetime anxiety. Supporting this finding, two widely accepted clinical colloquialisms include

  • Agitated depression - a state of depression that presents as anxiety and includes akathisia (heightened restlessness), suicide, insomnia (not early morning wakefulness), nonclinical (meaning "doesn't meet the standard for formal diagnosis") and nonspecific panic, and a general sense of dread.
  • Akathitic depression - a state of depression that presents as anxiety or suicidality and includes akathisia but does not include symptoms of panic. Some consider it a form of mixed state.

It is also clear that even mild anxiety symptoms can have a major impact on the course of a depressive illness, and the commingling of any anxiety symptoms with the primary depression is important to consider. A pilot study by Ellen Frank et al., at the University of Pittsburgh, found that depressed or bipolar patients with lifetime panic symptoms experienced significant delays in their remission.[citation needed] These patients also had higher levels of residual impairment, or the ability to get back into the swing of things. On a similar note, Robert Sapolsky of Stanford University and others also argue that the relationship between stress, anxiety, and depression could be measured and demonstrated biologically.[17] To that point, a[18] study by Heim and Nemeroff et al., of Emory University, found that depressed and anxious women with a history of childhood abuse recorded higher heart rates and the stress hormone ACTH when subjected to stressful situations. Akathisia (or acathisia) is an often extremely unpleasant subjective sensation of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless, hence the origin of its name: Greek a (without) + kathesis (sitting). ... Akathisia (or acathisia) is an often extremely unpleasant subjective sensation of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless, hence the origin of its name: Greek a (without) + kathesis (sitting). ... In the context of mental illness, a mixed state (also known as dysphoric mania or agitated depression) is a condition during which symptoms of mania and depression occur simultaneously (e. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Robert Maurice Sapolsky (b. ... Stanford redirects here. ... The word Heim is the German equivalent of the English word home. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ...


Hypomania

Hypomania, as the name suggests, is a state of mind or behavior that is "below" (hypo) mania. In other words, a person in a hypomanic state often displays behavior that has all the hallmarks of a full-blown mania (e.g., marked elevation of mood that is characterized by euphoria, overactivity, disinhibition, impulsivity, a decreased need for sleep, hypersexuality), but these symptoms, though disruptive and seemingly out of character, are not so pronounced as to be considered a diagnosably manic episode. In a psychiatric context, it is important to identify the possible presence and characteristics of manic and hypomanic episodes, since these may lead to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, which is medically treated differently from depression. Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


Another important point is that hypomania is a diagnostic category that includes both anxiety and depression. It often presents as a state of anxiety that occurs in the context of a clinical depression. Patients in a hypomanic state often describe a sense of extreme generalized or specific anxiety, recurring panic attacks, night terrors, guilt, and agency (as it pertains to codependence and counterdependence). All of this happens while they are in a state of retarded or somnolent depression. This is the type of depression in which a person is lethargic and unable to move through life. The terms retarded and somnolent are shorthand for states of depression that include lethargy, hypersomnia, a lack of motivation, a collapse of ADLs (activities of daily living), and social withdrawal. This is similar to the shorthand used to describe an "agitated" or "akathitic" depression. Agency considered in the philosophical sense is the capacity of an agent to act in a world. ... Codependence (or codependency) is a popular psychology concept popularized by Twelve-Step program advocates. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... Akathisia (or acathisia) is an often extremely unpleasant subjective sensation of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless, hence the origin of its name: Greek a (without) + kathesis (sitting). ...


In considering the hypomania-depression connection, a distinction should be made between anxiety, panic, and stress. Anxiety is a physiological state that is caused by the sympathetic nervous system. Anxiety does not need an outside influence to occur. Panic is related to the "fight or flight" mechanism. It is a reaction, induced by an outside stimulus, and is a product of the sympathetic nervous system and the cerebral cortex. More plainly, panic is an anxiety state that we are thinking about. Finally, stress is a psychosocial reaction, influenced by how a person filters nonthreatening external events. This filtering is based on one's own ideas, assumptions, and expectations. Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... This article or section should include material from Fight-or-flight The flight or fight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Psychosocial refers to ones psychological development in the context of a social environment. ...


Causes

Current theories regarding the risk factors and causes of clinical depression can be broadly classified into two categories, Physiological and Sociopsychological:


Physiological

Genetic predisposition

The tendency to develop depression may be inherited: according to the National Institute of Mental Health[19] there is some evidence that depression may run in families. Most experts believe that both biological and psychological factors play a role. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. ...

