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Encyclopedia > Climatology
Atmospheric sciences [cat.]
Meteorology [cat.]
weather [cat.]
tropical cyclones [cat.]
Climatology [cat.]
climate [cat.]
climate change [cat.]

Portal Atmospheric Sciences
Portal Weather

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as teleconnections and climate indices. Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Weather map of Europe, 10 December 1887 Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. ...

Contents

Differences with meteorology

In contrast to meteorology, which studies short term weather systems lasting up to a few weeks, climatology studies the frequency and trends of those systems. It studies the periodicity of weather events over years to millennia, as well as changes in long-term average weather patterns, in relation to atmospheric conditions. Climatologists, those who practice climatology, study both the nature of climates - local, regional or global - and the natural or human-induced factors that cause climates to change. Climatology considers the past and can help predict future climate change. // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Phenomena of climatological interest include the atmospheric boundary layer, circulation patterns, heat transfer (radiative, convective and latent), interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans and land surface (particularly vegetation, land use and topography), and the chemical and physical composition of the atmosphere. Related disciplines include astrophysics, atmospheric physics, chemistry, ecology, geology, geophysics, glaciology, hydrology, oceanography, and volcanology. See Planetary boundary layer. ... Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the ocean circulation, which is smaller [1]) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ... In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a cold body. ... “Radiant heat” redirects here. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Latent heat flux is the flux of heat from the earths surface to the atmosphere that is associated with evaporation or condensation of water vapor at the surface; a component of the surface energy budget External links National Science Digital Library - Latent Heat Flux ... Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. ...


History

Perhaps the earliest person to hypothesize the concept of climate change was the medieval Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031-1095 AD). Shen Kuo theorized that climates naturally shifted over an enormous span of time, after observing petrified bamboos found underground near Yanzhou (modern day Yan'an, Shaanxi province), a dry climate area unsuitable for the growth of bamboos. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095 AD) was a polymath Chinese scientist of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone or a similar substance. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Yanan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the...


Early climate researchers include Edmund Halley, who published a map of the trade winds in 1686, after a voyage to the southern hemisphere. Benjamin Franklin, a renaissance man in the 18th century, was the first to map the course of the Gulf Stream for use in sending mail overseas from the United States to Europe. Francis Galton invented the term anticyclone.[2] Helmut Landsberg led to statistical analysis being used in climatology, which led to its evolution into a physical science. Edmond Halley. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... Helmut Erich Landsberg was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in February 1906. ...


Different approaches

Climatology is approached in a variety of ways. Paleoclimatology seeks to reconstruct past climates by examining records such as ice cores and tree rings (dendroclimatology). Paleotempestology uses these same records to help determine hurricane frequency over millennia. The study of contemporary climates incorporates meteorological data accumulated over many years, such as records of rainfall, temperature and atmospheric composition. Knowledge of the atmosphere and its dynamics is also embodied in models, either statistical or mathematical, which help by integrating different observations and testing how they fit together. Modeling is used for understanding past, present and potential future climates. Historical climatology is the study of climate as related to human history and thus focuses only on the last few thousand years. Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... An ice core is a tube of ice removed from an ice sheet. ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England. ... Dendroclimatology is the science of extracting past climate information from information in trees (primarily tree rings). ... Paleotempestology is the study of past hurricane activity by means of geological proxies. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... A statistical model is used in applied statistics. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... Historical climatology is the study of historical changes in weather and their effect on human history. ...


Climate research is made difficult by the large scale, long time periods, and complex processes which govern climate. Climate is governed by physical laws that can be expressed as differential equations. These equations are coupled and nonlinear, so that approximate solutions are obtained by using numerical methods to create global climate models. Climate is sometimes modeled as a stochastic process but this is generally accepted as an approximation to processes that are otherwise too complicated to analyze. In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation in which the derivatives of a function appear as variables. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ... In the mathematics of probability, a stochastic process is a random function. ...


Use in weather forecasting

Main article: Weather forecasting

A more complicated way of making a forecast, the analog technique requires remembering a previous weather event which is expected to be mimicked by an upcoming event. What makes it a difficult technique to use is that there is rarely a perfect analog for an event in the future.[3] Some call this type of forecasting pattern recognition, which remains a useful method of observing rainfall over data voids such as oceans with knowledge of how satellite imagery relates to precipitation rates over land,[4] as well as the forecasting of precipitation amounts and distribution in the future. A variation on this theme is used in Medium Range forecasting, which is known as teleconnections, when you use systems in other locations to help pin down the location of another system within the surrounding regime.[5] One method of using teleconnections are by using climate indices such as ENSO-related phenomena.[6] Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Weather map of Europe, 10 December 1887 Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. ...