Brain chemicals called neurotransmitters allow electrical signals to move from the axon of one nerve cell to the neuron of another. A shortage of neurotransmitters impairs brain communication.
Brain chemicals called neurotransmitters allow electrical signals to move from the axon of one nerve cell to the neuron of another. A shortage of neurotransmitters impairs brain communication.

synapse diagram: cells communicate by electrical messages passed from the axon of one nerve cell to the neuron of another. ... synapse diagram: cells communicate by electrical messages passed from the axon of one nerve cell to the neuron of another. ...

Neurological

Many modern antidepressant drugs change levels of certain neurotransmitters, namely serotonin and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). However, the relationship between serotonin, SSRIs, and depression is typically greatly oversimplified when presented to the public, though this may be due to the lack of scientific knowledge regarding the mechanisms of action.[20] Evidence has shown the involvement of neurogenesis in depression, though the role is not exactly known.[21] Recent research has suggested that there may be a link between depression and neurogenesis of the hippocampus.[22] This horseshoe-shaped structure is a center for both mood and memory. Loss of neurons in the hippocampus is found in depression and correlates with impaired memory and dysthymic mood. The most widely accepted explanation for this is that the drugs increase serotonin levels in the brain which in turn stimulate neurogenesis and therefore increase the total mass of the hippocampus and would in theory restore mood and memory, therefore assisting in the fight against the mood disorder. However, whether environmental confounds could contribute to this remains a subject of controversy.[citation needed] Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are created. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ...


In about one-third of individuals diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder widely believed to be neurological and developmental, depression is recognized as comorbid.[23] Dysthymia, a form of chronic, low-level depression, is particularly common in adults with undiagnosed ADHD who have encountered years of frustrating ADHD-related problems with education, employment, and interpersonal relationships.[24] Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioural developmental disorder[1] [2] [3] affecting about 3-5% of the worlds population under the age of 19[4]. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness... In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ...


New evidence shows that individuals with clinical depression exhibit markedly higher levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in the brain compared to people without depression.[25] MAO-A is an enzyme which reacts with and decreases the concentration of monoamines such as serotonin, norephinephrine and dopamine. Lower concentrations of monoamines is a well known cause of depression.[26] Monoamine oxidase A is an isozyme of monoamine oxidase. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ...


Medical conditions

Certain illnesses, including cardiovascular disease,[27] hepatitis, mononucleosis, hypothyroidism, fructose malabsorption,[28] sleep apnea, and organic brain damage caused by degenerative conditions such as Parkinson disease, Multiple Sclerosis or by traumatic blunt force injury may contribute to depression, as may certain prescription drugs such as hormonal contraception methods and steroids. Depression also occurs in patients with chronic pain, such as chronic back pain, much more frequently than in the general population. Fibromyalgia Syndrome sufferers also experience depression and anxiety. Dampness or mold in the home is associated with depression,[29] as is the frequent use of aerosols and air fresheners in the home.[30] Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Infectious mononucleosis (also known as mono, the kissing disease, Pfeiffers disease, and, in British English, glandular fever) is a disease seen most commonly in adolescents and young adults, characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fructose malabsorption is a condition in which the fructose carrier in enterocytes is deficient. ... Sleep apnea, sleep apnoea or sleep apnœa is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. ... Parkinsons disease (PD; paralysis agitans) is a neurodegenerative disease of the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia). ... Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Back pain (also known dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. ...


Dietary

The increase in depression in industrialised societies has been linked to diet, particularly to reduced levels of omega-3 fatty acids in intensively farmed food and processed foods.[citation needed] In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ...


Sleep quality

Poor sleep quality co-occurs with major depression. Major depression leads to alterations in the function of the hypothalamus and pituitary causing excessive release of cortisol which can lead to poor sleep quality. Individuals suffering from major depression have been found to have an abnormal sleep architecture, often entering REM sleep sooner than usual, along with highly emotionally-charged dreaming. Antidepressant drugs, which often function as REM sleep suppressants, may serve to dampen abnormal REM activity and thus allow for a more restorative sleep to occur. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Rapid eye movement (REM) is the stage of sleep during which the most vivid (though not all) dreams occur. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ...


Seasonal affective disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depressive disorder that occurs in the winter when daylight hours are short. It is believed that the body's production of melatonin, which is produced at higher levels in the dark, plays a major part in the onset of SAD and that many sufferers respond well to bright light therapy, also known as phototherapy.[citation needed] Light therapy lamp for Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal affective disorder, also known as winter depression, is an affective, or mood, disorder. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Light therapy or phototherapy consists of exposure to specific ranges of light wavelengths (using lasers or LEDs), or very bright, full-spectrum light, for a prescribed amount of time. ...


Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression refers to the intense, sustained and sometimes disabling depression experienced by women after giving birth. Postpartum depression, which has incidence rate of 10-15%, typically sets in within three months of labor and can last for as long as three months.[31] About two new mothers out of a thousand experience the more serious depressive disorder Postnatal Psychosis which includes hallucinations and/or delusions. Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ...


Sociological

Psychological factors

Low self-esteem and self-defeating or distorted thinking are connected with depression. However, it has been proposed that it is the result of depression and not necessarily the cause of it. This is still debated in the scientific community. Although it is not clear which is the cause and which is the effect, it is known that depressed persons who are able to make corrections in their thinking patterns can show improved mood and self-esteem (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy).[citation needed] Psychological factors related to depression include the complex development of one's personality and how one has learned to cope with external environmental factors such as stress.[citation needed] In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ...


Early experiences

Events such as the death of a parent, issues with biological development, school related problems, abandonment or rejection, neglect, chronic illness, and physical, psychological, or sexual abuse can also increase the likelihood of depression later in life. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes depression as one of its major symptoms.[citation needed] Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ...


Life experiences

The following experiences or circumstances may trigger depression:

Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Compulsive gambling is an urge or addiction to gamble despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop. ... Eating disorders are a group of mental disorders that interfere with normal food consumption. ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ...

Treatment and services

The treatment of depression is highly individualized to the patient, based on the patient's unique combination of biological, psychological and social health factors and the severity of their condition.[33] The three most conventional treatments for depression include medication, psychotherapy, and Electroconvulsive therapy, however new treatments and less conventional options are also available, including self help, life style changes, and vagus nerve stimulation.[33]


If there is an imminent threat of suicide or the patient is a danger to others, hospitalization is employed as an intervention method to keep at-risk individuals safe until they cease to be a danger to themselves or others. At-risk individuals may also be placed in a partial hospitalization therapy, in which the patient sleeps at home but spends most of the day in a psychiatric hospital setting. This intensive treatment usually involves group therapy, individual therapy, medication management, and is used often in the case of children and adolescents. For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Partial hospitalization is a type of treatment program used in treatment of mental illness and substance abuse. ... Group therapy is a form of psychotherapy during which one or several therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ...


Drug therapy

Sufferers of severe depression may benefit from the use of antidepressant drugs. A widely-reported meta-analysis combined 35 clinical trials submitted to the FDA before licensing of four newer antidepressants. The authors found that although the antidepressants were statistically superior to placebo they often did not exceed the NICE criteria for a 'clinically significant' effect. In particular they found that the effect size was very small for moderate depression but increased with severity reaching 'clinical significance' for very severe depression.[34] This result is consistent with the earlier clinical studies where only patients with severe depression benefited from the treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant imipramine or from psychotherapy more than from the placebo treatment.[35][36][37] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft), are the primary medications considered for patients, having fewer side effects than the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). MAOIs may be the best medication for a small number of patients, however those patients will have to avoid a variety of foods and decongestant medications to reduce the chances of a hypertensive crisis.[1] Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban), an atypical antidepressant that acts as a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is also considered to be effective in the treatment of depression,[38] without sexual dysfunction or sexual side effects[39] and without weight gain. Bupropion has also been shown to be more effective than SSRIs at improving symptoms such as hypersomnia and fatigue in depressed patients.[40] Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Citalopram is an antidepressant drug used to treat depression associated with mood disorders. ... Prozac redirects here. ... Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ... Zoloft bottles, with blue and green tablets Sertraline hydrochloride (also sold under brand names Zoloft, Lustral, Apo-Sertral, Asentra, Gladem, Serlift, Stimuloton, Xydep, Serlain, Concorz) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. ... MAOI redirects here. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) are compounds that increase amounts of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the brain by inhibiting its reuptake at synapses. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ...


A patient's doctor may have to change the antidepressant taken, adjust the dosages of medications, or try different combinations of antidepressants before finding the most effective option for the patient; response rates to the first agent administered may be as low as 50%.[41] It may take anywhere from 3 to 8 weeks after the start of medication before its therapeutic effects can be fully discovered. Patients are generally advised not to stop taking an antidepressant suddenly and to continue its use for at least four months to prevent the chance of recurrence. For patients that have chronic depression, medication may need to be continued for the remainder of their life.[1]


Psychotherapy

There are a number of psychotherapies for depression. These psychotherapies may be provided individually or in a group format. Psychotherapy can be delivered by a variety of mental health professionals, including psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, or psychiatric nurses. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


The most studied form of psychotherapy for depression is cognitive therapy (also called Cognitive behavioral therapy). Several clinical trials have shown that CBT is as effective as anti-depressant medications, even among more severely depressed patients. While the precise mechanisms of change in CBT remain an active area of research, CBT is thought to work by teaching patients to learn a set of cognitive and behavioral skills, which they can employ on their own. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ...