Climate indices

See also: El Niño, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, Madden-Julian Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Pacific Decadal Oscillation

Scientists use climate indices in their attempt to characterize and understand the various climate mechanisms that culminate in our daily weather. Much in the way the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which is based on the stock prices of 30 companies, is used to represent the fluctuations in the stock market as a whole, climate indices are used to represent the essential elements of climate. Climate indices are generally devised with the twin objectives of simplicity and completeness, and each index typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. By their very nature, indices are simple, and combine many details into a generalized, overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate system. Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a 23-year pattern of Pacific climate variability, similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). ... 5-day running mean of MJO. Note how it moves eastward with time. ... The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a complex climatic phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean (especially associated with fluctuations of climate between Iceland and the Azores). ... The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a pattern of Pacific climate variability that shifts phases on at least inter-decadal time scale, usually about 20 to 30 years. ... Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created by nineteenth-century...


El Niño - Southern Oscillation

El Niño impacts
La Niña impacts

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. The Pacific ocean signatures, El Niño and La Niña are important temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. The name El Niño, from the Spanish for "the little boy", refers to the Christ child, because the phenomenon is usually noticed around Christmas time in the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America.[7] La Niña means "the little girl".[8] Their effect on climate in the subtropics and the tropics are profound. The atmospheric signature, the Southern Oscillation (SO) reflects the monthly or seasonal fluctuations in the air pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. The most recent occurrence of El Niño started in September 2006[9] and lasted until early 2007.[10] During warm ENSO episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation become disrupted. ... During warm ENSO episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation become disrupted. ... During cold La Niña episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation become disrupted. ... During cold La Niña episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation become disrupted. ... “Pacific” redirects here. ... Madonna and Child ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Port Darwin” redirects here. ... September 2006 is the ninth month of 2006 and has begun on a Friday. ...


ENSO is a set of interacting parts of a single global system of coupled ocean-atmosphere climate fluctuations that come about as a consequence of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. ENSO is the most prominent known source of inter-annual variability in weather and climate around the world (~3 to 8 years), though not all areas are affected. ENSO has signatures in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. El Niño causes weather patterns which causes it to rain in specific places but not in others, this is one of many causes for the drought. Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the ocean circulation, which is smaller [1]) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ...


In the Pacific, during major warm events, El Niño warming extends over much of the tropical Pacific and becomes clearly linked to the SO intensity. While ENSO events are basically in phase between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, ENSO events in the Atlantic Ocean lag behind those in the Pacific by 12 to 18 months. Many of the countries most affected by ENSO events are developing countries within main continents (South America, Africa...), with economies that are largely dependent upon their agricultural and fishery sectors as a major source of food supply, employment, and foreign exchange. New capabilities to predict the onset of ENSO events in the three oceans can have global socio-economic impacts. While ENSO is a global and natural part of the Earth's climate, whether its intensity or frequency may change as a result of global warming is an important concern. Low-frequency variability has been evidenced: the quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO). Inter-decadal (ID) modulation of ENSO (from PDO or IPO) might exist. This could explain the so-called protracted ENSO of the early 90s.


Madden-Julian Oscillation

Note how the MJO moves eastward with time.

The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an equatorial traveling pattern of anomalous rainfall that is planetary in scale. It is characterized by an eastward progression of large regions of both enhanced and suppressed tropical rainfall, observed mainly over the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The anomalous rainfall is usually first evident over the western Indian Ocean, and remains evident as it propagates over the very warm ocean waters of the western and central tropical Pacific. This pattern of tropical rainfall then generally becomes very nondescript as it moves over the cooler ocean waters of the eastern Pacific but reappears over the tropical Atlantic and Indian Ocean. The wet phase of enhanced convection and precipitation is followed by a dry phase where convection is suppressed. Each cycle lasts approximately 30-60 days. The MJO is also known as the 30-60 day oscillation, 30-60 day wave, or intraseasonal oscillation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 700 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/png) Climate Prediction Center, part of NCEP, and the NWS Web site: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 700 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/png) Climate Prediction Center, part of NCEP, and the NWS Web site: http://www. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ...