A number of other psychotherapies for depression exist. There is evidence that behavior therapy (called behavioral activation in the treatment of depression) and interpersonal therapy are effective treatments for depression. Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on the social and interpersonal triggers that may cause depression. Behavioral therapy is based on the assumption that behaviors are learned. Some behavior analytic models trace some depressions to childhood (see child development). This type of therapy attempts to teach people to learn healthier behaviors. Therapy can be used to help a person develop or improve interpersonal skills in order to allow him or her to communicate more effectively and reduce stress. Narrative therapy gives attention to each person's "dominant story" by means of therapeutic conversations, which also may involve exploring unhelpful ideas and how they came to prominence. Possible social and cultural influences may be explored if the client deems it helpful. Supportive therapy encourages people to discuss their problems and provides them with emotional support. The focus is on sharing information, ideas, and strategies for coping with daily life. Family therapy helps people live together more harmoniously and undo patterns of destructive behavior. Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Interpersonal skills refer to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. ... Narrative Therapy was initially developed during the 1970s and 1980s, largely by Australian Michael White (Dulwich Centre) and his friend and colleague, David Epston, of New Zealand. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ...


Earlier research initially suggested that psychotherapy, specifically cognitive-behavioral therapy, was not as effective as medication in the treatment of depression; however, recent research suggests that CBT can perform as well as anti-depressant medication in the treatment of moderate to severe depression treated on an outpatient basis.[citation needed] With more complex and chronic forms of depression the most effective treatment is often a combination of medication and psychotherapy.[42]


Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock or electroshock treatment, uses short bursts of a controlled current of electricity (typically fixed at 0.9 ampere) into the brain to induce a brief, artificial seizure while the patient is under general anesthesia. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity for therapeutic effect. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ...


In contrast to direct electroshock of years ago, most countries now allow ECT to be administered only under anaesthesia. In a typical regimen of treatment, a patient receives three treatments per week over three or four weeks. Repeat sessions may be needed. Short-term memory loss, disorientation, and headache are very common side effects. Detailed neuropsychological testing in clinical studies has not been able to prove permanent effects on memory. ECT offers the benefit of a very fast response; however, this response has been shown not to last unless maintenance electroshock or maintenance medication is used. Whereas antidepressants usually take around a month to take effect, the results of ECT have been shown to be much faster. For this reason, it is the treatment of choice in emergencies (e.g., in catatonic depression in which the patient has ceased oral intake of fluid or nutrients). Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary, working, or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a few seconds. ...


There remains much controversy over ECT. Social critics such as Peter Breggin,[43] call for restrictions on its use or complete abolishment. Like all forms of psychiatric treatment, electroshock can be given without a patient's consent,[citation needed] but this is subject to legal conditions dependent on the jurisdiction. In Oregon patient consent is necessary by statute.[citation needed] Peter R. Breggin is a controversial psychiatrist from the United States. ...


Other methods of treatment

Light therapy

Light therapy involves exposing a person to bright light, usually from a fluorescent bulb, for a regular interval daily, usually in the morning. The evaluation of light therapy has provided unique challenges in the area of experimental design to researchers attempting to evaluate its effectiveness, especially in comparison to antidepressant medications. Like other forms of treatment for depression, the mechanisms of action of light therapy are poorly understood. There is evidence that light therapy, similarly to both some antidepressant medications and total sleep deprivation, has an antidepressant effect through affecting serotonin transport.[44] The first statistician to consider a methodology for the design of experiments was Sir Ronald A. Fisher. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ...


Bright light (both sunlight and artificial light) has been shown to be effective in seasonal affective disorder.[45] It has also been shown to be effective in non-seasonal depression as well.[46] A randomized controlled trial published in 2005 found light therapy to be about as effective as most antidepressants[47]. Light therapy has the advantage of producing faster results (typically within one week) than treatment by most antidepressants (many of which take several weeks for any noticeable effects).[48] A preliminary study found that light therapy is comparable to antidepressants for postpartum depression, and called for further studies.[49] It also avoids some of the side effects of such medication. However, like SSRIs, it also leaves patients vulnerable to mood sensitivity to rapid tryptophan depletion.[50] Light therapy lamp for Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal affective disorder, also known as winter depression, is an affective, or mood, disorder. ... Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ...


Acupuncture

While some small studies have reported promising results, a recent Cochrane Review concluded that there is at present insufficient scientific evidence to judge the efficacy of acupuncture in the management of depression.[51] Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ...


Exercise

Studies have indicated that changes in lifestyle, such as regular exercise, when used in conjunction with medication with non-suicidal patients can have beneficial effects in the prevention of depression returning. Patients that completed 30 minutes of brisk exercise at least 3 times a week were found to have a significantly lower incidence of relapse.[52]


Hypnotherapy

In recent years, cognitive hypnotherapy, in conjunction with behavior therapy has been cited as an alternative method of treating clinical depression.[53] Some studies have shown that hypnotherapy can help to reduce symptoms and to aid in teaching coping skills and strategies to help reduce the chance for recurrence.[54] Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. ...


Meditation

Meditation is increasingly seen as a useful treatment for some cases of depression.[55] The current professional opinion on meditation is that it represents at least a complementary method of treating depression, a view that has been endorsed by the Mayo Clinic.[56] Since the late 1990s, much research has been carried out to determine how meditation affects the brain (see the main article on meditation). Although the effects on the mind are complex, they are often quite positive, encouraging a calm, reflective, and rational state of mind that can be of great help against depression.[citation needed] For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... The Thinker by Auguste Rodin: An artists impression of Homo sapiens Human self-reflection is the basis of philosophy and is present from the earliest historical records. ... Rational may be: the adjective for the state of rationality acting according to the philosophical principles of rationalism a mathematical term for certain numbers; the rational numbers the software company Rational Software; now owned by IBM, and formerly Rational Software Corporation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


Deep brain stimulation

Though still experimental, a new form of treatment called deep brain stimulation offers some hope in the relief of treatment resistant clinical depression. Published in the journal Neuron (2005), Helen Mayberg described the implanting of electrodes in a region of the brain known as Area 25.[57] The electrodes act in an inhibitory fashion, on an otherwise overactive region of the brain. Further research is required before it becomes available as a method of treatment, but it offers hope for those suffering from treatment resistant depression. In neurotechnology, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ...


Archaic methods

Insulin shock therapy is an old and largely abandoned treatment of severe depressions, psychoses, catatonic states, and other mental disorders. It consists of induction of hypoglycemic coma by intravenous infusion of insulin. Insulin shock therapy is a treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis and drug addiction which involves injecting a patient with massive amounts of insulin, which causes convulsions and coma. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... This is a page about catatonic state. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ...


Atropinic shock therapy, also known as atropinic coma therapy, is an old and rarely used method. It consists of induction of atropinic coma by rapid intravenous infusion of atropine. Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ...


Atropinic shock treatment is considered safe, but it entails prolonged coma (4–5 hours), with careful monitoring and preparation, and it has many unpleasant side effects, such as blurred vision.


Self-medication

Self-medication is the use of drugs or alcohol to treat a perceived or real malady, usually of a psychological nature. Typically the use of non-prescription chemicals are taken with the intent of the user to alter a mood state for a temporary amount of time. In one study, cannabis users who use once a week or less were shown to have fewer symptoms of depression than non-users.[58] Self-medication is the use of drugs, sometimes illicit, to treat a perceived or real malady, often of a psychological nature. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Cigarette smoking is a popular form of self-medication. In clinical studies, nicotine is shown to be an effective anti-depressant among rats.[59]


Herbal and dietary supplements

5-HTP supplements are claimed to provide more raw material to the body's natural serotonin production process. There is a reasonable indication that 5-HTP may not be effective for those who have not already responded well to an SSRI because of their similar function: SSRIs prolong serotonin concentrations in the synapse, while 5-HTP induces production of more serotonin.[60] 5-HTP (5-Hydroxy-tryptophan) is decarboxylated to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ...


S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) is a derivative of the amino acid methionine that is found throughout the human body, where it acts as a methyl donor and participates in other biochemical reactions. It is available as a prescription antidepressant in Europe and an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the United States. Clinical trials have shown SAM-e to be as effective as standard antidepressant medication; however, some studies have reported an increased incidence of mania resulting from SAM-e use compared to other antidepressants.[61][62] Its mode of action is unknown. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ...


Omega-3 fatty acids (found naturally in oily fish, flax seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, and canola oil) have also been found to be effective when used as a dietary supplement (although only fish-based omega-3 fatty acids have shown antidepressant efficacy.[63]) In addition to the total amount of omega 3 oils in the body, the level of omega 6 fatty acids have also been found to be implicated. An excess of omega 6 appears to be associated with depression.[64] Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fish oil. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum L. Linnaeus, 17?? Common flax (also known as linseed) is a member of the Linaceae family, which includes about 150 plant species widely distributed around the world. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... For the figure in Celtic mythology see agriculture, canola are certain varieties of plants from which we get rapeseed oil, or the oil produced from those varieties. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ...


Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), available as a supplement in the U.S., has been shown to be effective in small trials.[65] Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ...