North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

Indices of the NAO are based on the difference of normalized sea level pressure (SLP) between Ponta Delgada, Azores and Stykkisholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland. The SLP anomalies at each station were normalized by division of each seasonal mean pressure by the long-term mean (1865-1984) standard deviation. Normalization is done to avoid the series of being dominated by the greater variability of the northern of the two stations. Positive values of the index indicate stronger-than-average westerlies over the middle latitudes.[11]


Northern Annualar Mode (NAM) or Arctic Oscillation (AO)

The NAM, or AO, is defined as the first EOF of northern hemisphere winter SLP data from the tropics and subtropics. It explains 23% of the average winter (December-March) variance, and it is dominated by the NAO structure in the Atlantic. Although there are some subtle differences from the regional pattern over the Atlantic and Arctic, the main difference is larger amplitude anomalies over the North Pacific of the same sign as those over the Atlantic. This feature gives the NAM a more annular (or zonally-symmetric) structure. [11]


Northern Pacific (NP) Index

The NP Index is the area-weighted sea level pressure over the region 30N-65N, 160E-140W.[11]


Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)

The PDO is a pattern of Pacific climate variability that shifts phases on at least inter-decadal time scale, usually about 20 to 30 years. The PDO is detected as warm or cool surface waters in the Pacific Ocean, north of 20° N. During a "warm", or "positive", phase, the west Pacific becomes cool and part of the eastern ocean warms; during a "cool" or "negative" phase, the opposite pattern occurs. The mechanism by which the pattern lasts over several years has not been identified; one suggestion is that a thin layer of warm water during summer may shield deeper cold waters. A PDO signal has been reconstructed to 1661 through tree-ring chronologies in the Baja California area. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...


Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO)

The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO or ID) display similar sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure patterns to the PDO, with a cycle of 15–30 years, but affects both the north and south Pacific. In the tropical Pacific, maximum SST anomalies are found away from the equator. This is quite different to the quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO) with a period of 8-to-12 years and maximum SST anomalies straddling the equator, thus resembling ENSO.


Climate models

Main article: Climate models

Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any unbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth. Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... “Air” redirects here. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


The most talked-about models of recent years have been those relating temperature to emissions of carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gas). These models predict an upward trend in the surface temperature record, as well as a more rapid increase in temperature at higher altitudes. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The historical temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans throughout history, and in particular since 1850. ...


Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex:

  • A simple radiant heat transfer model that treats the earth as a single point and averages outgoing energy
  • this can be expanded vertically (radiative-convective models), or horizontally
  • finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models discretise and solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange.

An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ...

See also

Edmond Halley. ... Helmut Erich Landsberg was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in February 1906. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... Paleotempestology is the study of past hurricane activity by means of geological proxies. ... Areas worldwide which experience the highest chance of seeing tornadoes, indicated by orange shading. ... A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005. ...

References

  1. ^ Climate Prediction Center. Climate Glossary. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  2. ^ Life Stories. Francis Galton. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  3. ^ Other Forecasting Methods: climatology, analogue and numerical weather prediction. Retrieved on 2006-02-16.
  4. ^ Kenneth C. Allen. Pattern Recognition Techniques Applied to the NASA-ACTS Order-Wire Problem. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  5. ^ Weather Associates, Inc. The Role of Teleconnections & Ensemble Forecasting in Extended- to Medium-Range Forecasting. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  6. ^ Thinkquest.org. Teleconnections: Linking El Niño with Other Places. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  7. ^ California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Region. El Niño Information. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  8. ^ La Niña.
  9. ^ El Nino forms in Pacific Ocean, CNN
  10. ^ There Goes El Nino, Here Comes La Nina. The Associated Press / CBS News (2007-02-28). Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
  11. ^ a b c National Center for Atmospheric Research. Climate Analysis Section. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ...

External links

  • Climatology News Daily publication with news in all areas of climatology plus free news feeds for webmasters.
  • Climate Prediction Center
  • IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: The IPCC assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.
  • KNMI Climate Explorer The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute's Climate Explorer graphs climatological relationships of spatial and temporal data.
  • Climatology as a Profession Amer. Inst. of Physics account of the history of the discipline of climatology in the 20th century

  Results from FactBites:
 
Climatology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (395 words)
Climatology is the study of climate, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.
Climatology considers both past and potential future climate change.
Phenomena of climatological interest include the atmospheric boundary layer, circulation patterns, heat transfer (radiative, convective and latent), interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans and land surface (particularly vegetation, land use and topography), and the chemical and physical composition of the atmosphere.
The TAO project: Climatology Information (1021 words)
The AOI SST climatology is an optimum interpolation analysis of Sea Surface Temperature with an adjusted base period of 1971 to 2000, on a global 1 degree by 1 degree by 1 month grid.
The Kessler temperature climatology is a 4-D objective analysis of historical XBT and CTD temperatures, which uses estimates of the correlation lengths in longitude, latitude, and time to grid the data.
Xie and Arkin Precipitation Climatology (1979 - 1995)
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