Magnesium supplementation has gathered some attention as a possible treatment for depression.[66] Some case reports demonstrate rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment.[67] General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


St John's Wort Except under medical supervision, St. John's Wort should not be used with SSRIs or MAOIs because of the risk of serotonin syndrome.[68] Binomial name Hypericum perforatum L. St Johns wort (IPA pronunciation: , rhyming with hurt, or ) used alone refers to the species Hypericum perforatum, also known as Klamath weed or Goat weed, but, with qualifiers, is used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. ... Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, or inadvertent interactions between drugs. ...


Ginkgo Biloba Effective natural antidepressant[69] said to stabilise cell membranes, inhibiting lipid breakdown and aiding cell use of oxygen and glucose - so subsequently a mental and vascular stimulant that improves neurotransmitter production. Also popular for treating mental concentration (such as for Alzheimer's and stroke patients). Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Alzheimers disease was first described by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin and neurologist Alois Alzheimer. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Siberian Ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus] Although not a true panax ginseng it is claimed by some to be a mood enhancement supplement against stress. The claims are that it is effective for treating depression, insomnia, moodiness, fatigue, poor memory, lack of focus, mental tension and endurance. There is little or no scientific evidence to support these claims. Binomial name Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr. ... Species Panax ginseng - Chinese Ginseng Panax japonicus - Japanese Ginseng Panax pseudoginseng - Himalayan Ginseng Panax quinquefolius - American Ginseng Panax trifolius - Dwarf Ginseng Panax vietnamensis - Vietnamese Ginseng Ginseng (Panax) is a genus of about five or six species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. ...


Zinc has had an antidepressant effect in an experiment.[70] General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Biotin: a deficiency has caused a severe depression. The patient's symptoms improved after the deficiency was corrected. Vitamin H redirects here. ...


B vitamins: Symptoms of a deficiency in vitamins such as vitamin B6, B12 and others can include depression and other psychiatric disorders.[71] The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ...


Chromium: Evidence has emerged that supplementing with high doses of chromium (ie: in doses of several hundred to 1000 mg) exerts antidepressant effects[72]. It has been found to enhance the availability of serotonin and norepinephrine. Chromium in the form of chromium picolinate has generated some controversy as it has been shown to increase damage to DNA in the ovary cells of hamsters, possible increasing the risk of cancer.[73] REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Chromium picolinate is a bright red solid that is the chromium (III) salt of picolinic acid. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Genera Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. ...


Rhodiola rosea: Rhodiola is a herb growing in cold climates that has just recently been introduced to the west. It has been shown to help alleviate depression and fatigue. It is believed to elevate extracellular levels of monoamines and beta-endorphins.[74] Binomial name L. Synonyms Sedum rosea (L.) Scop. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ...


Transcranial magnetic and cranial electrotherapy stimulation

There are as-yet unproven claims that using magnets or electrical currents can, in some yet to be explained way, reduce depression. In Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) a magnetic field is applied to the left prefrontal cortex. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is the use of powerful rapidly changing magnetic fields to induce electric fields in the brain by electromagnetic induction without the need for surgery or external electrodes. ... In neuroanatomy the cortex is the outermost layer of the brain. ...


Cranial electrotherapy stimulation devices (CES devices) use electrodes placed on or just behind the ear to generate a very small electrical current. In normal healthy males this microcurrent has been shown to affect alpha wave and beta wave brain activity, which according to the authors,"suggest beneficial changes in mental state".[75] Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation, CES devices are small, relatively inexpensive, and are designed for home use. Unlike vagus nerve stimulation, no surgery is required. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Alpha waves recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are synchronous and coherent (regular like sawtooth) and in the frequency range of 8 - 12 Hz. ... Beta waves Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is the term used to designate the frequency range of brain activity above 12 Hz (12 transitions or cycles per second). ...


Several double-blind studies of mixed groups of psychiatric patients have been conducted in the 1970s. The results were inconclusive and negative in one of these trials.[76] In another trial, no difference between the placebo and treatment groups were found on any of the five measures employed.[77] A third trial reported overall inconclusive results; however, four out of six clinically depressed patients dropped out of the study because of the massive worsening of depressive symptoms, with two of them becoming actively suicidal.[78] One of the authors of the third study cautioned that CES “should not be used as a treatment of choice” for the patients with the primary diagnosis of depression, “and should be used with caution if this diagnosis is suspected.”[79] Many preliminary, small-scale studies have been conducted which show the effectiveness of CES therapy[80][81][82][83]; however, to date there exists no consensus or even prospective clinical trials to support its use.


All of the CES devices currently on the market have been granted marketing authorization by the FDA based on the legacy waver, that is because a sufficiently similar device had been marketed before 1976, when the new regulations requiring controlled testing were introduced.[84] Such approval is sometimes misunderstood as evidence of efficacy, it should only be taken as lack of evidence of harm. The FDA considers them to be the class III devices—"devices for which insufficient information exists to assure that general controls and special controls provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness"[85]


Vagus nerve stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation therapy is a treatment used since 1997 to control seizures in epileptic patients and has recently been approved for treating resistant cases of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The VNS Therapy device is implanted in a patient's chest with wires that connect it to the vagus nerve, which it stimulates to reach a region of the brain associated with moods. The device delivers controlled electrical currents to the vagus nerve at regular intervals. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment for certain types of intractable epilepsy and clinical depression. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...


Prognosis

Recurrence is more likely if treatment has not resulted in full remission of symptoms.4 In fact, current guidelines for antidepressant use recommend 4 to 6 months of continuing treatment after symptom resolution to prevent relapse. On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Combined evidence from many randomized controlled trials indicates that continuing antidepressant medications after recovery substantially reduces (halves) the chances of relapse. This preventive effect probably lasts for at least the first 36 months of use.[86] A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicine, used because of its record of reliability. ...


Anecdotal evidence suggests that chronic disease is accompanied by recurrence after prolonged treatment with antidepressants (tachyphylaxis). Psychiatric texts suggest that physicians respond to recurrence by increasing dosage, complementing the medication with a different class, or changing the medication class entirely. The reason for recurrence in these cases is as poorly understood as the change in brain physiology induced by the medications themselves. Possible reasons may include aging of the brain or worsening of the condition. Most SSRI psychiatric medications were developed for short-term use (a year or less) but are widely prescribed for indefinite periods.[87] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


History

The modern idea of depression appears similar to the much older concept of melancholia. The name melancholia derives from "black bile", one of the "four humours" postulated by Galen. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ...


Clinical depression was originally considered to be a chemical imbalance in transmitters in the brain, a theory based on observations made in the 1950s of the effects of reserpine and isoniazid in altering monoamine neurotransmitter levels and affecting depressive symptoms.[88] Since these suggestions, many other causes for clinical depression have been proposed.[21] Chemical imbalance is a term sometimes used by drug companies [1] in the United States in advertising and consumer literature for psychoactive drugs after the deregulation of pharmaceutical advertising. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ...


Evolutionary approaches to depression

Main article: Evolutionary approaches to depression

Some medical professionals and anthropologists have formed several theories as to how depression may have evolutionary advantages, i.e., how it might have increased genetic fitness in ancestral populations. For example, psychic pain may have evolved in an analogous way to physical pain so that organisms avoid behaviour which hinders reproduction. This insight may be helpful in counselling therapy.[89][90] Proponents of the psychic pain theory tend to view clinical depression as a dysfunctional extreme of low mood or mild depression. Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

For emotional memory in Stanislavskis system of acting and American Method acting, see Affective memory. ... The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment used specifically to identify depression in the elderly. ... The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale is a 21-question multiple choice questionnaire which doctors may use to rate the severity of a patients depression. ... A number of well-known individuals have suffered from clinical depression. ...

Books by psychologists and psychiatrists

  • Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., Emery, G. (1987). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.
  • Burns, David D. (1999). Feeling Good : The New Mood Therapy. Avon.
  • Griffin, J., Tyrrell, I. (2004) How to lift Depression – Fast. HG Publishing. ISBN 1-899398-41-4
  • Jacobson, Edith: "Depression; Comparative Studies of Normal, Neurotic, and Psychotic Conditions", International Universities Press, 1976, ISBN 0-8236-1195-7
  • Klein, D. F., & Wender, P. H. (1993). Understanding depression: A complete guide to its diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kramer, Peter D. (2005). Against Depression. New York: Viking Adult.
  • Plesman, J. (1986). Getting off the Hook, Sydney Australia. A self-help book available on the internet.
  • Rowe, Dorothy (2003). Depression: The way out of your prison. London: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Sarbadhikari, S. N. (ed.) (2005) Depression and Dementia: Progress in Brain Research, Clinical Applications and Future Trends. Hauppauge, Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1-59454-114-0.
  • Weissman, M. M., Markowitz, J. C., & Klerman, G. L. (2000). Comprehensive guide to interpersonal psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
  • Bieling, Peter J. & Anthony, Martin M. (2003) Ending The Depression Cycle. New Harbinger Publications. ISBN 1572243333
  • For books on male depression, see Terrence Real

Edith Jacobson (September 10, 1897-December 8, 1978) was a German psychoanalyst. ... Nova Publishers is a New York publishing house whose Nova Science division publishes scientific research books in the fields of physics and medical research. ...

Historical account

  • Healy, David. (1999). The Antidepressant Era, Paperback Edition, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-03958-0

David Healy is an Irish psychiatrist who is currently Reader in Psychological Medicine at Cardiff University College of Medicine, Wales. ...

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External links

  • Stanford Depression Research Clinic
  • Depression at the Open Directory Project
  • National Alliance on Mental Illness Depression support, advocacy, and education
  • National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association - National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association
  • Depression Research News - ScienceDaily's Depression Research News
  • beyondblue, The Australian National Depression Initiative
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services (SAMHSA), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

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Panic attacks are sudden, discrete periods of intense anxiety, fear and discomfort that are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms[1]. The onset of these episodes is typically abrupt, and may have no obvious trigger. ... Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things, which is disproportionate to the actual source of worry. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... OCD redirects here. ... Acute stress reaction is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying event. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... In psychology, adjustment disorder refers to a psychological disturbance that develops in response to a stressor. ... Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as extreme weakness, paralysis, sensory disturbance, seizure and/or attacks that may resemble a known organic disease such as epilepsy or dystonia, but which cannot be currently attributed to neurological disease. ... Ganser syndrome is a psychiatric disorder characterised by approximate answers to questions. ... Somatization disorder (or Briquets disorder) is a type of mental illness in which a patient manifests a psychiatric condition as a physical complaint. ... Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder that involves a distorted body image. ... Hypochondria (sometimes hypochondriasis) is the unfounded belief that one is suffering from a serious illness. ... The English suffix -phobia is used to describe fear or hatred (the latter is often ignored) of a particular thing or subject. ... Da Costas Syndrome is a type of anxiety disorder first observed in soldiers in the American Civil War. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikiquote. ... Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder and psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation and intentional purging to compensate for the excessive eating, usually to prevent weight gain (see anorexia nervosa). ... Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorder that make it difficult to get to sleep, or to stay sleeping. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... A parasomnia is any sleep disorder such as sleepwalking, sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, night terrors, rhythmic movement disorder, REM behaviour disorder, restless leg syndrome, and somniloquy (or sleep talking), characterized by partial arousals during sleep or during transitions between wakefulness and sleep. ... For other uses, see Night Terror. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Premature ejaculation (PE), also known as rapid ejaculation, premature climax or early ejaculation, is the most common sexual problem in men, affecting 25%-40% of men. ... Vaginismus is a condition which affects a womans ability to engage in any form of vaginal penetration, including sexual penetration, insertion of tampons, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations. ... Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Postnatal Depression (also called Postpartum Depression and referred throughout this article by the acronym PPD) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action (Cognitive modules). ... Passive-aggressive behavior refers to passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following authoritative instructions in interpersonal or occupational situations. ... Kleptomania (Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein, to steal, μανία, mania) is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. ... Trichotillomania (TTM), or trich as it is commonly known, is an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, facial hair, nose hair, pubic hair, eyebrows or other body hair. ... “Voyeur” redirects here. ... A factitious disorder or FD is a mental disorder where the ill individuals symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. ... This page refers to the self-inflicted factitious disorder. ... Egodystonic sexual orientation is an egodystonic condition. ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ... Specific developmental disorders categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Expressive language disorder (DSM 315. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia, Fluent aphasia or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called progressive epileptic aphasia, is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Gerstmann syndrome is a neurological disorder. ... Developmental Dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of psychological development disorders affecting the initiation, organization and performance of action[1]. It entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures in the absence of motor or sensory impairments. ... The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... A woman with Retts Syndrome Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many [1] argue that this is a mis-classification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioural developmental disorder[1] [2] [3] affecting about 3-5% of the worlds population under the age of 19[4]. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness... In psychiatry, conduct disorder is a pattern of repetitive behavior where the rights of others or the social norms are violated. ... Oppositional defiant disorder is a controversial psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. ... Separation Anxiety redirects here. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Attachment disorder. ... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... “Stutter” redirects here. ... Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Clinical and Manic Depression Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatment on MedicineNet.com (0 words)
A depressive disorder is a syndrome (group of symptoms) that reflects a sad mood exceeding normal sadness or grief.
Depression symptoms are characterized not only by negative thoughts, moods, and behaviors, but also by specific changes in bodily functions (for example, irregular eating, sleeping, crying spells, and decreased libido).
Depression is usually first identified in a primary-care setting, not in a mental health practitioner's office.
Clinical Depression Treatment - Seek the Professio (360 words)
A person under clinical depression treatment might be experiencing a state of melancholy or sadness from the death of a loved one or other similar situations if this state lasted more than six months.
Clinical depression treatment is a method of therapy that involves antidepressant drugs, vitamin pills and herbal treatment for depression.
Clinical depression treatment seeks to stabilize the levels of the chemical messengers in the nervous system eliminating the condition of anxiety or other unpleasant feelings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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